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REPORT 



OF THE OPERATIONS OF THE 



BRITISH NATIONAL SOCIETY FOR AID TO 
THE SICK AND WOUNDED IN WAR 



THE OFFICES 



OF THE 



NATIONAL SOCIETY FOR AID TO THE SICK AND 

WOUNDED IN WAR, 

ARE TEMPORARILY REMOVED FROM 2, ST. MARTIN'S PLACE, TRAFALGAR SQUARE, 

TO 

3, CRAVEN STREET, STRAND, W.C., 

Where all Communications should be addressed. 




LONDON: 

PRINTED FOR THE COMMITTEE BY 

HARRISON AND SONS, ST. MARTIN'S LANE. 

PRINTERS IN ORDINARY TO HER MAJESTY. 
1871. 



REPORT 



OF THE OPERATIONS OF THE 



BRITISH NATIONAL SOCIETY FOR AID TO 
THE SICK AND WOUNDED IN WAR 



DURING THE 



FRANCO-GERMAN WAR 1870-1871, 



TOGETHER WITH A 



STATEMENT OF RECEIPTS AND EXPENDITURE 



AND 



MAPS, REPORTS, AND CORRESPONDENCE. 




LONDON: 

PRINTED FOR THE COMMITTEE BY 

HARRISON AND SONS, ST. MARTIN'S LANE. 

PRINTERS IN ORDINARY TO HER MAJESTY. 
1871. 



PATRON : 

HER MOST GRACIOUS MAJESTY -THE QUEEN. 



OENTEAL COMMITTEE. 

PRESIDENT : 

H.R.H. THE PRINCE OF WALES, K.G., &c. 

H.R.H. THE DUKE OF CAMBRIDGE, K.G., &c. 

IL.R.H. PRINCE CHRISTIAN of Schleswig-Holstein, K.G. 

II.S.H. THE PRINCE OF TECK, G.C.B. 

THE RIGHT HON. THE SECRETARY OF STATE FOR WAR. 



The Duke op Manchester. 

Lieut. -General the Marquis of Hertford. 

The Marquis of Kildare. 
*The Earl of Shaftesbury, K.G. 

The Earl of Rosslyn. 

Colonel the Earl of Mount-Charles. 
*The Lord Ovekstone. 

The Loud Lliot. 

The Lord Leigh. 

F.-M. Sir John Burgoyne, Bart., G.C.B. 

Lieut.-General Sir Hope Grant, G.C.B. 

Lieut. -Col. Hon. C. II. Lindsay, M.P. 

The Hon. Percy Wyndham, M.P. 
*Liect. -Colonel R. Loyd-Lindsay, V.C., M.P 

S. R. Gbaves, Esq., M.P. 

W. MCCULLAGH ToBBENS, ESQ,, M.P. 

Sir E. A. H. Lechmere, Bart. 

Sir Coutts Lindsay, Bart. 

Sir F. Shuckburgh, Bart. 

Sir Edward Hoare, Bart. 
*Sir Harry Verney, Bart., M.P. 

Sir Paul Hunter, Bart. 

Major-General Sir J. St. George, K.C.B. 

Captain Herbert de Kantzow, R.N. 
*Captain Douglas Galton, C.B. 

Lieut.-Colonel Whitworth Porter, R.E. 

Captain G. F. Blake, R.M.L.I. 
'Captain H. Brackenbury, R.A. 

Dr. Lionel Beale, F.R.S. 
+Surgeon- Major Bostock, C.B. 
"f"HoL\iEs Coote, Esq. 

J. A. Beaumont, Esq. 

J. Bergtheil, Esq. 

Lieut.-Colonel Charles Ratcliff. 

Per':y Armytage, Esq. 



The Duke of Buculeuch, K.G., K.T. 

The Marquis of Westminster. 

The Earl of Derby. 

The Earl of Denbigh. 

Major-General the Earl of Longford, K.C.B. 

The Earl Ducie. 
*Lieut -Colonel the Viscount Bury, M.P., K.C.M.G. 

The Right Hon. the Lord Mayor. 

General Lord Strathnairn, G.C.B. 

Major-Gen. the Hon. Sir Percy Herbert, K.C.B. 

The Hon. Auberon Herbert, M.P. 

Colonel H. J. W. Jervis, M.P. 
*Baron N. M. de Rothschild, M.P. 

C. Buxton, Esq., M.P. 

The Very Rev. Monsignor Capel. 

The Rev. T. Hugo. 

The Rev. G. R. Portal. 

The Rev. W. Pi.yner Cosens. 

The Rev. Newman Hall, LL.B. 

The Rev. C. Schoell. 

The Rev. W. R. Fremantle. 

The Rev. Henry Allon. 

Col. W. K. Loyd. 

Major O'Bbyen Hoare. 

Captain H. M. Hozier, A.A.C. 
fDEPUTY Inspector-General T. Longmore, C.B. 
tDR. Smart, C.B., R.N. 

Dr. Acland. 
tDr. E. H. Sieveking. 
tJames PaSEC, Esq., F.R.S. 
+Prescott Hewett. Esq. 
tDR. A. J. Pollock. 
# J. Forley, Esq. 

E. Walford, Esq. 

Captain James Gildea. 



Chairman of Committee— *LIEUT.-COLONEL LOYD-LINDSAY, Y.C., M.P. 

Secretary— *C APT. CHARLES JOHN BURGESS. 

Bankers— MESSRS. COCJTTS & CO. 



Marked * formed the Executive Committee. 



Marked f served as Medical Sub-Committee. 



LADIES' COMMITTEE. 

*H.R.H. PRINCESS CHRISTIAN OF SCHLESWIG-HOLSTEIN. 

H.R.H. PRINCESS LOUISE, MARCHIONESS OF LORNE. 

H.R.H. PRINCESS MARY OF TECK. 



The Duchess of Northumberland. 

The Marchioness of Salisbury. 

The Countess of Ducie. 

The Countess of Crawford. 

The Countess of Tankerville. 

The Countess Grey. 

The Lady Adeliza Manners. 
*The Lady Agnes Campbell. 
*The Lady Louisa Feilding. 

The Lady Mary Vyner. 

The Lady Louisa Charteris. 

The Lady Wharncltffe. 

The Viscountess Bury. 
*The Hon. Mrs. Loyd-Lindsay. 
*The Hon. Mrs. Macdonald. 

Lady Lechmere. 

Mrs. Cardwell. 

Mrs. DougLxVS Galton. 

Miss Florence Nightingale. 

Miss Maud Lindsay. 
*Miss Stanley. 
*Miss Granville. 
*Miss de Winton. 

Marked * formed the Ladies' 



The Duchess of Buccleuch. 
*The Dowager Marchioness of Lothian. 

The Countess of Shrewsbury. 

The Countess of Carnarvon. 

The Countess of Minto. 

The Countess of Mount-Charles. 

The Lady MaKy Sandon. 

The Lady Marian Alford. 

The Lady Susan Melville. 

The Lady Mary Arkwright. 

The Lady Mary Herbert. 

The Lady Alwyne Compton. 

The Hon. Lady Rose. 

The Hon. Mrs. Chas. Lindsay. 
*The Hon. Mrs. Armytage. 
*Lady Gomm. 
*Mrs. Nassau Senior. 

Mrs. Wilder. 
*Miss Verney. 
*Miss Graham. 
*Miss S. Bathurst. 
*Miss Alexander. 

Working Committee in London. 



OFFICES: No. 2, ST. MARTIN'S PLACE, TRAFALGAR SQUARE, LONDON, W.C. 






RESOLUTIONS 



Passed at the Public Meeting held at Willis s Rooms, London, on the 

tth August, 1870. 



" That a National Society be formed in this country for aiding Sick and Wounded 
" Soldiers in time of War, and that the said Society be formed upon the Rules laid 
" down by the Geneva Convention in 1864 ; and that persons be admitted as Members 
" of the Society on payment of Five Pounds Donation, or Five Shillirgs Annual 
" Subscription." 

" That this Society do forthwith place itself in communication with Her Majesty's 
" Government in order to obtain official recognition, and in order that the aid which 
" the Society proposes to send out to the Sick and Wounded may be transmitted with 
" the sanction of Her Majesty's Government." 

" That the aid and assistance of the Society be given in the first insta 3 to the 
" Sick and Wounded of our own Armies should we unfortunately be engaged, in War ; 
" but, should this country continue neutral and uninvolved in War, that the aid be 
" given impartially between the Sick and Wounded of the belligerent armies." 

" That the aid and assistance of the Society be given in maUriel and personnel, 
" and that, as far as possible, it be ascertained from the belligerents themselves how 
" this aid may be best afforded." 

" That a Central Committee of 21 Members be appointed to assist in carrying out 
" the objects of the Society. That the said Committee be annually elected by Rules 
'• similar to those of the National Rifle Association." 

" That Sub-Committees of the Society be established in various parts of the 
" country, and that these Sub-Committees regulate their own subscriptions, manage 
" their own affairs, defray their own expenses, and transmit to the Central Committee 
" such contributions as they are able to collect and such materiel as may be suggested 
" from time to time by the Central Committee. 

•' That a Ladies' Committee be established, whose duties shall be to collect 
" materiel and to prepare it in such manner as may be suggested to them from time 
" to time by the Central Committee." 

" That the Society adopt the Badge and the Flag which have been recognised by 
" the International Convention of Geneva." 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



Members of the Central and Ladies' Committees for 1870-71 
Resolutions passed at the Meeting of August 4, 1870 
Report of the Executive Committee to March 31, 1871 
Statement of Receipts and Expenditure ditto 

Statement of Stores received and distributed ditto 



Pages. 

1 

2 

3-25 

26—27 

28 



1 APPENDIX A. 

Maps of Districts aided, viz. : 

1. General Map, showing places aided direct from St. Martin's Place 

2. Arlon and neighbourhood 

3. Saarbrucken „ 

4. Briey „ 

5. Remilly „ 

6. Mete „ 
7. 3: "'aux „ 

8. fresoul „ 

9. Boulogne „ 

10. Amiens „ 

11. Tours „ 

12. St. Malo 

13. Versailles „ 

14. Places visited by the "Woolwich Ambulance 
List of Places to which aid was sent. . 
List of Society's Agents abroad . . . . 
Tables showing consecutive Stages of "Work in the Society's Districts abroad 
List of Articles contributed by the British public and bought by the Committee 
Tabular Statement of Medical and Surgical Work 



28—29 



29—33 
34—38 
39—40 
41—46 

47—48 



APPENDIX B. 



Extracts from the Correspondence of the Society's Agents and others, viz. 
Lieut.-Col. Loyd-Lindsay, V.C., M.P. 
Surgeon-Major Wyatt 
Captain D. Gralton, C.B. 
Mr. Furley 

Captain H. Brackenbury, RA. 
Messrs. Millson, Cooper, and Horner 
Messrs. Norton and Sewill 
Mr. H. Austin Lee 
Mr. J. C. Bushnan and Mr. Le Cren 
Captain Nevill and Mr. Hinton 
Sir Vincent Eyre, C.B., K.C.S.I. 
Colonel J. W. Cox, C.B. 
Captain ITniacke 
Col. N. Elphinstone. . 
Captain Harvey 



49—56 
56—57 
57—59 
59—61 
61—67 
68 
69—70 
70—72 
72—73 
73—76 
76—78 
78—82 
82—85 
85—86 
87—92 



]V 



APPENDIX B.— (continued.) 

Extracts from the Correspondence of the Society's Agents and others, continued, viz 

Mr. Swaine 

Mr. P. C. H. Clarke 

Dr. P. Prank 

Mr. Bell, of Avranches 
Reports by Surgeons in charge of the Anglo-American Ambulance : — 

1. Dr. Marion Sims 

2. Dr, W. McCormac 

3. Dr. P. Prank (including work at Epernay and Metz) 

4. Dr. T. T. Pratt 
The "Woolwich Ambulance : — 

Report by Dr. Guy 

Report by Surgeon Manley, V.C. 

Major Jones's Journeys with Stores 



Pages 

93 

93—96 

9G— 98 

98—100 

101—105 

105—109 

109—123 

124 

125— 12G 
126—145 
145—148 



APPENDIX C. 

Memorandum by Dr. Sutherland on Correspondence of the Society's Agents 
Report by Dr. Sutherland on the Medical Correspondence 



149—152 
153—177 



APPENDIX D. 

Report by Surgeon Manley, Y.C., on British Service Ambulance Waggon 
„ Assistant-Surgeon McNalty on ditto (with illustrations) 



178—181 
181—183 



APPENDIX E. 

Resolutions passed at the Annual Meeting at Willis's Rooms, August 1, 1871 



184—185 



REPORT OF THE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE. 



At the expiration of a year from the formation of the Society, the Committee have 

to present then Report, which will show the value of the operations which have been 

carried on during the year, and how the funds entrusted to the Society have been 

applied, and the results which that application has secured. 

The Society came into existence after the declaration of war between France and Immediate 

. reasons for the 

Germany, and grew rapidly under the influence of accounts which reached this country Society's 

of the vast preparations which were being made for a contest between two nations eX18 ence ' 

who had been for years arming and preparing for the struggle. 

AVithin a month of the declaration of war more than a million of men were under 
arms, and were closing in upon one another to join in those tremendous battles which 
immediately afterwards occurred. 

The statements which went forth of the vast preparations which were being made 
for the destruction of life by means of the enormous masses of artillery, the newly- 
invented mitrailleuse, and the breech-loading rifle prepared the minds of men for a 
contest more tremendous than any which had taken place within the memory of man. 

Before the Society commenced its operations a strong feeling of compassion and 
sympathy for the soldiers of France and Germany was spread through the country. 

Charity the most unbounded was ready to open the hand of succour to the 
sufferers, and nothing appeared wanting but a competent machinery for administering 
the public munificence. 

A Committee was formed in London to supply this deficiency, and it commenced Public 
its operations by holding a meeting, August 4, 1870, at Willis's Rooms, and by issuing London, 
a programme which set forth the objects for which the Society was formed and the 
principles which would guide the Committee in the distribution of the moneys raised. 

The response which this appeal received was most satisfactory. Her Majesty the 
Queen immediately directed her name to be placed at the head of the list of donors, 
and soon afterwards graciously accepted the office of Patroness of the Society during 
the first year of its existence. His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales became 
President of the Society, and the illustrious Duke the Commander-in-Chief gave his 
name and sanction to the Committee. A Ladies' Committee was also formed, of 
which Her Royal Highness the Princess Christian of Schleswig-Holstein was the 
head. 

One of the first acts of the Committee was to place itself in communication with 
Her Majesty's Government, in order to obtain official recognition, and in order that the 
aid which the Society proposed to send out might be transmitted with the sanction 
of the Government. 

The constitution of the Society at this time was briefly as follows :— The Central Central and 
Committee and Ladies' Committee were assembled in a block of three houses, lent them m it( ee8# 
by Government, in St. Martin's Place ; Local Committees, the sources from which aid in 
money and materiel was chiefly received, were formed in almost every town and 
district in Great Britain. The functions of those working at St. Martin's naturally 
divided themselves into two departments, viz,, that which related to gifts in goods, 
and that which related to contributions in money. The Ladies' Committee controlled 
and managed the former, receiving, unpacking, sorting, repacking, and acknowledging 
things sent, making known the chief requirements abroad, corresponding with Local 
Committees, keeping statistics of material aid received. To this were added the man- 
agement of the vaults and store-rooms and the direction of the storekeepers and 
packers. 

B 2 



They were greatly assisted in their labours by several of their colleagues and 
other ladies, who formed Local Committees in every part of the country ; and also by 
a Branch Committee at Westminster, which, under the superintendence of Miss Stanley 
and Lady Augusta Stanley, gave employment during several months to over 100 poor 
women of Westminster, in sorting and preparing old linen, &c, and making up 
material into useful articles of clothing. 

The deliberative and administrative business of the Society was in the hands 
of the Working Committee, who selected and despatched the agents abroad, and con- 
trolled, within certain limits, their conduct and procedure ; they received deputations 
and letters, and afforded information to subscribers concerning the Society's operations, 
they dealt with requests from existing foreign societies for supplementary resources, 
and gave them assistance to carry on their work. This, together with securing facility 
of transport for persons and goods through districts broken and disturbed by war, 
formed some of the duties of the Central Working Committee. 
Subscriptions, Subscription Lists were opened at nearly all the banks and principal mercantile 

establishments of London. At a later period the subjects of the Crown of Great 
Britain, scattered not only in the Colonies but in Foreign States, entered into public 
subscriptions for the same purpose. Australia, the East and West Indies, China, and 
Ceylon also forwarded their funds to the National Society. Nearly every regiment in the 
Service subscribed, and every ship in the Channel Fleet sent its contribution. Amongst 
these came one from the " Captain," whose crew may be said almost in the last week of 
their lives to have remembered the sick and wounded in war. 
The Genera In arranging for the despatch of agents abroad, and for the distribution of tho 

funds liberally placed at their disposal, the Committee availed itself of the machinery 
supplied by means of the Geneva Convention. 

The Articles of the Convention may be classed under two heads : — 

1st. That which relates to the privilege of neutrality to those working in aid of 
the sick and wounded in war. 

2nd. That which provides for the formation of National Committees in co-operation 
one with the other. 

It may be well here to place on record that the last-named object of the Conven- 
tion has been most imperfectly arrived at .up to the present time. The Convention has 
seldom at first been cordially adopted so far as accepting aid from neutrals, and 
jealousy and a sort of pride have often held stronger sway over the minds of those in 
power and authority than the more humane feeling of sympathy and willingness to 
accept charitable help for the disabled and often absolutely destitute sick and wounded 
soldiers. These feelings, which may be supposed to be natural from their being almost 
universal with armies in the field, have often hampered and impeded the Society and 
its agents. 

No surprise need arise from this in the minds of those who remember the sus- 
picion with which neutrals arc always looked upon in war, and who consider the 
difference of language, and of habits and customs, which existed between the members 
of our Society and those with whom they were endeavouring to act. 

Nevertheless, the Convention must be admitted to have worked most beneficially, 
enabling the Aid Societies, and especially the English Society, to relieve an immense 
amount of suffering amongst the soldiers of both French and German armies. The 
loss of life (great as it has been) would have been enormously increased, had not the 
Convention permitted the acceptance of neutral aid. 

The hope of furnishing such aid should therefore never be abandoned by the 
members of the Red Cross Society; but, in order to render the difficulties of furnishing 
it less great, the Articles of the Convention should be more generally regarded and 
enforced by those Governments who signed the Convention. It is neither fair nor 
reasonable to leave the Articles of the Convention in the undefined state in which 
they are at present. 

Having said thus much aboul neutral aid, it will be understood that the chief 
object ol National Societies is to give help to their own armies, and not to those 
of foreign nations, and thai the English Society would have found infinitely less 



5 

difficulty during its operation had it been working in aid of an English army, instead 

of assisting those of France and Germany. 

Our agents suffered under the disadvantage of being foreigners destitute of the 

power of appeal. Neither had they the support of public opinion in their endeavour 

to bring aid to the sick when impeded by unhelping, or even obstructing, officials. 

The tasks of the various French and German Societies were naturally much easier -£ ne E °y^ 

* . PrussianOrder 

than our own, but it must not be supposed that either Johanniter on the one side, or of St. John 
International on the other escaped entirely from difficulties with the chiefs of the nm er ^' 

armies to which they were attached. The proceedings of the French International 
Society were not a little checked and impeded by the action of the Military In- 
tendance, while the Johanniters were often not in unison with the Military Medical 
Staff, who complained that this privileged and favoured Society was ever more 
ready to give orders than to obey ; but it is a question whether this antagonism did 
not arise from faulty arrangements, which will probably be set right before their 
services are again called upon. The main principle of the Order is good, but the 
exclusiveness of the members is a defect, and diminishes their usefulness and the 
confidence with which they are looked upon in Germany. The gifts of the people 
for their sons and brethren in the field were generally entrusted to the National 
Hiilfsverein. It is now an admitted fact that any provision which Government can Inadequacy of 
maintain for the service of the sick and wounded in time of peace is invariably provision for 
inadequate to meet the enormously increased demands which instantly spring up at ^^^ in 
the commencement of war. The ranks of continental armies are framed for rapid war. 
expansion and rapid contraction ; and our own army will probably be organised upon 
a system which will be expansive and flexible, admitting large reserves of men to 
serve when wanted, and ready to return to their own employments, independent of 
Government support, when not thus required. 

Some of the recent wars which have taken place may be said to have been made 
by nations in arms. The American War and the late Franco-German War show 
clearly that able-bodied men, however peaceful their vocation in life, must be 
conscious that the time may come when they may be called upon to fight in the ranks 
of an army, with no higher grade than that of a private soldier. If the power of 
rapid expansion is now required in the combatants' ranks, it is no less needed in the 
ranks of those who are to attend upon the men who fall sick and are wounded. 
Auxiliary assistance to the British Army was first attempted during the Crimean War, 
when relief was afforded to the increased number of sick and wounded by civilian 
surgeons temporarily employed. 

If there had been a well-managed Aid Society ready at the commencement of th© 
Crimean war, it would undoubtedly have saved the English Army much suffering and 
many deaths. As it was, great assistance was given to the defective organisation of the 
Army Medical Department, and this was done at the suggestion and by the influence 
of Mr. Sidney Herbert, then Minister of War, and was carried out under the practical 
superintendence of Miss Nightingale. 

During the Civil War in America there was improvised the American Sanitary 
Commission, which both on the Mississippi and on the Atlantic side was of the greatest 
service. 

It may be confidently predicted that in any future war in which this country may 
be engaged Auxiliary Aid Societies will take a most prominent part. 

The formation of a National Society has been most urgently advocated by Necessity for 
the most thoughtful of the Army medical profession. In speeches and lectures fn^"** 1 * 11 
Dr. Longmore, Professor of Military Surgery at Netley, has advocated the formation Peace, 
of a National Committee in England. " If this remains undone you will be at a 
" disadvantage. Committees will be formed, subscriptions will pour in, but as here- 
" tofore there will be an absence of system and independence of action." 

A Report which was made of the working of the English Society abroad bv 
Mr. Ernest Hart and Dr. Berkeley Hill shows the necessity of having prepara- 
tions systematised and organised on a well-considered and preconcerted plan. 

" Every person whom we met," said these gentlemen, " employed on the business of 



Misuse of the 
Ked Cross 
Badge. 



thirst astion 
of the 
Committee. 



" this Society was animated by the same excellent spirit, ready to do anything 
" which would serve the objects for which they were despatched; ready, in the case 
" of surgeons, to undertake the most arduous responsibilities in the case of large 
" numbers of severely wounded men, often under most serious disadvantages as to 
" shelter, attendance, and food; equally ready to lay aside scruples of professional 
" etiquette, and to work under the direction of men both junior and of less firmly 
" established professional reputation than their own," and yet disappointment and 
vexation frequently met the most zealous efforts of the Society. 

The surgeons who were sent out at the special request of the French and 
Germans were unrecognised and unemployed, because they were not properly 
accredited as members of the Society. There was no means of obtaining the sanction 
of those in authority for our surgeons to give aid, neither was there any means of 
obtaining proper information as to where to give it ; convoys of goods, which had 
travelled hundreds of miles and were within reach, and almost within sight, of the 
destination where the things which they carried were urgently required, were turned 
back on account of suspicion and jealousy. The peasantry in France became 
apprehensive that arms and ammunition and food were being carried to their enemies 
by agents of the Society. The Brassard bearing the Red Cross' badge became 
valueless. English, French, Germans, Belgians, Luxembourgers, and other nations 
issued the badge, which could also be bought in the shops of the towns to any amount. 
The Prussians respected no Cross that had not their own brand upon it. The 
Brassards issued by the English Society were stamped with the War Office stamp 
and the stamp of the Society, and bore on the inside the name of the person to 
whom issued, and a number. Corresponding particulars were registered in the London 
office. Agents of the Society had also parchment certificates on which were entered 
the terms of the service and the duties assigned. These regulations for accrediting 
members of the Society would have been enough, had they been comprehended by the 
authorities, but such was not the case. Some simple recognised rule on this subject 
is required. 

But it is, in the future, for the service of our own armies that an organisation is 
urgently required. Fortunately, during the late war, there was one marked difference 
between the circumstances under which we were working, from those which Dr. Long- 
more thought might arise ; we were working in aid of foreign armies, and not with 
the weight of responsibility of having an army of our own in the field. 

The Committee sprang into life under the influence of accounts of suffering which 
had already commenced, and which had to be dealt with by arrangements which were 
neither preconcerted nor systematised. Prompt and rapid action was necessary, and 
the Geneva Convention afforded machinery which was found ready prepared to our 
hands. 

That the Geneva Convention has worked beneficially in aid of the sick and 
wounded is universally admitted. That the articles of the Convention have been 
abused and require extensive alterations cannot be denied. A reliance, somewhat too 
extensive in its character, w x as at first placed on its rules, which were in many cases 
neither understood nor recognised by the belligerents. 

On the 4th of August Mr. John Furley, one of the earliest advocates of the 
adoption of the Geneva Convention in this country, and who was only second to 
Captain Burgess, our most indefatigable Secretary at St. Martin's, left England, at Hie 
request of the Committee, to visit the President of the Geneva Committee, and also 
the members of the Committees in Paris and Berlin. In order to ascertain from them 
the precise mode in which the assistance of the newly-formed English Society might 
best be given, Mr. Furley reported, " I spent six hours in Paris, four in Geneva, and 
" twelve in Berlin. As I passed through France, the news of the first Prussian 
" victory had not yet arrived, ;i ml at Geneva the earliest reports of French reverses 
11 gained but little credence. The frequent telegrams, however, which a few hours 
" later reached Lausanne, Berne, and Zurich would not admit a doubt. All the 
" steamers on Lake Constance were gaily decked with flags, and at night bonfires 
" and rockets on the (J erman shores testified to the joy of the inhabitants. In the 



" early morning of the 8th, in answer to the summons which rang forth from every spire 
" along the hill sides and through the valleys of Bavaria, hundreds of men and women 
" and children were to be seen wending their way to the various churches to join in a 
" general thanksgiving." 

The battle of Wissembourg had been fought, and the result was that hundreds of 
wounded men had been carried to the rear, and long trains of prisoners were seen on 
their way to the fortresses of Germany. The battles of Woerth, August 6, and of 
Forbach rapidly followed one upon the other, and on the 21st August Sir Henry 
Havelock wrote as follows from Pont-a-Mousson : — " It makes me sick at heart to see 
- the scenes of suffering that cannot be relieved, first for want of proper appliances 
ik and aid, next because the surgeons are too few for the work. All the French 
" wounded have fallen into the hands of the Germans, and they have been treated 
" like their own people, without the slightest distinction of nationality. Some of 
" them have told me, ' Nous avons ete soignes comme si nous etions des freres par ces 
" ' autres.' It is lamentable to see the mass of human suffering here. The two sides 
•' have left nearly 20,000 wounded in German hands, and there are actually numbers 
'• of wounded here, struck on the 16th and 18th (to-day is the 21st), who have only 
" had their wounds dressed on the field when hit, and never since. You know well 
" what suffering this entails. It is simply impossible to do more for want of hands 
" and of appliances." 

At this time the London Committee were overwhelmed with letters and sugges- 
tions, passionate appeals from home and from abroad, and strong remonstrances at 
the want of immediate aid on the field of battle. 

If those appeals were apparently disregarded from their not being answered, it 
must be attributed to the absorbing occupation in which the members of the Committee 
were engaged, which prevented them from replying to the mass of letters, which were 
not always of a reasonable character. And here an acknowledgment to the leading 
journals of the London Press is due for the consideration which they showed in 
refraining from embarrassing the Committee by publishing letters, of which no doubt 
a large number were forwarded to them, while from time to time the Press aided the 
Committee by articles and paragraphs which advanced the work which was in hand. 

It will be admitted that arrangements which were not preconcerted or systema- n . ffi ... 
tised, but which had to expand and grow under the most extraordinary and exceptional Transport, 
circumstances, were not likely to be very perfect at first ; yet every day which passed 
by may be said to have added to the efficiency of the service, and at the close of 
the war it was rare that any failure in arrangements took place. Out of the vast 
number of packages, amounting to 12,000, which were forwarded to agents abroad, 
acknowledgments of receipt of 11,833 were filed in the office. During 188 days 
goods to the amount of four tons per day were despatched by the Continental 
lines. These packages had to be pushed along through railways and roads 
broken and disconnected by war. The adventures of the agents of the Society carry- 
ing goods through villages in France, where the peasants were greatly excited, were 
not without danger. 250 iron bedsteads for a church converted into a hospital 
at Pont-a-Mousson were urgently begged for by telegraph, and were forwarded 
within forty-eight hours, by special train, the whole under charge of a young surgeon, 
Mr. Barton Smith, who stayed with his iron companions night and day till he delivered 
them in triumph to the hands of those to whom they were consigned. An agent of 
the Society, generally an Englishman, had to be stationed at each great station on 
the road along which our goods travelled, in order to expedite their delivery. The 
difficulty of keeping the supplies on the move and preventing them from being shunted 
and lost was incessant. The cost of agency, which under other circumstances would Cost of 
be deemed excessive, is thus accounted for. Munitions of war of course took prece- counted for. 
dence over all other goods, and days of vexatious delay were thereby caused to the 
agents of our Society. 

To cite one instance, among many, of difficulties overcome : Major Jones, who 
was sent out with stores for Versailles and for the Woolwich Ambulance then engaged 
in the Loire campaign, after making a long and tedious journey by road, in the depth 



8 



The F ranch 
accept, the co- 
operation of 
the English 
Society. 



Formation of 
the Anglo- 
Ameriian 
Ambulance. 



Operations of 
the English 

Society in 
Germany. 



Captain Dou- 
glas Gnlton 
report m <>n the 
conditi m of 
the hospitals 
in the towns 
of Germany. 



of winter, with 12 open waggons, from Havre to within sound of the guns of Mont 
Valerien, at length found his passage over the Seine blocked by the destruction of 
the bridges. He had been compelled by the Prussians to keep to the right bank of 
the Seine, and, being unable to find any means of crossing the river, was' obliged to 
retrace his steps by the same tedious route to England, whence he again embarked, 
and after another still longer and more perilous journey, via Belgium, Metz, and 
Meaux, he at length succeeded in reaching Versailles with his stores in safety. 

Towards the close of the month of August, the subscriptions to the National 
Society amounted to about £30,000, and the Central Committee at that time reported 
that they had 40 surgeons serving under the Red Cross Society, engaged in the field 
or at the hospitals formed in France and Germany. The French authorities had 
not only laid aside all distrust, but gratefully accepted the co-operation tendered 
them by the English Society. On the 26th August Dr. Frank, who had been sent 
out as the representative of the Society, writes from Paris : — " There seems every 
" hope of our being able to start for the North on Sunday, and if we really should 
" succeed in doing so I shall be amply rewarded for the weariness and disappoint- 
" ment of the days spent in this place — days utterly lost, as far as the real aim of 
" our mission is concerned." And then he adds, " In the long run they may prove not 
" to be badly spent after all." And so, indeed, it turned out ; for on that Sunday there 
left the Palais dTndustrie a body of men animated with an amount of enthusiasm 
which carried them through the most arduous and trying times of the campaign. The 
history of the Anglo-American Ambulance is a history of relief rendered to the 
wounded at the most critical period of the campaign, on the battle-field and under 
actual fire. Neither hardship nor danger ever diverted the surgeons of both nations 
from their noble duties, and to the end the most uninterrupted respect and confidence 
existed between the members of the staff. On leaving Paris Lord Lyons laid special 
stress on their operating in French territory, and to this rule they adhered throughout 
the war — working first at Sedan and subsequently at Orleans. 

In Germany the Committee had entered into an alliance with the German Aid 
Society, and established a joint international field hospital at Bingen, on the Rhine, 
constructed on the modern system of tents and isolated huts, which, whenever adopted 
during this war, has proved highly conducive to the well-being and recovery of the 
patients. But the vicissitudes of war caused Bingen to be somewhat too remote from 
the actual scene of conflict for its capabilities to be as fully utilised as had been antici- 
pated. Indeed, the operations of the Society throughout Germany have been necessarily 
of a somewhat different nature from those carried on at the actual theatre of the war, 
and have consisted chiefly in sending out supplies of materiel and aid in money to the 
numerous hospitals throughout Germany, to which wounded and sick men were sent 
in such vast and continuous streams as almost to exhaust the efforts, energetic and 
well-sustained as they were, of the various local native "Aid Societies" and Com- 
mittees. The English National Society has proved of great use in supplementing 
these efforts. It commenced its operations by despatching Captain Douglas Galton, 
C.B., accompanied by Mr. H. T. Bonham-Carter, on a tour of inspection of the hospitals 
of the Rhine district, in the month of September. 

They visited and reported on the condition and wants of almost every hospital 
and ambulance in that part of Germany, thereby starting a system of communication 
between the German ambulances and the English Society, which continued to expand 
as need arose, until at the close of the war there was hardly a. town in Germany, 
from Hamburg and Kiel to Dresden and Munich, which had not received aid, in money 
or in kind, from the National Society. 

Dr. Mayo was early appointed chief surgical representative of the Society in the 
Rhine district, and the hospital constructed by him at Darmstadt, chiefly for the recep- 
tion of patients suffering from typhus and similar diseases, has achieved highly satis- 
factory and successful sanitary results. This hospital was in the month of February 
lianded over to the charge of the German authorities at Darmstadt. 

The state of the wounded on the Luxembourg frontier was during the latter part of 
August truly heartrending. They had neither bread nor water, and even the surgeons 



9 

could nut stay with them lor lack of the barest means of subsistence. The slaughter often 

happened in the manner and at the place least foreseen, and no sooner had stores of food 

and surgical instruments and appliances been sent to one place, than they were instantly 

required in another. The mass of French wounded in particular who were accumulated 

on the German borders induced the Committee to concentrate their force, and make 

Luxembourg, and subsequently Arlon, their chief bases of operation. These neutral 

islands, in the midst of the storm of war, were thought likely to afford the most 

advantageous situation from whence to carry aid to those who had been wounded and 

were lying- on the 1 >attle-fields round Metz. The exertions of the agents of the Society 

were most praiseworthy. They opened communication by road with carts and horses, 

carrying out food and bringing back the wounded into cover and shelter; but with all 

their exertions the carnage was so enormous in its extent that their organisation was 

able very slightly to relieve the suffering. 

Meanwhile the affairs of the Society at home had assumed a very different Rapid pro- 
gress at home. 
character from that which they originally bore, when the utmost expectation of the 

Committee was bounded by a hope that they might be able to send out some surgeons 
and nurses to give supplementary aid to the field and permanent hospitals in France 
and Germany, and likewise to furnish some surgical instruments, medicines, and disin- 
fectants, such as chloroform and carbolic acid — things which, from the circumstances 
of the war, could best, and perhaps only, be obtained in England. But, as was said 
at the time, greatness, at least of work, was thrust upon the Committee. Meet- 
ings were held in every part of Great Britain, and the public, reading day by 
day the history of the war, with all its harrowing details so vividly described 
by the writers of the English Press with the armies in the field, were unable 
to confine themselves to mere words of sympathy, but showed their feeling by 
contributing both in money and materiel more largely than was done at any former 
period. 

To carry on a well-developed and widely-embracing scheme of operations, such as Captain 
would give proper and adequate results in return for the large sum of money which enbury, R.A." 

had now been paid in to the funds of the Society, was the object of the Committee, !? 8e " t to the 
L * ° ' Continent as 

and with that view Captain Henry Brackenbury, of the Royal Artillery, was attached Chief Ke ". 

by the Secretary of State for War, at the request of the Society, to their service abroad. 

Captain Brackenbury started on the 3rd September to represent the Society and 

control their operations between Metz and Mezieres and the district of the Ardennes, 

along which line of country the great battles of the campaign were being fought. 

Luxembourg was found unfavourable for a chief depot on account of the Douane 

regulations, which impeded the work of the Society more than can be told ; and Arlon, 

being in Belgium, where the same impediments were not cast in the way, and being 

also on the main line of railway communication, was wisely chosen as the chief depot 

for the stores and head-quarters of the Society. Captain Brackenbury wrote on the 

6th September : — " Already Mr. Furley has made our Society specially marked by his 

" great exertions and the success which has attended them. It only wants that the 

" individual efforts going on should be completely organised, for which my powers 

" are sufficient, to let it be seen what gigantic efforts England is making to relieve 

" the misery which, by all accounts, is almost unspeakable." 

The Archbishop of Canterbury on the 10th September addressed a letter to the m , 
-r»-i c • l- ii- ™ ne -^reh- 

Bishop ot London, saying that it seemed to him that the time had come when there bishop's 

ought to be a general collection in all the churches to aid one or other of the Societies Pastora1 ' 
for the sick and wounded. The response which followed the publication of this letter 
was instantaneous throughout the country. Fortunately, as it seems to us, these and 
other contributions were entrusted mainly to one Society, thus securing what Dr. 
Longmore urged five years ago— viz., a system of united, and not of independent 
action. 

On the 17th September there were 110 persons engaged in the service of the Distribution 
Society. Of this number 62 were surgeons, 16 were ladies acting as nurses to the sick Jndlur^ons 
and wounded, and the remainder were classed under the head of agents, who were * bmd - 
giving their services, some being paid and some unpaid. 

C 



10 



Action taken 
by Maj.-Gen. 
Sir Vincent 
Eyre in the 
North of 
France, 



He reports on 
the wants of 
50 French 
Ambulances. 



The surgeons were employed as follows : — 

At Sedan, attached to the Anglo-American Ambulance, under the direction of Dr. 
Sims (United States) and Dr. MacCormac, with about 400 wounded French and 
Germans, 14 surgeons ; at Balan, with about 200 French and Germans, three surgeons 
and two ladies ; at Douzy, five surgeons and one lady; at Briey, three surgeons; at 
Chalons, one surgeon ; at Stenay, two surgeons ; at Beaumont, four surgeons ; at 
Donchery, one surgeon and two ladies ; at Bouillon, one surgeon ; at Darmstadt, four 
surgeons ; at Saarbruck, one surgeon ; at Metz, two surgeons ; at Pont-a-Mousson, 'one 
surgeon ; at Autrecourt, two surgeons ; at Arlon, three surgeons ; at Bingen (hospital 
under joint management of German and English), twelve surgeons ; at Hanau, two 
surgeons ; at Cologne, one surgeon. 

The above is an approximate 'statement of the distribution of the Society's 
surgeons, who were necessarily moving from place to place as need arose. 

The agents who were working under Captain Brackenbury in the district of the 
Meuse and the Ardennes were 32 in number. Captain Brackenbury was ably assisted 
by the Hon. R. Capel, who took charge of the depot at Arlon, while Mrs. Capel 
acted as nurse in the neighbouring ambulances. 

The above-named district having been dealt with in the manner described, a similar 
organisation was prepared to commence operations from Saarbruck at the first moment 
when the capitulation of the French army, which was being besieged in Metz, should 
be brought about by the famine, disease, and sickness which were long known to be 
gradually overcoming the strength and courage of the French soldiers ; but before 
proceeding to this second stage of the Society's operations in this district I must 
describe what was going on in the North of France under the guidance of General 
Sir Vincent Eyre, whose head-quarters were at Boulogne-sur-Mer. As the tide of 
war did not reach this part of France till later in the campaign, it will be sufficient to 
state that at this period a visit of inspection was made by the General and two of his 
Committee to the towns of Amiens, Arras, Douai, Lille, Cambrai, Avesnes, Maubeuge, 
Charleville, Valenciennes, Saint Omer, and Calais, and smaller towns the names of 
which I need not enumerate. Nearly every hospital and ambulance established in 
these places was inspected, and the most minute inquiries were made from those in 
charge, who were requested to select from the English National Society's printed list 
(of which a translation had been prepared in French) such [articles as they particularly 
needed. This they accordingly did, Sir Vincent Eyre advising the Committee in 
London by post and telegraph of what was needed. At least fifty French ambulances, 
containing an aggregate of some 6,000 wounded, were thus assisted in the course 
of this tour by the Society's Visiting Commissioners. 

At Arras Sir Vincent Eyre wrote that surgical instruments were particularly 
wanted. There was only one set of amputating instruments in the whole town, and 
much unfortunate delay in the performance of the most necessary operations was the 
consequence. English lint was greatly coveted, as also were oil-silk, woollen socks, 
flannel shirts, and quinine. 

It should be known that the German and French surgeons infinitely prefer English 
lint, and only use charpie faute de mieux. English surgeons all detest charpie, and use 
plain clean rags instead where lint is not to be had. Surgical instruments were always 
asked for, and the value of those sent out by the Society exceeded £8,000 in 
value. The supply of instruments abroad was soon exhausted, and could not be 
replaced except from England, from the fact of those engaged in making them on the 
Continent having become soldiers in the ranks. And to this difficulty was soon added 
the closing of all communications with Paris, to which city the whole of France 
habitually looked, not only for medical and surgical supplies, but even for the ordinary 
necessaries of life. Waterproof sheeting and fabrics of that class, and drugs, such as 
chloroform, are far better in England than abroad, and hence the demand which was 
made uptin us lor this class of goods. The value of these things sent out during the 
campaign was very considerable 

A French officer of artillery expressed his gratitude to Sir Vincent Eyre for the 
services rendered him at Sedan by one of our English surgeons, who dressed his 



11 

wounds and took care of him. As many thousands, both French and Germans, passed 
through the hands of our surgeons, it may be supposed that a feeling of gratitude to 
the English nation will rest in the hearts of these poor fellows for the amount of care 
and tenderness which they everywhere met with in English hospitals and from 
English agents. 

Allusion has been already made to the departure from Paris, on the 28th August, of Work of the 
the Anglo-American Ambulance. On the 11th September, just a fortnight afterwards, American 
Dr. MacCormac (who has been recently appointed on the staff of St. Thomas's Hospital) m u ance 
Avrote as follows : — " We have witnessed the utter downfall of the Grande Armee of 
" the Rhine, the capture of an Emperor with his 80,000 men, 300 pieces of cannon, 
" 60 mitrailleuses, and 90,000 stand of arms." He goes on to describe how the ambu- 
lance got into position and into working order on the eve of the great battle which 
was fought on the 1st September, how the Caserne d'Asfeld in Sedan, with its 381 
beds, was made over to him and his colleague Dr. Sims, while Dr. Frank became 
accidentally, or rather providentially, separated from them and established a branch 
hospital at Balan, where in the Mairie he placed himself and carried on operations 
during the battle,being compelled at times to lie flat down beside the wounded and dying, 
to escape the bullets which were coming in at the windows of the house. The work 
done at the Caserne d'Asfeld is given in the Appendix. 

From the Caserne d'Asfeld Dr. MacCormac writes : — " We have about 60 cases of 
" amputation and several of resection of the upper extremities. Some of them have 
" been done in other ambulances. Yesterday we had a number of tents pitched, 
" capable of holding 120 beds. We have wonderfully healthy wards, but they are 
" over-crowded. Yesterday we had a visit from the Intendant-General. He was 
" much pleased with our arrangements, excepting the open windows ; at that he 
" stood aghast, protested strongly, and told us a coarant cVair like that would kill our 
" patients. In the last three days 3,500 wounded have been sent out of Sedan, but 
" the place seems as full as ever. Every second house has the red-cross flag flying 
" over its door." Dr. MacCormac gives an account of an operation which shows 
the value of chloroform. He says, " The other day at Balan I assisted Frank 
" with an amputation of the thigh of a poor chasseur, who had just been brought in. 
" His thigh had been badly smashed the first day of the fighting, and he was left to 
" lie in a ditch for five days afterwards without succour. Neither had he tasted food 
" all that time. As gangrene was imminent, amputation was decided upon. The 
" first thing Lyon asked for (for that was his name) was a cigar, which he smoked 
" with great zest until he was being put under the influence of chloroform. After the 
" operation, and on regaining his senses, he requested permission to finish his cigar, 
" as he would not like to waste it, and he might as well utilise the time until they 
" were ready to operate. It was difficult to persuade him all was finished. For some 
" days this brave young soldier went on well, but tetanus set in and his recovery was 
" despaired of." During this time there were grave complaints in letters from abroad 
of the cruelty of the rapid evacuations of the badly wounded soldiers when their 
condition and weakness were such as to render their transport dangerous to life. The Advantage of 
weight of testimony, however, is. abundantly on the side of rapid removal from the of^wo^nded™ 
vicinity of battle-fields. " The principle of isolation," Dr. Murray says, " if carried out from ridnity 

OT DauvlO" 

" well, cannot be over-estimated, but proper means of transport would diminish the fields. 
" mortality greatly. The ordinary country carts which were used did not afford 
" protection from cold and wet, and did more injury by jolting." In a letter written 
by Mr. Furley on the 12th September, he says, " You know how bravely and con- 
" scientiously the British Medical Profession always do their duty. I wish, however, 
s( all the members of the National Committee could have heard from the self-sacrificing 
" nurses at Balan, as I did yesterday, their testimony to the zeal, patience, and per- 
" severing labours of. our chief in that village, Dr. Frank. His presence is sunshine in 
" every room he enters, and his subordinates, who so ably and willingly support him, 
" will always, I am sure, feel proud of having worked under him." Mr. Furley goes 
on to give a little history which is most touching in its character, ife says, " While 
" at Balan yesterday, a packet was placed in the hands of one of the surgeons. This 

C 2 



12 



The Sisters 
of All 
Saints'. 



Dr. Frank at 
Balan during 
the battle of 
Sedan. 



" consisted of a pocket-book, the cross of an officer of the Legion d'Honneur, together 
" with a note in pencil; both the pocket-book and the note are pierced with a bullet, 
" but the name and address are fortunately preserved, and the souvenir will, as soon as 
" possible, be forwarded to the widow. ' Sedan, 1 Sept. Au milieu de la bataille, entoure 
" par les balles, je t'adresse mes adieux. Les balles et les boulets qui m'epargnent 
" depuis 4 heures ne me menageront pas plus longtemps. Adieu, ma femme bien- 
" aimee. J'espere qu'une ame charitable te fera parvenir cot adieu. Je me suis com- 
" porte bravement, et je meurs pour n'avoir pas voulu abandonner nos blesses. Adieu ! 
" Un baiser.' " 

Dr. Sims, U. S., Dr. MacCormac's colleague, in his report to the Committee, gives 
strong testimony to the value of women nurses. He says : — " As nurses, I would not 
" exchange one woman for a dozen men. From the moment that women were intro- 
" duced as nurses, the whole aspect of our establishment was changed. Only last night 
" a poor wounded soldier's life was saved by one of our lady nurses in a most remarkable 
" maimer. It is well known," he says, " that gun-shot wounds arc often followed by 
" secondary haemorrhage, from 10 to 20 days after the wound is received. We had 
" great trouble in arresting a bleeding of this sort. It took two hours to do it. One of 
" our lady nurses, Miss Neligan, stood by aiding us all the time. During the night, 
" when all slept, Miss Neligan, remembering three or four badly-wounded men in her 
" ward, and fearing that some such accident as she had just witnessed might occur to 
" them, went quietly round, and, gently examining them, found, to her horror, that 
" one of her patients was lying in a pool of blood still gushing forth in a great stream. 
" Instantly she stanched the blood by compression, and called up the doctor in charge, 
" who permanently arrested the bleeding. Five minutes, and the man would have 
" been dead, while the stupid men nurses were snoring, fast asleep." 

Testimony as strong might be borne to the unremitting vigilance and tender care 
displayed by many other English nurses, and especially by the Sisters of All Saints', 
of whom a party, ten in number, under the Mother Superior, left England in the 
month of September, and remained abroad till January, working during the whole 
time at various places, but chiefly under Dr. Frank, at Balan and at Epernay. 

With regard to the organisation of ambulances, Dr. Sims writes as follows: — 

" The personnel of the French Ambulances was too numerous. They had an 
" expensive retinue of infirmiers which might be dispensed with in a great degree. 
" I would organise an ambulance as follows : — One surgeon-in-chief, two or three 
" surgeons, dressers in proportion ; three or four women nurses. I would pick up 
" infirmiers whenever and wherever they were needed. In time of war there are idle 
" men enough out of employment who are glad of occupation. It would be better to 
" send out several small ambulances thus organised than one too large and unwieldy." 

Drs. MacCormac and Sims thoroughly agreed upon the important subject of 
free ventilation and the use of disinfectants. The wide windows on the sides of the 
building were never closed, and the winds swept through the wards all the time from 
S.W. to N.E. Carbolic acid was freely used. Carbolic lotions constituted the 
dressings in all cases. Free ventilation and carbolic acid kept the ware \ sweet, 
notwithstanding the immense crowd of seriously wounded. No one was allowed 
to suffer pain if morphine hypodermically administered, or chlorodyne, or other form 
of opium could control it. No one was allowed to pass a sleepless night if chloral 
could procure rest. 

It was a gratifying thing to pass through the wards at 10 or 11 o'clock at night 
and find. 350 poor sufferers all quiet and sleeping soundly, and Dr. Sims adds, 
" What precious boons to humanity are morphine and chloral ! " 

Towards the middle of October this stage of the Anglo-American Ambulance 
came to a close by the return of Dr. MacCormac to England, Dr. Sims having 
preceded him by a month. 

It has been shown how Dr. Frank, who first organised the Anglo-American Ambu- 
lance at Paris, became separated from his colleagues, and established a branch hospital 



at Balan and Bazeilles, 

of about 100 wounded, who, <>n 



At the former village he and Mr. Blewitt remained in charge 
the :Us1 August, were lying without any assistance. 



13 

During the night of the 31st, more wounded continued to arrive, and at da; :>reak the 
battle of Sedan commenced by the opening of artillery fire. As it was clear that many 
wounded men might immediately be expected, it was deemed necessary to evacuate about 
40, to make way for fresh arrivals. After some trouble these men were started ofi 
under charge of Mr. Blewitt, who was to return to Balan, furnished with additional 
help, instruments, chloroform, and other requisites for the work. 

Mr. Blewitt in endeavouring to rejoin Dr. Frank exposed himself to great personal 
danger, but owing to the state of affairs resulting from the battle it was impossible for 
him to effect his purpose. It thus came to pass that Dr. Frank was the only medical 
officer at Balan during the battle of Sedan. Working unremittingly till 3 o'clock in 
the morning of the 2nd Sept., he attended upon about 200 wounded, his surgical 
ministration being of course mainly limited to the extraction of bullets, pieces of shell, 
&c v to the dressing of wounds, and the application of temporary splints in cases of 
fracture. So peculiar a position perhaps no man was ever before placed in. In his 
Report he says : — 

" I successfully tied the common carotid artery to arrest profuse bleeding in a 
" case of deep shell-gash in the submaxillary region, amputated shattered fingers, and 
" performed other minor operations. 

" To those who were in a dying state when brought into the hospital, I gave such 
" comfort and support as were in my power. Words of sympathy and encouragement 
" had, alas ! in many cases to make up for the deficient help I was able to afford. 

" I fortunately had a hypodermic syringe and a large bottle of morphia solution, 
" which proved a source of untold comfort to many sufferers. Bread, soup, coffee, 
" and wine were at my disposal in sufficient quantities to supply the majority of the 
" wounded, who stood greatly in need of such support. 

" I was assisted by. Mesdames Godefroy and Marquez, and the daughters of the 
" Schoolmaster of Balan, and by M. Sauvage, a dyer of Balan, who, though all inex- 
" perienced in the work they were called upon to aid in performing, rendered most 
" important services, displaying under truly trying circumstances most admirable cool- 
" ness, energy, and devotion. To complete the already bewildering difficulties of the 
" situation, we were called upon in the evening to be prepared to evacuate the Mairie 
" and adjacent buildings, as it was feared that the flames would extend to them from 
" burning houses in the immediate neighbourhood, and a number of carts were collected, 
" by order of the Bavarian Commandant, to remove the wounded to places promising 
" greater safety. Happily this apprehension proved to be unfounded, and much addi- 
" tional distress was thus averted from the wretched sufferers under our care. 

" The last six wounded came in at 1 A.M. on the 2nd. 

" Every available space in the houses at my disposal was now occupied, the floors 
" being covered with wounded men, so that it was hardly possible to pick one's way 
" among them. I therefore attended to the last arrivals in the carts, gave them soup 
" and wine, and left them until the next morning on their straw litters in the open air. 
" Thankful for having escaped the dangers of the day, wondering how my comrades 
" in the Asfeld might have fared and what events the morrow might bring forth, I lay 
" down, half dead with fatigue, on a mattress, after assuring myself that my wounded 
" were all in peace ; those in whom pain and distress had successfully struggled with 
" exhaustion in preventing sleep having been quieted with injections of morphia. 
" A Bavarian with a shattered hip, who lay on a stretcher in the lobby of the Mairie 
" and raised his hands imploringly, crying ' Help ! help !' whenever I passed, required 
" no less than two grains of morphia, subcutaneously injected, before obtaining rest. 
" Amputation at the hip-joint was performed in this case on the following day, by 
" Professor Nussbaum, at Bazeilles, but the patient died of tetanus on the 18th, three 
" days after we had taken over the hospital in which he was located. He had dictated 
" his last wishes to a comrade shortly after receiving his wound. 

" I was at my post again at six o'clock in the morning of the 2nd, and did my 
" best to respond to the calls which were made upon me on every side, the state of 
" things being such as can only be fully realised by those who have been placed in a 
" similar position. 



14 



Preparations 
for the fall 
of Metz. 



Necessity of 
acting in- 
dependently 
of the 
Johanniters. 



" A Bavarian surgeon came to the Mairie about 8 A.M., and assisted me in 
" attending to the needs of some of his wounded countrymen. 

" At noon, several Bavarian surgeons visited the Ambulance, and gave directions 
" for a number of their wounded to be transferred to the field hospital established at 
" Bazeilles. In jthe course of the afternoon I was rejoined by Mr. Blewitt, and, with 
" his energetic assistance, was able to complete the dressing of the 130 wounded still 
" remaining under our care, and to perform two urgent amputations." 

The work done at Balan and Bazeilles is given in the Appendix. 

Early in October it became apparent that the fortress of Metz could no longer hold 
out, and rumours of the approaching capitulation of Bazaine, at the head of 100,000 men, 
who were being reduced by sickness and famine, caused the Society to make the most 
strenuous exertions to prepare an organisation for that district similar to that which 
had been so successfully established at Beaumont, Douzy, Balan, Bazeilles, and Sedan. 
Hitherto the drain on the resources had been so great in dealing with the wants of 
this district that comparatively little had been done in the Metz neighbourhood : but 
Drs. Ernest Hart and Berkeley Hill had rendered valuable service by inquiring into 
and reporting upon the condition of things, and these gentlemen, though not agents 
of the Society, took the very greatest trouble on its behalf. Dr. Hardwick also 
assisted in paving the way for the arrival of Captain Brackenbury, who took up his 
head-quarters at Saarbruck, leaving Mr. Reginald Capel in charge of the Arlon depot, 
from which he still continued to supply the needs which remained at and around 
Sedan. 

On the 4th October Captain Brackenbury reported that, within a few days, he 
trusted to be in a position to say that all the sick and wounded French and Germans 
in the whole circle round Metz would have all the comforts they required. 

• Metz, and a considerable district under range of its guns, was of course still 
unapproachable by friends or foes. A hospital for 100 beds was established at Saar- 
bruck, and placed under Drs. Junker and Rodgers ; also at Briey Dr. Hirschfeld was 
placed in charge of about 60 beds. The work of the Society was often greatly aided 
by the Johanniters, who mustered in strong force at Saarbruck. The Society has an 
admirable organisation, framed before and during the Austrian War of 1866, and 
perfected by the experience derived therefrom. The members are men of rank and 
position in Germany, and are said to have good influence with the Government and 
with the military authorities. 

Captain Brackenbury established most friendly relations with these Knights of 
St. John and with their chiefs, Count Konigsmarck and Herr von Treskow. Dr. Sand- 
with, who was one of the first to offer his services to the Society, and who did good 
work in their behalf in this very town of Saarbruck previous to the organisation under 
Captain Brackenbury, also speaks in high terms of the kindness shown him by Prince 
Hohenlohe and by Baron von Ompteda ; but notwithstanding the most friendly relations 
which existed between the Societies, it was found necessary to maintain on the part ot 
the English Society a complete independence of action on account of a fundamental 
difference existing in the objects and intentions of the subscribers to the Fund. The 
Johanniters gave from their stores to the troops under arms, as well as to. the sick 
and wounded, and no doubt contributed greatly thereby to the health and fighting 
power of the regiments of the North German Army. This was precisely what the 
people of Berlin, Munich, and Dresden desired, but it was not for that object that 
the English people subscribed their money and sent in their gifts to St. Martin's 
Place. 

When Marshal Bazaine capitulated at Metz on the 27th October, the English 
fourgons were the first on the scene, carrying the relief which was so much needed, 
and returning to Remilly with wounded officers. Captain Brackenbury reported 
about this time as follows : — " I cannot tell you with what pleasure I look on our work 
" here. The first to enter Metz— the first to give succour — the first .also in liberality, 
" our Society has here taken the true place which England's generosity entitles us to 
"assume. No one can know the misery we relieve; no one can over-estimate the 
" blessings which are showered \\\ us for our work." 



15 

The French Societe de Secours at Metz paid our Society a great compliment : they 
asked Captain Brackenbury to distribute their stores for them, showing' thereby the 
confidence they had in his impartiality and judgment. 

One of the questions which give rise to much discussion and controversy is that Dep6t«. 
which relates to depots and their constitution in time of war. To have the stores at 
hand, and the means of conveying them where they are wanted, are the necessities 
which all people acknowledge to be of the first importance ; but, owing to the vicissi- 
tudes of war, it is far from improbable that a depot established to-day may become 
useless to-morrow. Surprises and changes are essential to military operations, and 
anticipated arrangements are precisely those which frequently fail in their aim and 
object. Again, the size of depots is a matter about which there are different opinions 
and much controversy. Small depots scattered about are wasteful, inasmuch as the 
tide of war may never flow near them (the Society was urged to form depots in all 
sorts of places), while large depots are apt to become places where goods are buried 
and lost for want of classification and arrangement. Witness the store-rooms of 
Balaklava. The plan adopted by Captain Brackenbury was to establish principal 
depots, as at Arlon and Saarbruck, with advanced depots at Briey and Remilly ; as 
time went on, and the war spread, to them were added more advanced depots at 
Charleville, Chalons, Chateau-Thierry, and Meaux. This last-named place became, Meaux dep6t. 
through the circumstances of the war, one of the most important stations at which 

the work of the Society was carried on. Acting under Captain Nevill, a staff of ^. he de P 6fc at 

J . Meaux sup- 

English gentlemen were engaged through the whole winter, in journeying in open plies 76 towns 
fourgons, constantly exposed to piercing cold, and often under actual fire ; thus r0U nd Paris, 
supplying from the Meaux depot the hospitals of 76 towns and villages round Paris 
with comforts and necessaries for the sick and wounded by whom they were filled, 
and which it is morally impossible they could have received but for volunteer 
aid. These villages were deserted by the French, and the Germans were utterly 
unable adequately to supply their wants. Several of the staff, both here and else- 
where, suffered severely in health from fatigue and exposure, but none deserted their 

post. 

Working, as the English Society did, with a resolution to add nothing to the 

burdens which fell upon the population of the invaded districts, it was necessary to be 

furnished with all things needed for the conveyance of stores, such as carts, waggons, 

and horses. These things had to be bought or hired at war prices, and as many as 

fifty waggons were employed in supplying the hospitals round Sedan alone when the 

wants were most urgent. As the Society's stores became known, requisitions poured 

in from Prussian, French, Bavarian, and Belgian ambulances, and these were invariably 

complied with. 

By the end of September a sum of nearly £200,000 had been raised in money The Com- 

alone, besides contributions in goods the value of which it is difficult to estimate. 40,000^ to 

The subscribers to the Fund perceived that the extent of the need surpassed all pre- £ rench and 

r r r German 

cedent, and was beyond the power of any ordinary means of relief. The work of the nations. 
Society could not keep pace with the eager desire of people at home to see their 
contributions carried to the help of those armies where the slaughter had been equally 
sudden and enormous. The Committee determined therefore to give £40,000 for the 
benefit of the sick and wounded of the French and German nations, making it a 
distinct and honourable obligation on the part of their Chiefs to apply the money 
exclusively to the purposes above stated. The Committee entrusted to their Chairman 
the duty of carrying this large contribution in equal portions to the Germans at 
Versailles and to the French in Paris. (For the Chairman's account of this visit see 
Appendix.) 

The permission to enter Paris was accorded by the King of Prussia, and assistance 
to the sick and wounded in the besieged city was conveyed at a time when it was 
most acceptable and grateful to the French nation. 

A Committee was formed in Paris, consisting of the English Military and Medical 
officers officially residing there, among them Surgeon-Major Wyatt and Dr. Gordon, 
and of the French heads of the "Aid" Societies of Paris, acting under the sanction 



16 



The Crown 

Prince's 

Letter. 



of the Minister of War, General Le Flo. To them was entrusted the task of spending 
the £20,000 • in the manner most calculated to give direct relief to the sick and 
wounded, and this duty they discharged most satisfactorily by laying in stores ot 
medical comforts and provisions, which at a later period of the siege were urgently 
needed, but would then have been impossible to procure. A detailed account of the 
manner in which the money was expended was subsequently forwarded by the French 
to the English Committee. 

The administration of a similar sum destined for the Prussians was entrusted to 
Prince Pless, the official Superintendent of Voluntary Aid at the Prussian Head- 
quarters. Soon after the return to England of the Chairman the following letter was 
received from His Royal Highness the Crown Prince of Prussia : — 



*' Head-quarters, Versailles, 

" November 2nd, 1870. 

" The noble contribution brought by Colonel Loyd-Lindsay, for the use of the 
sick and wounded, from the English Society, of which he is the director, deserves 
somewhat more than a simple acknowledgment. 

" On this, as on other occasions of distress, the help of the English public has been 
poured out with a liberal and impartial hand. 

" The gifts which have been offered in a truly Christian spirit have excited a 
feeling of heartfelt gratitude amongst those in whose name I speak. In doing so I 
am repeating the feelings of the whole of my country people, in this instance repre- 
sented by those for whose special benefit these gifts are destined. 

"FREDERICK WILLIAM, 

" Crown Prince." 



The Queen 
of Prussia's 
Letter. 



It afforded a gratifying assurance to the subscribers that this kindly feeling and 
generous liberality were justly appreciated by those at the head of the German Army, 
and indeed by the German Army itself. 

An equally gratifying recognition of the timely aid given by England was soon 
after received from Her Majesty the Queen of Prussia, who wrote in the following 
gracious terms : — 



" Hombury, the 1th A T ovember, 1870. 

" It is with sincere admiration that I have learnt on how large a scale the British 
" nation has endeavoured to palliate the sufferings caused by the present war, and 
" has participated in the care for the sick and wounded by giving pecuniary assistance 
" to existing societies and hospitals, by fitting up ambulances, by establishing depots, 
" and by distributing gifts. 

" In my position as patroness of the German Societies, represented by the Central 
" Committee at Berlin, I feel it to be a duty incumbent upon me to tender my sincerest 
" and most heartfelt thanks, both in my own name and in that of my countrymen at 
" home and abroad, who have been benefited by this aid, to the Committee of the 
" British National Society for Aid to the Sick and Wounded, through which this labour 
" of love has been effected. 

" By these proofs of a true philanthropy the British nation honours itself, and 
" once more vindicates its ancient claim to stand foremost in the ranks of those who 
" labour for the interests of humanity. 

" Let Englishmen rest assured of the warmth of feeling with which we in 
" Germany have appreciated their generous co-operation. 



" To the Committee of the British National Soviet ;i 
for Aid to the Sick and Wounded T 



AUGUSTA. 

" Queen of Prussia. 



Operations in During the 11th and 12th October very severe fighting was going on in the south- 

wMt"o? th " 'west. The French army of the Loire was defeated, and the Bavarians under General 
Vnaof. 



17 

vou der Tann mado their victorious entry into Orleans. The Germans were subse- 
quently driven out of Orleans, and here it was that the French obtained the only 
marked success which attended their arms during the whole campaign. 

The battles of the 8th and 9th November resulted in the retreat of Von der Tann, 
and the French army, under General Aurelle des Paladines, took up its position across 
the Loire, at Orleans and Chateaudun. For a very brief period it looked as if the 
French were about to retrieve their fortunes. Their army was a larger one than that 
which inarched under McMahon to Sedan. It had a powerful artillery, and was com- 
posed chiefly of old soldiers, who had been liberated from service, but had been 
recalled to the ranks. In this campaign, more perhaps than in any other, the 
French army was found destitute of the barest necessaries for preserving life. The 
French surgeons had neither chloroform, nor medicines, nor surgical instruments, 
and many of the amputations had to be performed with butchers' knives and common 
saws. The army had been raised with extraordinary rapidity under the pressure of 
urgent danger. There was no time to organise a proper Medical Staff, and the 
impossibility of obtaining any supplies from Paris, and the interruption of communi- 
cations throughout the country, added greatly to the difficulty of supplying anything 
approaching to adequate care to the thousands of sufferers who soon filled every 
town and village in the Loire district. 

The English Society was fortunate in obtaining the services of two most able T .k e T«um 
and indefatigable representatives in this district of France, viz., Colonel Elphinstone 
and Mr. S. S. Lee, an American gentleman living at Tours. These two gentlemen 
were unwearied in their exertions to relieve the sufferings of the wounded soldiers, 
and it is difficult to record a hundredth part of all they did in the unhappy district 
around Tours and Orleans, where oft-recurring battles turned into a desert the most 
fertile part of France. 

The operations of the depot formed by them are remarkably interesting. The 
Committee consisted of President, Secretary, and Treasurer, with two additional 
working members. To this staff were added from time to time the officers and gentle- 
men sent out from the head-quarters of the Society in England in charge of stores, 
the difficulty of conveyance being at that time so great that nothing could be sent 
except under the personal charge of agents, who often experienced great delays and 
difficulties, and even danger, before reaching their destination. 

A supplementary Committee was added, consisting of Mrs. Elphinstone and three 
other ladies, who had the charge of stores, received lists and requisitions, distributed, 
and kept careful lists of every article supplied. 

One of the first acts of the Tours Committee (after a preliminary tour of inspec- 
tion of ambulances) was to supply the pressing wants of 2,000 wounded, left after 
the battle which ended in the taking of Orleans by the Germans, in utter desti- 
tution, not even a morsel of lint or rag of linen being at hand at this time of need. 
The Bishop, Monseigneur Dupanloup, himself came forth to welcome this, the first 
help from England. Similar and even greater demands were during many months 
constantly made upon the Tours depot, and help was sent from thence as far south 
as Pau. 

Their main work was, however, in the Loire district, where universal misery 
and utter destitution prevailed, — more especially at Chateaudun, after being taken 
by the Prussians ; at Le Mans, where the ravages of small-pox added to the misery, 
and where 6,000 sufferers were crowded into the Cathedral alone; and at Orleans, 
after the Prussian evacuation. At this latter town, the Anglo-American Ambulance 
(having closed its career at Sedan), under Dr. Pratt and a small band of English and 
American surgeons, established itself in a large church, and did good service, being 
mainly supported by aid received from the English Society. In a letter written from 
Tours at this time, Mrs. Elphinstone says: — "None could form any notion of the 
" greatness and extent of the benefits of the English Society, unless they could see 
" what the wounded would have been without it ; and the contrast is very apparent 
" in every place where they are collected before the Society takes it in hand, Once 

D 



18 



Restaurants 
for travelling 
■wounded. 



19,500 

wounded pass- 
ing through 
Forbach are 
supplied with 
food and 
wine. 



Boulogne 
DepOt. 



" their agents appear on the scene, there are no more faces contorted with pain for 
" want of opium ; no more torturing operations performed without chloroform ; no 
"beds without blankets; no aching head without a pillow; and it is even more 
" impossible to conceive the gratitude these poor fellows feel and express for all their 
" comforts than it is to imagine what their misery would have been without them." 

Colonel Elphinstone and Mr. Lee was especially successful in the establishment of 
a railway station soup kitchen at Tours, where wounded men passed through in vast 
numbers, arriving every night by hundreds at the station, where they were carried in 
or hobbled along themselves, without arms or legs, a terrible army of martyrs. Colonel 
Elphinstone or Mr. Lee was at the station every evening, with hot soup, coffee, and 
bread. It was impossible to describe the gratitude of the men, who had had nothing 
to eat all day, and nothing warm for many days. On looking back to the work 
of the Society, there is nothing more satisfactory than the records of the distri- 
bution of nourishing food and sustenance given to the exhausted suffering wounded 
soldiers who were being moved in long trains of trucks and waggons, travelling day 
and night, exposed to the weather, and with nothing given them but a biscuit and 
some water to drink. The restaurant at Forbach, near Metz, which was maintained 
by the English Society in conjunction with the Johanniters, supplied, during the 
month of October and part of November, about 19,500 sick and wounded with wine, 
coffee, and food, and exchanged the rags of the poor men for Warm clothing, socks, 
drawers, &c. The poor soldiers, especially the French, frequently fought without 
having tasted food, and if wounded often remained for days with nothing more 
nourishing than a piece of dry bread to eat. 

Miss Elizabeth Garrett, who was at Sedan about the middle of September, on her 
return home, amongst other practical suggestions, mentioned this one to the English 
Society. Railway station kitchens were established by Captain Nevill at Meaux. and 
Lagny. At this last place, besides the sick and wounded, French prisoners arrived from 
all parts, and, after hours of agony and hunger, were sent on by trains to Germany in open 
trucks, and these trains were so often shunted, that they took between five and eight 
days to reach Nancy, the prisoners never leaving the waggons, and exposed, night and 
day, to whatever weather chance might send, and to hunger, reaching almost to star- 
vation. Captain Nevill received such pressing demands that he yielded, and provided 
a large supply of food for these positively starving men. Again, at the battle of 
Querrieux, near Amiens, on the 23rd December, Colonel Cox established an extempore 
cooking place in the field. He says, " Our ambulance was the only one which had 
" brought out any sort of comfort for the wounded beyond surgical requisites, and 
" fortunately we were able to supply every demand made upon us by the medical 
" men." This prompt administration of food and stimulants within the first few hours 
after receiving a wound, and before removal to hospital, is often of more value and 
importance even than surgical attendance. It is a point much neglected in the Prus- 
sian service, where too much reliance appears to be placed on surgical aid alone, unsup- 
ported by. the valuable help of such auxiliary comforts as it has been the special aim of 
our Society to supply. The experience we have acquired at the above-mentioned battle 
of Querrieux, and elsewhere during the campaign, shows that such aid can be provided, 
even on the actual battle-field, with the most advantageous results, at comparatively 
small cost or trouble. It has been estimated that with such extra comforts 30 per cent, 
more of the severely wounded would survive than if left to ordinary French and 
German hospital diet. 

The Boulogne Depot, to which allusion lias been already made, continued its 
exertions until the final close of the war. It was throughout Tinder the management 
of Sir Vincent Eyre, assisted by an able staff of English ladies and gentlemen and 
surgeons, and by a French resident at Boulogne, M. Vaillant, who in the capacity of 
Secretary rendered invaluable service. To the Boulogne Depot Avas entrusted the 
charge of investigating the needs of the hospitals, and of distributing throughout the 
north-western district of France, from Calais and Havre to St. Denis and Valenciennes, 
the supplies and stores sent from England. 

A branch depot, under Colonel Cox, assisted by his wife and by Captain Uniacke, 



19 

was established at Amiens, which proved a most convenient central point, during the 
winter campaign, conducted by Generals Faidherbe and Von Goeben; and through its 
agency urgently needed aid was given on the actual battle-fields during action, and 
to the numerous wounded who were left, often without proper care, in the small 
villages of that district. 

This Report would be incomplete were it to omit to mention the departure from The Woolwich 
England, with some of its subsequent operations, of the Ambulance which generally m u ance ' 
went by the name of the Woolwich Ambulance, and which was fitted out under the 
Director-General of the Army Medical Department, aided by Dr. Longmore, professor 
of surgery at Netley. This officer, whose experience and knowledge of matters 
connected with the transport of sick and wounded troops, and whose interest in the 
working of the Geneva Convention, have made his name known almost as much abroad 
as at home, was to have headed our ambulance as a medical director, but falling ill 
just before its departure, much to the grief of all parties concerned, he was unable to 
undertake the duty. 

The Ambulance left Woolwich for Havre on the 14th October; its organisation 
and equipment were complete for 200 patients, with hospital marquees, bell-tents, 
bedding, and cooking apparatus. Besides these arrangements for a permanent hospital, 
it was equipped with all things necessary to enable it to take the field, with 8 ambu- 
lance waggons, 12 store waggons, furnished with operating cases and surgical dressing- 
cases, medical comforts, preserved meats, biscuits, &c. The personnel consisted of 12 
medical officers and 27 hospital corps men, the whole being under the command of 
Dr. Guy, Deputy Inspector-General of Hospitals. The route chosen for the Ambulance 
to reach Versailles was through Havre, Rouen, Mantes, and Vernon. It reached the 
head-quarters of the German Army investing Paris about the last week in 
October. 

The medical officers were allotted a building at St. Germain, where they took 
charge of 200 patients who were suffering from typhus and dysentery, but owing to 
difficulties which arose in the course of frequent visits by the German Medical 
Inspectors, who perhaps naturally enough required a subserviency to their own modus 
operandi in the management of the patients, an abrupt termination was put to this 
form of aiding and assisting the sufferers in the war. The whole of the bedding and 
stores necessary for the comfort and support of the patients was made over to the 
German authorities, and the English medical officers were withdrawn from the care and 
treatment of their former patients, who were immediately taken charge of by the 
German doctors. 

The field equipment now came into operation, and the Woolwich Ambulance was 

divided into two parts. Surgeon Manley, V.O., who had become second in command 

owing to Dr. Porter's illness, received on the 11th November an order to take charge of a 

division of the ambulance, and to proceed to Chartres, where, in consequence of the 

repulse of the Bavarian Army from Orleans, it was expected that important operations 

would shortly take place. Mr. Manley joined the 22nd Division of the Prussian Army with 

the following staff: Assistant-Surgeon McNalty and Assistant-Surgeon Moore, together 

with one sergeant and four men of the Army Hospital Corps. He continued to march in 

a westerly direction, and on the 18th the ambulance was present at an engagement which 

took place at a village named Forcay ; the waggons were taken forward, the stretchers 

brought out, and the wounded collected. The ambulance waggons were then ordered to ^ e p rass i ang 

proceed to Chateauneuf, where a hospital had been established. It was nine at night P u * their 

x ° serious cases 

before the ambulances were cleared of the wounded, and the following day they were into English 
again engaged in carrying in wounded, the Prussians putting their serious cases into the wa o-<r iis. 
English waggons, as being steadier and less liable to jolt than their own. On the 
20th the division moved on, and on the 21st they were engaged near Bretoncelles, 
where the ambulances again did good service. On the 2nd December a general action 
took place at the village of Bagneux ; an English hospital was formed at a farmhouse, 
in the village of Auneux, which was soon filled with wounded, even to the stables 
and outhouses. Mr. Manley caused the canteen to be prepared, and coffee and milk 
were served out to every man in the village before his wounds were dressed. The 

D 2 



20 



General Ton 
Wittisch 
thanks 
Surgeon 
Manley, V.C. 



Beaune-la« 

Kolande. 



light had been long and exhausting and the cold extreme, and this treatment was most 
beneficial. After this refreshment the wounded were attended to, and the more import- 
ant operations proceeded with in the farmhouse kitchen. Whilst they were operating, 
at 10 o'clock at night, the General commanding the division came and begged that the 
waggons might be again sent to the field, as there were numerous wounded not yet 
brought in. His request was immediately complied with, and it was not till 3 in the 
morning that all the wounded were brought back. At daylight coffee, and soup made 
from extract of meat, were again served out, port wine and brandy being also given 
when needed. For some days after this the English Ambulance was working in the 
surrounding villages, where as many as a thousand wounded men were congregated. 
Surgeon Mauley calls attention to a great defect in the German medical service, to 
which I have already alluded, viz., that no arrangements are made for giving 
nourishment to the wounded, either on the field of battle or immediately after they 
are brought in. In his opinion this ought to rank in importance before the dressing 
of wounds. The work during all this period was most severe, and Surgeon Mauley 
gives great credit to all there, both officers and men, who worked under him. The 
message which he received on one occasion from General von Wittisch shows that the 
services rendered by his ambulance were thankfully reeeived and appreciated by the 
Prussian Commanders. "Receive," said the General, " our heartfelt thanks for your 
" most valuable aid, given to us in the moment of our great need, when our own 
" ambulances were not forthcoming." 

A second division of the English Ambulance, under the command of Dr. Guy, 
proceeded on the 1st of December, under orders of the Prince of Hesse, to Beaune-la- 
Rolande, where they took under their charge the whole of the French wounded, who 
were scattered throughout the town. Besides this work his waggons were continually 
employed in transporting wounded French and Prussians. 

A third division, under Dr. Ball, was placed in charge of the wounded who had 
been left at Pithiviers, about 14 miles from Beaune-la-Rolande, and subsequently was 
installed in charge of a large ambulance in the old chateau at Blois. 

In his Report Dr. Ball says : — 

" (22.) At Beaune-la-Rolande a great deal of work was done, under the greatest 
" difficulties, and a vast amount of human misery alleviated. The ambulance under- 
" took the responsibility of the entire charge of over 300 French wounded (including an 
" almost unprecedented proportion of the gravest cases), crowded into the houses nearest 
" the field of battle, and left with little or no skilled attendance. In the result, after the 
" ambulance had halted for a month, it was found necessary on its departure to leave 
" behind an entire division to attend on those whom it was considered impracticable or 
" cruel to remove. 

" (23.) The majority of the survivors were eventually removed to the hospitals 
" at Pithiviers. On mature reflection I am unable to see that any advantage was 
" gained by delay in their transfer. The patients were subsequently visited, and 
" stated that they had suffered very little during the journey (about twelve 
" miles). English surgeons appear to me to be over-cautious in the transport of men 
" dangerously wounded. The Prussians, confident in the support of their superiors, know 
" nothing of the pusillanimous dread of the Press and fear of responsibility asserted to 
" be traditional in the English Army ; they are humane, not humanitarian. The question 
" with them is not, ' Can a man be removed with safety ?' but, ' Will his removal "ive 
" him a better chance of recovery than his remaining ? ' If so, though he may suffer 
" seriously in the transit, the suffering must be borne. Though there may be a chance 
" of his dying on the road, the risk must be incurred. Such a calamity, however, with 
" proper care, would be most unfrcqucnt." 

The three divisions of the English Ambulance were supplied with stores from the 
depot of the National Society at Versailles, which was under the management of 
Mr. Young, Commissary-General to the Ambulance, and of Mr. John Furley, who has 
been from the commencement an active agent of the Society abroad, and who was 
afterwards engaged under the French Peasant Farmers Seed Fund Committee 
relieving the wants of the farmers round Paris. 



in 



21 

The work done by the National Society may be classed under five heads : — 

I. Aid distributed in Germany. 

II. Work done in the North-Eastern district of France, under Captain Bracken- 
bury. — Head-quarters : Arlon, Metz, and Meaux. 

III. Ditto in the Northern district, under Sir V. Eyre. — Head-quarters: 

Boulogne and Amiens. 

IV. Ditto in the Western district, under Colonel Elphinstone. — Head- 

quarters : Tours. 
V. Ditto by the Woolwich Ambulance. 

To the above must be added a sicth branch of our work, which hardly fell under Aid to French 
the original object of the Society, but arose from the peculiar circumstances and Germany, 
exigencies of the case. In the latter part of the month of November accounts reached 
the Committee, from all parts of Germany, of the extreme sufferings of the French 
prisoners in Germany, caused especially by their exposure to weather and the absence of 
warm clothing. The Committee determined to send out Lieutenant Swaine, of the 
Rifle Brigade, to act as their agent in the districts where prisoners of war were 
confined. Lieutenant Swaine carried with him warm clothing to the amount of 
£G,000, which he distributed in the most methodical manner at Magdeburg, Cologne, 
and other places. The sufferings endured by the prisoners were no doubt great, 
especially at the commencement of their captivity, when the difficulty of providing 
railway transport, proper accommodation on reaching their destinations, sufficient 
food and warm clothing for the vast multitudes of prisoners (amounting to over 
400,000) suddenly thrust upon them, was so great as almost to paralyse the already 
fully strained resources of the Germans. The aid from England was therefore timely 
and well bestowed. But Lieutenant Swaine's letters to the Committee bear testimony 
to the good treatment which the prisoners of war received from the Germans. He 
states that at the places he visited the men all agreed that they were as well off as 
they had a right to expect, and he himself adds that never were prisoners so well 
treated. 

With a similar object and furnished with similar stores, the Society sent Captain Aid to 
Harvey, of the 71st Highland Light Infantry, to visit the German prisoners in France, prisoners in 
At Belle Isle the greatest number of prisoners were confined; of these a large propor- France - 
tion were merchant seamen, whose hard fate it was impossible not to feel pity for. 
Many had been captured in August, and had lost their ships and all their property, 
and a great many first learnt the news of the war having been declared, by being taken 
prisoners. 

The most satisfactory work which was done by the Society was done, not by Organisation 
isolated surgeons tendering their skill and services to the already existing French lanceT. U 
and German hospitals, but rather by complete Ambulances under the sole management 
and control of the Society and of the Society's surgeons. Doubtless this system has 
proved the most satisfactory in its results, but it must be borne in mind that it is 
costly in its character, and required to be supported by large funds, which might not 
be forthcoming in a future war. Sending out surgeons and nurses, on the other hand, 
could be accomplished at a small cost. It, however, may be stated that surgeons and 
nurses sent on roving commissions, in the present state of the Articles of the Geneva 
Convention, would be of little useful service. 

The best size and organisation of an ambulance have been incidentally shown in The best size 
the course of the story of this Avar. The greatest amount of work compared with the tton Tim 8 -** 
cost was invariably obtained by such sized ambulances as those under Dr. Manley bulancea - 
at Orleans, Dr. Frank at Epernay and Balan, Drs. Sims and MacCormac at Sedan* 
and Dr. Junker at Saarbriick. 

The French ambulances were shown to be too large, and their personnel too 
numerous. From four to five surgeons, including dressers, with as few hospital corps 
men as possible, was found the most convenient strength. 

Infirmiers (as hospital corps men are called abroad) were found to be a constant 



22 

source of trouble and annoyance. In the German Army these men are invariably 

drawn from a superior class of people, and are much better adapted for their duties 

than either the French or English orderlies, who are old soldiers with no aptitude or 

taste for attending on sick and wounded men. There would be no' difficulty in 

England in finding men of cultivation and position who would undertake the duties of 

infirmiers in time of war. And, at a time when much attention is being bestowed on 

the training of female nurses, this is surely also a point worthy of consideration. The 

Value of superiority of female nursing is admitted, and no system of relief to the sick and 

womeunursea. . . ° J 

wounded in time of war can be m any measure complete or satisfactory which does 

not include this most important element. But the proper place for women nurses is in 
the more permanent field hospitals in the rear of the armies, not on the battle-field 
itself. In the actual following of an army on its march, a staff of men nurses or 
infirmiers is essential, the presence of women on such occasions being more embar- 
rassing than useful. 

During this war the National Society sent out comparatively few nurses, not from 
any doubt as to their zeal and efficiency, but from the fact that the supply of trained 
native nurses, belonging chiefly to religious communities, both in France and Germany, 
has been so great as to render foreign aid in this respect in most cases unnecessary. 
The French Sceurs de Charite have, notwithstanding occasional exceptions, shown 
themselves admirable nurses : tender to the sick, with neither crotchets nor theories to 
work out, with barely any personal requirements, simply doing their duty, under 
direction, with loving patience and faithfulness. They have proved the great import- 
ance, or rather absolute necessity, not only of medical and surgical training, but of 
habits of obedience, of unity, and of discipline. It is this special training, a training 
hitherto found difficult to enforce, except under some kind of religious rule, which 
rendered the All Saints' Sisters the most valuable and efficient of the English nurses 
sent out by the Society, and it is the absence of such training that renders the efforts 
of amateur nurses, however devoted and energetic, for the most part desultory and 
ineffective. Exceptions have during the present war been found; but the very 
qualities which have distinguished these ladies would, under a more organised system 
of training, have achieved even greater results. The superintending and giving out 
of stores opens another and a most useful field for female labour, and in our depots at 
Tours and at Boulogne and Amiens this work has been principally carried out by 
ladies. 
Freeh air and Again, the value of nature's remedies, viz., air and food as opposed to medicine, 

s °° ' in the old technical sense of the term, has been continually shown, and yet it is 
singular that prejudice stands in the way of the one, and bad economy prevents the 
free use of the other. The miraculous effects of fresh air have been fully exemplified, 
and its strongest advocates have been the English surgeons engaged in the war. 
The most spacious palaces — and many of these have been used — are less suited for the 
reception and care of badly wounded men than the temporary buildings erected of 
wood or canvas. The less there is between the patients and the outer air, and the 
greater the facilities for carrying the wounded actually into the open fields, the better 
are the chances of their wounds healing quickly and of their health returning. The 
advantage of the free use of disinfectants, especially carbolic acid, for purifying the 
wards, and for washing, when diluted, the wounds, has been shown, and will never be 
forgotten. 

The urgent demand for surgical instruments, and the great supply sent out by 
the Society, cannot fail to have been noticed. Many suggestions for economy wero 
'made, and some were adopted with a view to repairing and resetting instruments 
which had become blunted by use, and stones for sharpening were sent out, but the 
most practical plan was to take back into store the blunted instruments and replace 
them by now ones. The expense of sending out cutlers with grinding stones would 
have been great, and the results doubtful. 

Tlu; experience gained by the Woolwich Ambulance, and especially the division 
under Dr. Man Icy (which took part in the campaign after the repulse of Von der 
Tann from Orleans) will be of use to the medical service of this country. Some 



23 

questions of practical interest will be placed far on the road to solution by the reports 
which he has made, and by the information which he can give. On such matters as 
the best mode of collecting the wounded off the field of battle, and on the most con- 
venient form of ambulance waggons and stretchers, he has given some interesting 
details. He says that the vehicle which he thinks best adapted for the transport 
of stores is one made after the model of the Prussian commissariat waggon, the 
advantage being that when fully loaded it can be drawn by two horses, that it has a 
permanent roof winch can be locked, and so the stores which it contains are rendered 
safe from loss when left unguarded. 

On the value of giving food and sustenance, he gave the best evidence by what Importance of 
he and his colleagues did at the battle near Bagneux, and since he has come home he efficient sys- 
has said that a good, prompt, and efficient system for supplying stimidants and t i™ J;f Up d " t 
nourishment to sick and wounded in time of war is of as great importance as proper wounded on 
surgical treatment. The lack of these requirements appeared to him the one blot on field, 
the otherwise most efficient medical service of the Germans. The following is a short 
account which Dr. Manley has given the Committee, from his own observation, of 
what takes place in the German Army for the ^transport of the wounded from the 
field to the waggons, from the waggons to the field hospitals, and from thence to the 
hospitals in the rear. The regimental surgeons accompany their regiments into 
battle, and to every 250 men there are three Kranken-trager, who accompany the Kranken- 
regiment into action, and are supplied with and know how to use the necessary field raser ' 
dressings. This has proved to be a most judicious regulation, for of all the arrange- 
ments of the Prussian medical service, that of the corps of the Kranken-tr'ager is the 
most perfect, and ought to be adopted in our service. The way in which these men 
do their work, and the rapidity with which they remove the wounded from the field, are 
most commendable and worthy of imitation. Immediately after an engagement, the 
Sanitiits detachment, which includes a staff of medical officers, the Kranken-triiger, 
and the ambulance waggons, all under the command of a Rittmeister, who is generally 
a Captain in the service, and who has a Lieutenant to assist him, is ordered to advance 
on to the field by the surgeon of the division under Avhose command the whole is 
placed. The stretchers are got out, and the Kranken-trager advance, two men to 
each stretcher, taking a certain direction and a certain line under the command of the 
Rittmeister and his Lieutenant, accompanied by some of the Medical Officers of the 
detachment, to collect the wounded as fast as possible and bring them to the place 
where the waggons have been halted. The surgeons who have remained with the 
waggons proceed to apply the primary dressings and get the wounded into the 
waggons. When the waggons are full they are immediately despatched at a slow and 
steady walk to the nearest house or place which has been designated as a temporary 
hospital, and over which the Geneva flag is immediately hoisted. The ambulance 
waggons are unloaded as quickly as possible and despatched again to the field at a 
rapid pace, and when all the wounded that can be found have been taken off the field the 
line of Kranken-trager is ordered to halt. The mounted officers and non-com- 
missioned officers advance and search along the ditches and hedges, and at intervals 
shout to attract the attention of any wounded men who may haVe fallen out of sight, 
listening also to hear if there is any response. When the wounded arrive at the 
temporary field hospitals they are laid side by side. The surgeons immediately 
proceed to dress the wounds, and tie to a button of every man's coat a small white 
card, on which is written a short description of the wound. If the corps oVarmee has 
to advance the next day, the Sanitats detachment accompanies it, and the wounded The Sanitiits 
are taken over by the field Lazareth of the division which is left in charge. Such ^d**} 1 "^"]*] 
are the provisions for the care and the removal of the wounded from the field to the Lazareth. 
field hospital, and from the field hospital to the more permanent hospital in the rear in 
the German Army — the most systematising army in the world. In our own army 
since the Crimean War, an Army Hospital Corps has been formed, or rather it has 
received a new constitution. It numbers about 1,000 men in its ranks ; a proportion of 
these are trained hi the duties of carrying and tending the wounded in the field 
itself and in the hospital subsequently, but no regimental system has hitherto been 



Sources 
through 
which aid was 
received. 



24 

provided by which wounded men are collected after a battle and carried to where 
surgical aid can be given them. Perhaps the Germans may be said to systematise to 
too great an extent, even down to the most minute matters, bnt it is difficult to hold 
this opinion in the face of the wonderful success which has everywhere attended 
their military operations. 

It will be seen through the above Report that the Committee were drawn almost 
unintentionally and unconsciously into the discharge of a duty of enormous magnitude 
and responsibility ; the labour and the difficulty which it involved can be understood and 
appreciated by those only who day by day assisted in the business. 

The large amount of the subscriptions, reaching to nearly Three hundred thousand 
pounds, sent by 

899 Auxiliary Committees, 
317 Bankers, 

30 Masonic Lodges, 
139 Concerts, Lectures, &c, 
100 Firms' Staffs of Employes, 

65 Servants' Halls, 
257 Schools, 
172 Regiments, 
30 Ships of War, 
5,824 Congregations and Parishes, 
11,832 Individuals, 

was a heavy responsibility, while the endeavour to apply this vast sum judiciously 
added constantly and painfully to the anxiety. 

The majority of the contributions were made in small and broken sums, extending 
from a thousand pounds down to a few shillings, and frequently little ornaments and 
trinkets were given to be sold for the benefit of the Fund. Articles, consisting of 
small packets of food or clothing, were daily brought into the office, and it has been 
estimated that upwards of eight hundred thousand people sent their gifts in 
money or in kind, through the Society, to the suffering soldiers of France and 
Germany. The stores contributed by the public were sent through 

224 Branch Committees. 

250 Collections, Parochial, Congregational, and various, in towns and counties,. 
69 Schools and Asylums. 
3,974 Individuals. 
380 Anonymous Contributors. 



Acknowledg 
merits i>l 
Bervicee ren 

1 by 
Rail ■ a] 
Companies. 



The Committee never made any appeal to the liberality of the public ; what was 
given was spontaneously given. The funds and the gifts which were entrusted to the 
Committee were administered bearing in mind that the legitimate functions of the 
Society were of a subsidiary character, to assist in certain cases the efforts which the 
Governments and peoples of France and Germany were making for the relief of their own 
sick and wounded soldiers. To have undertaken generally duties of a wider extent 
would have been to go beyond what were understood to be the proper duties of the 
Society, and would have involved expenditure beyond even the limits of our Fund. 
The Committee believe that they have saved lives, mitigated sufferings, and 
carried assistance and comfort which would not otherwise have reached them to 
thousands of sick and wounded in every stage and degree of their misery. They 
therefore venture to hope that they have thus far done their duty, and faithfully 
fulfilled the intentions of their subscribers. 

The Committee take this opportunity to offer their public acknowledgments and 
thanks to the various Railway Companies — viz., the South-Eastern, South-Western, 
London Brighton and South Coast, London Chatham and Dover, Great Eastern, 
and London and North-Western — which have conveyed their agents, as well as boxes 
and bales, to an immense extent, both in number and weight, without charge, and 



25 

in other respects have rendered valuable assistance to the Society. Their warm 
acknowledgments are also due to those who acted as Forwarding Agents, and who 
gratuitously devoted much time and labour to facilitating the transit of the Society's 
consignments, and thus materially contributed to the successful prosecution of its 
work. 

In conclusion, the Committee would gratefully record their high sense of the 
invaluable services they have received from their representatives and agents abroad, 
whose practical ability and judicious exertions enabled them to arrive at results which 
might have been sought in vain from persons working under rigid rules or strictly 
regulated procedure, guided by authorities at home. 

The Committee are much indebted to Dr. Sutherland for having undertaken the 
very arduous task of reading through the enormous manusci'ipt correspondence of the 
Society, and for furnishing the valuable Memorandum on the practical points relating 
to the Society's position and work which appears in the Appendix to this Report. 

The Committee have only further to add that, having faithfully endeavoured to 
administer the trust which the public reposed in them, they now express their earnest 
hope that this statement of their proceedings will be satisfactory to those who so 
liberally aided them in the undertaking, amongst whom they would especially wish to 
mention the Local Committees of the Society, established in various parts of the 
country. 

A General. Meeting of the Society will be held on the 1st of August at Willis's 
Rooms, when the disposal of the surplus fund remaining in the hands of the Committee 
will be determined upon. 

By order of the Committee, 

R. LOYD-LINDSAY, Lieut. -Col, 

Chairman of Committee, 
July 25, 1871, 



E 



BRITISH NATIONAL SOCIETY FOR 



ir. 



STATEMENT OF RECEIPTS AND EXPENDITURE 



£ s - d - 

To Subscriptions from various contributors, being estimated at about one 

hundred thousand in number 294,455 J 5 IC * 

„ Proceeds of Stores, horses, waggons, and other transport material sold 

on cessation of the present active operations of the Society 2 >473 2 ° 




,£296,928 17 10 



AID TO SICK AND WOUNDED. IN WAR. 



FROM JULY 20, 1870, TO MARCH 31, 1871. 



€x. 



£ s. d. £ s. d. 

By Transport Service, including purchase and hire 
of horses, vehicles, and forage, stable expenses, 
repairs, packing and carriage of stores, removal of 
Sick and Wounded, &c 21,705 11 4 

„ Food for Sick and Wounded, including medical 

comforts, viz., wines, spirits, &c 2 7A7 2 I0 " 3 

„ Medical Stores, including hospital furniture and 
fittings, disinfectants, and all surgical appliances 
except instruments 



Surgical Instruments 
Clothing and Bedding 
Buildings for Hospitals and Stores 



7,866 


9 


7 


8,090 


7 


10 


28,971 


i7 


4 


2,1 II 


1 


9 



Staff Allowance and Expenses abroad, including 
pay of Surgeons, Dressers, Lay Agents, and all 
other persons in the employment of the Society,, 
such as infirmiers, drivers, grooms, messengers^ 
porters, &c, amounting to at least 400 23,845 10 11 

Grants to Aid Societies, Ambulances, &c. : 

To Germany, including ,£20,000 by Colonel 

Loyd-Lindsay 41,010 16 1 

To France, including ,£20,000 by Colonel 

Loyd-Lindsay 41,108 10 8 

To Society's Agents for distribution amongst 
various public hospitals and private estab- 
lishments, French and German ... 7,779 6 1 

■— . 89,898 12 10 

Salaries and Wages, London , 2,086 16 7 

London Office Expenses, and Printing, Stationery* 
Advertisements, Postages, Telegrams ...... 8,627 5 7 

Miscellaneous Expenses, including loss by exchange 
into foreign money, banking commissions and 
charges, insurance on specie, fees and small 
gratuities to officials on the Continent, rents of 
headquarters offices abroad, and all sundry and 
petty expenses not classed under preceding divi- 
sions „ 3,040 3 2 



223,716 13 2 
Balance at Bankers' 73,212 4 8 



.£296,928 17 10 



R. LOYD-LINDSAY, Lieut.-Col., 

Chairman of Committee. 



28 



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O 


G 


o 




03 
X 


3 


'3 


u 


Pu 










o 

X 

H 



' '2 

5 CONTAINS ! ;] 'K AND WOUNDED SOLDIERS TO 
WHOMAID MAS ! I N BY THE BRITISH NATIONAL SOCIETY. FROM THE 
DEPOT AI ARLON (N.E.DIE I )EROM SEPT I st TO NOV" 8 th 1870. 




N°3 

MAP SHOWING THE PLACES CONTAINING SICK AND WOUNDED SOLDIERS TO 

WHOMAID WAS GIVEN BY THE BRITISH NATIONAL SOCIETY FROM THE DEPOT 

AT SAARBRUCKEN (N.E DISTRICT FROM SEPT R 29 TH I870 TO MARCH 3I ST I87I 




Drawn & Engraved, by James Wyld. Geographer to the Queen, 457 Strand. &R &12 Charing 



N°4 

RAP SHOWING THE PLACES CONTAINING SICKAND WOUNDED SOLDIERS TO 

WH( M AID WAS GIVEN BY THE BRITISH NATIONAL SOCIETY EROM THE SUB 

-DEPOT AT BRIEY [NR. DISTRICT; EROM AU C ST 30 TH TO DEC R 16™ I87Q 




Drawn. & Engraved, by James Wylal, Geographer to the Queert,, 457 S'tranaZ, &11 &1? Ckaruic? Cross. 



W 5 



MAP SHOWG THE PLACES CONTAINING SICKAND WOUNDED SOLDIERS TO 

WHOM AID WAS OWEN BY TEIE BRITISH NATIONAL SOCIETY. FROM THE SUB- 

-DEPOTAT REMILLY (NE. DISTRICT) FROM SEPT R 29™ TO NOV R 30™ 1870. 




OS W ~15 20 3S 



'Dranm. & Engraved by James WylcL. Geographer to the Queen, 457 'Strand, &11&12 Charing Cross. 



N°6 



MAP SHOWING THE PLACES CONTAINING SICK ANN WOUNLEE .■ ■: COPY 

TO WHOM AID FAS GIVEN BY THE BRITISH NATIONAL SOCIETY, FROM THY 

DEPOT AT METZ ( N.E. DISTRICT) EROM NOV R I st TO DEC R 12™ 1870 




Zh-aivn. & Engraved, by James Wyld, Geographer to tfie Queen.. 457 SlJ-and, &H ,£■ 12 L hevrvw Cross 



W7 



MAP SHOWING THE PLACES CONTAINING SICKAND Wi >UNDED SOLDIERS TO "WHOM AID WAS GIVEN BT THE BRITISH NATIONAL SOCIETY 
PROM THE DEfOTAI MEAUX ( N.E. DISTRICT) PROM NOV 24 th 1870 10 FEB Y 22 NO 1871. 




French lfilnmelres 



Drawn & 'Enuravecl by James Wyld. Geography to the Queen, 457 Strand, £11 £12 Charing Crnss. 



N° 8 



MAP SHOWING THE PLACES CONTAINING SICKAND WOUNDED SOLDIERS 
TO WHOMAIB WAS GIVEN BY CHE BRITISH NATIONAL SOCIETY.- FROM THE 
)EPOTAT VESOUL (N.E. DISTRICT) LOGO MARCH 2 n - d T0 APRIL 8 th I87S 




Ili^cavn 3- Enprca'ed. hv James Wyld. Geogntplier to the Queai. 4.57 Strand, &11&12 Ckarmg Cross. 



N°9 



MAP SHOWING THE PLACES CONTAINING SICKAND WOUNDED SOLDIERS TC 
WHOMAID WAS GIVEN BY THE BRITISH NATIONAL SOCIETY FROM THE DEPOT 
AT BOULOGNE (N DISTRICT; FROM SEPT R 13 th 1870 APRIL 3i ST 1871 




Drawn & Engraved, by James Wyld. Geographer to tlie Queen, 457 Strand. &11&12 Charing £h s ?, 



N°10 

MAP SHOWING THE PLACES CONTAINING- SICKAND WOUNDED SOLDIERS TO 

"WHOM AID WAS GIVEN BY THE BRITISH NATIONAL SOCIETY. FROM THE SUB 

DEPOT AT AMIENS (N. DISTRICT) EROM 0CT R I6 TH 1870 TO MARCH 3I ST I87I 




Drawn & Evprcued by James Wyld, GeognrpJur to the Queen 467 Strand, &U3-12 Ckarirw Cross. 



N° 11 

MAP SHOWING THE PUCES CONTAINING SICK AND WOUNDED SOLDIERS TO 
WHOM AID WAS GIVEN BY THE BRITISH NATIONAL SOCIETY: FROM THE 
DEPOT AT TOURS (W. DISTRICT) PROM OCT R 18™ 1870. TO MARCH 18 th 1871. 




Drmvn '& Engraved by James Wyld., Geographer to the Queen, 467 Strand, &11 £12 Charing Cross. 



N°12 

MAP SHOWING PUCES N THE N¥ OF FRANCE CONTAINING SICKAND WOUNDE! 
SOLDIERS TO WHOM AID WAS GIVEN BY THE BRITISH NATIONAL SOCIETY 
FROM THE SUB -DEPOT AT S T MALO FROM JANM™ TO APRIL 10™ 1871. 




Drcwm & Engraved by Jarrces Wyld. Geograp~he>- to the Queen. 457 Strand. £12 £12 Charing O 



N°13 

MAP SHOWING THE PLACES CONTAINING SICKAND WOUNDED SOLDIERS TO 

WHOM AID WAS GIVEN BY THE BRITISH NATIONAL SOCIETY FROM THE DEPOT 

AT VERS AILLESfc. DISTRICT) EROM OCT? I st 1870. TO MAY 31 ST 1871. 



/ 

Berncw 



Verrion 




S*Garmain;~, 
leChesnay^, 

Jov 



>. 



Da 



^ 



MdrribozaJIetj. 



Ckc 



irpcyoi 






v__ 



?Mo~rta/pie/ 



CauTviZie, 



jQ-wpb 



Qmcpes 



/No gent 
'leHoirozc 



A^xg trviLTeh 




lesherb esx 



I'lihi'viert 



rtnenoiv 




DraMpzde EngraxeeL hy James Jtfyld, Geographer to the Qiuten. 457 Strand, &11&12 Lkarrn/j £h>$$. 



MAP SHOWING THE MOVEMENTS OF THE WOOLWICH AMBULANCE AND 
THE PLACES IN WHICH WOUNDED WERE TREATED BETWEEN 
OCT" 13" 1870 AND MARCH 14™ 1871. 




A . Dirt scon 



'Movement of the entirt • Amhidance in i/ouuf -and retwnuuq i^H. 
V etn ■■- B . Division **!L_ C . Dwision 



red 



29 



APPENDIX A. 



LIST OF MAPS TO ILLUSTRATE THE REPORT. 



5. 

G. 

7. 

8. 

9. 
10. 
11. 
12. 
13. 
14. 



General. Showing places to which aid in money or stores has been sent by the Society 

direct from Loudon. 
Arlon. ""] 

Saarbriicken. I 
Briey. J 

JJemilly. } Showing places aided in Captain Brackcnbury's district from these depots. 

Metz. 
Meaux. 
Vesoul. 
Boulogne. 7 
Amiens. ) 

Tours. Showing places aided in Colonel Elphinstone's district. 
St. Malo. ., „ by Captain Harvey. 

Versailles. ,, „ by Mr. Furley. 

Showing places in which wounded were treated bj r the "Woolwich Ambulance. 



J 



Showing places aided in Sir V. Eyre's district from these depots. 



1. CENEBAL MAP. 

(Places to which aid in money or stores has been sent direct from St. Martin's Place.) 



.Aachen (Aix la Chapelle). 

Albreitbach. 

Amiens. 

Angers. 

Arcachon. 

Arlon. 

Arras. 

Avesnes. 

Avranches. 

Bad Ems. 

Baden Baden. 

Bagneres de Bigorre. 

Balan. 

Basle. 

Bazeilles. 

Beaugency. 

Bel fort. 

Berlin. 

Biarritz. 

Biebrich. 

Bingen. 

Biscuwiller. 

Bordeaux. 

Bonn. 

Bouillon. 

Boulogne. 

Breslau. 

Brest. 

Briey. 

Brussels. 

Burfcscheid. 

Caen. 

Calais. 

Cambrai. 

Carlsruhe. 

Cassel. 

Chalons. 

Charleville. 

Chemnitz. 

Cherbourg. 

Cleve. 

Coblentz. 

Coburg. 

Cologne. 

Corbeil. 

Darmstadt. 



Dessau. 

Dijon. 

Dierdorf. 

Douai. 

Dresden. 

Diisseldorf. 

Edenkohlen. 

Ehrenbreitstein. 

Epernay. 

Erfurt, 

Eorbach. 

Erankfort (on Main). 

Geneva. 

Givonne. 

Gorlitz (Silesia). 

Gravelotte. 

Granville. 

Hanau. 

Hanover. 

Havre. 
Heidelberg. 
Hesse-Nassau. 
Hirson. 

Homburg. 
Kaiserswerth . 

Kiel. 

Konigswinter. 

Lahnstein. 

Leipsic. 

Le Mans. 

Lille. 

Lisieux. 

Luxembourg. 

Lyons. 

Magdeburg. 

Mannheim. 

Marburg. 

Maubeuge. 

May e nee. 

Meaux. 

Mecklenburg-Strelitz. 

Meiningen. 

Metz. 

Mezieres. 

Minden. 

Moutatairc. 



Montauban. 

Montbijou. 

Munich. 

Nancy. 

Nantes. 

Neufchatel. 

Neufchatel en Bray. 

Neuwied. 

Nice. 

Nuits. 

Orleans. 

Paris. 

Pau. 

Pont-a-Mousson. 

Pont l'Eveque. 

Potsdam. 

Bastadt. 

Bivery. 

Bouen. 

Saarbriicken. 

Saarlouis. 

Sedan. 

Speyer. 

Stettin. 

Strasbourg. 

Stuttgart. 

St. Acheul. 

St. Avoid. 

St. Brieuc. 

St. Denis. 

St. Germain. 

St. Hubert. 

St. Jean de Luz. 

Tours. 

Traarbach . 

Unkel. 

Valenciennes. 

Verneville. 

Versailles. 

Vesoul. 

Waldbreitbach. 

Weimar. 

Wiesbaden. 

AVurzburg (Bavaria). 

Zerbst. 



F 



30 



2. AELON DEPOT— Supplied:- 



Autrecourt. 


Briey (depot). 


La Besace. 


Sedan. 


Balan. 


Buzancy. 


Luzy. 


Saarbriicken 


Bazeilles. 


Bouillon, 


Merzig. 


Stenay. 


Beaumont. 


Carignan. 


Mouzon. 






Douzy. 


Pont Mougy. 





3. SAAEBEUCKEN DEPOT— Supplied :- 



Belfort. 

Burbach. 

Bischwiller. 

Chateau Thierry. 

Diittweiler. 

Epernay. 

Faulquemont (Falkenburg) . 

Eorbach. 

Karlsruhe. 

Kreuznach. 



Louisenthal. 

Marange. 

Meaux. 

Merzig. 

Miilhausen. 

Neudorf. 

Neuenkirchen.. 

Eemilly (depot). 

Saarlouis. 

Saarguemines. 



Sedan. 
St. Avoid. 

St. Johann (suburb of Saar- 
briicken). 
St. Wendel. 
Sulzbach. 
TJnkel. 
Vesoul. 
Yolklingen. 



4. BEIET SUB-DEPOT— Supplied: 



Ainanvilliers. 


Doncourt. 


Moutier. 


Ancy. 


Oorze. 


Eoncourt. 


Ars-sur- Moselle. 


Gravelotte. 


Ste. Marie-aux-Chenes 


Arnaville. 


Jerusalem. 


St. Marcel. 


Auboue. 


Jouaville. 


St. Privat. 


Batilly. 


Malancourt. 


Yerneville. 


Chatel. 


Mars la Tour. 


Vionville. 


Corny. 


Montigny la Grange. 





5. EEMILLY SUB-DEPOT— Supplied:— 



Achatel. 

Argancy. 

Ars Laquenexy. 

Avancy. 


Chesny. 

Cherizy. 

Corny. 

Courcelles Chaussy. 


Hessange. 
Juville. 
Lemud. 
Les Etangs. 


Phlin. 

Pont-a-Mousson, 

Pontoy. 

Eezonville. 


Ay. 


Courcelles sur Nied. 


Louvigny. 


Eichemont. 


Basse Beux. 


Delme. 


Mailly. 


Eombas. 


Bazoncourt. 


Ennery. 


Mainvillers. 


Secourt. 


Berlize. 
Bionville. 


Eaulquemont. 
Gravelotte. 


Maizery. 
Marange. 


St. Avoid. 
St. Barbe. 


Borny. 

Boulay. 

Chailly. 


Grigy. 

Hagondange. 

Hauconcourt. 


Mercy le Haut. 

Metz! 

Moyeuvre la Grande. 


Saury sur Nied. 

Talange. 

Yarize. 


Champey. 

Chatilly. 

Chemery. 


Haute Beux. 
Herny. 


Pauge. 
Peltre. 


Yigy. 
Yionville. 



G. METZ DEPOT— Supplied: 



Ancy sur Moselle. 

Ars Laquenexy. 

Ars sur Moselle. 

Ban St. Martin. 

Basse Guentrange. 

Briey. 

Borny. 

Boulay. 

Champey. 

Courcelles Chaussy. 

Delme. 



Doncourt. 

Etain. 

Eorbach. 

Gorze. 

Hayange. 

Hauconcourt. 

Hessange. 

Dlange. 

Landonvillers. 

Les Etangs. 

Longevillc. 



Mailly. 

Marange. 

Mardigny. 

Marspich. 

Metzervisse. 

Meaux. 

Mondelange. 

Montigny. 

Nancy. 

Neustadt. 

Plappcvillc. 



Pont-a-Mousson. 

Eombas. 

Sablon. 

St. Barbe. 

Ste. Marie-aux-Chenes. 

Sicrck. 

Soults-sous-Forets. 

Talange. 

Thionville. 

Vigy. 



31 



MEAUX DEPOT— Supplied :- 



Andilly. 


Dugny. 


Orly. 


Annet. 


Eaabonne. 


Ormesson. 


Antony. 


Ecouen. 


Paris. 


Aulnay. 


Eraerainville. 


Piscop. 


Beauborg. 


Engbien (or Montmorency). 


Pomponne. 


Bois St. Martin. 


Epernay. 


Pontault. 


Boissy St. Leger. 


Etiolles. 


Pont Carre. 


Bonneuil. 


Ferrieres. 


Bentilly. 


Brie. 


Eresnes. 


Roissy. 


Brie Comte Kobert. 


Eresnes les Rungis. 


Rouen. 


Brou. 


Gonesse. 


St. Brice. 


Brunoy. 


Ignv. 


St. Denis. 


Bussy St. Georges. 


Jossigny. 


St. Germain. 


Bussy St. Martin. 


La Ferte. 


Sarcelles. 


Chanteloup. 


Lagny. 


Sceaux. 


Chantilly. 


La Pompe. 


Sevran. 


Charny. 


La Queue en Brie. 


Souilly. 


Chatenay. 


Le Plessis. 


Sucy en Brie. 


Cbelles. 


Limeil. 


Tborigny. 


Cbennevieres. 


Longjumeau. 


Torcy. 


Choisy sur Seine. 


Maluoue. 


Tournan. 


Claye. 


Margency. 


Valentou. 


Clichy. 


Mauregard. 


Vanjour. 


Collegien. 


Meaux. 


Versailles. 


Combault. 


Melun. 


Vert Galant. 


Corbeil. 


Montfermeil. 


Villeneuve. 


Coulommiers. 


Montigon. 


Villeneuve le Roi. 


Courtry. 


Moussy le Yieux. 


Villeneuve St. George 


Croissy. 


Nanteuil. 


Villers le Bel. 


Dammartin. 


Noiseau. 


Wissous. 


Denil. 


Noisiel. 


Terres. 


Domont. 


Orleans. 





8. VESOUL DEPOT— Supplied:- 



Auxonne. 


Errevet. 


Noroy. 


Baume-les-Dames. 


Esprels. 


Ornans. 


Belfort. 


Frotey. 


Pontallier. 


Besancon. 


Giromagny. 


Pontarlier. 


Blamont. 


Gray. 


Port-sur-Saone. 


Calmoutier. 


Hericourt. 


Bioz. 


Colombier. 


L'Isle-sur-Doubs. 


Bougemont. 


Chaumont. 


Luxeuil. 


St. Hippolyte. 


Clerval. 


Lure. 


St. Loup. 


Danuemarie. 


Montbeliard. 


St. Sulpice. 


Dijon. 


Montbozon. 


Villersexel. 


Dole. 


Morteau. 


Villecbevreux. 




9. BOULOGNE DEPOT- 


-Supplied : — 


Abbeville. 


Fort Nieulay. 


Nonancourt. 


Aixla Cbapelle. 


Fruges. 


Orleans. 


Alencon. 


Gace. 


Oucby. 


Amiens. 


Gravelines. 


Paimboeuf. 


Argentan. 


Guines. 


Paris. 


Arras. 


Havre. 


Peronne. 


Artenay. 


Hazebrouck. 


Pont l'Eveque^ 


Avesnes. 


Hirson. 


Bastadt. 


Bayeux. 


Hochfelden. 


Beicbstadt. 


Bazeilles. 


Landrecy. 


Boubaix. 


Beauvais. 


Laon. 


Bouen. 


Bischwiller. 


Lisieux. 


Saarlouis. 


Blois. 


Marils (pres Busigny). 


Sedan. 


Boulogne. 


Maubeuge. 


Sept Fontaine. 


Caen. 


Minden. 


Soissons. 


Calais. 


Mezieres. 


Somain. 


Cambrai. 


Le Cateau Cambresis. 


Strasbourg. 


Charleville. 


Le Mans. 


St. Micbel. 


Corbie. 


Le Mazis. 


St. Omer. 


Creil. 


Lille. 


St. Pierre les Calais 


Doncbery. 


Mer. 


Tours. 


Douai. 


Mont de Marsan. 


Versailles. 


Dreux. 


Montmirail. 


Valenciennes. 


Dunkirk. 


Nantes. 


Vaudrevange, 


Fismes. 


Nanteuil. 


Vaucelles. 


Ere vent. 







F 2 



32 





10. AMIENS 


SUB-DEPOT— Supplied :— 




Acheux. 


Chauuy. 


Heueucourt. 


Querrieux. 


Achiet. 


Clermont. 


Hervilly. 


Quiezy. 


Ailly sur Somme. 


Corbie. 


La Eere. 


Bivery. 


Albert. 


Cottenchy. 


La Iloussoye. 


Boupy. 


Allonville. 


Dammartin. 


Marcelcave. 


Eoye. 


Bapaume. 


Doullens. 


Masnieres. 


Sains. 


Beauvoir. 


Dury. 


Montdidier. 


Salouel. 


Bertangle. 


Ervillers. 


Montataire. 


Silaux. 


Boutillerie. 


Essigny le Grraud 


Montescourt. 


Savy. 


Boves. 


Eaucaucourt. 


Morcuil. 


Soissons. 


Breteuil. 


Erauvilliers. 


Moutiores. 


St. Acheul. 


Cachy. 


Erechencourt. 


Le Paraclet. 


St. Just. 


Caigny. 


Eormerie. 


Peronne. 


St. Quentiu. 


Catelet, 1c. 


Gentilles. 


Petit St. Jeans. 


Tertry. 


Caulincourt. 


Grugis. 


Pont de Metz. 


Vermand. 


Cercamp. 


Ham. 


Pont Noyelles. 


Yillers Bretonneux 


Chantilly. 


Hebecourt. 


Quesnel. 


Villers-Cotterets. 



11. TOUKS DEPOT— SuppHed: 



Amboise. 

Beaumont la Bonce. 

Bourgueil. 

Chateauregnaul t. 

Chinon. 

Cinq Mars. 

Fondettes. 

Langeais. 

Larcay. 

Mettray. 

Monnaie. 

Montbazon. 

Noizay. 

Eochecorbon. 

St. Avertin. 

St. Symphorien. 

Vernou. 

Vouvray. 

Auxerre. 

Joigny. 

St. Elorentin. 

Villeneuve sur Tonne 

Alencon. 

Le Mans. 

Change. 

La Chartre. 

Le Grand Luce. 

Parigne l'Eveque 

St. Vincent. 
Aubigny. 
Bourges. 
Blois. 
Cbaumont. 
Chouzy. 
Herbault. 
Mer. 

St. Amand. 
Vendome. 



J- Indre et Loire. 



Yonnc. 



Vicinity of 
Le Mans. 



Cher. 



Y Loir et Cher 



-. 



Aubigny. 
Artenay. 
Baccon. 
Beaugency. 
Beaune-la-Bolande. 
Coulmiers. 
Gien. 
Janville. 
Meung. 
Orleans. 
Puiseaux. 
Chartres. 
Cbateaudun. 
Janville. 
Juvisy. 

May-en Multien. 
Bis". 

Orangis. 
Tournan. 
Loudun. 
Poitiers. 
Montlucon. 
Nevers. 
Angers. 
Dax. 
Sartbe. Dijon. 
Eysse. 
Laval. 
Lyon. 

Montflauquin. 
Nantes. 
Pau. 
Paris. 
Beims. 
St. Brieuc. 
V illeneuve-sur-Lot. 



\- Loirel. 



Eure et Loir. 



Seine et Oise. 



) v 



lenne. 



12. NOETH-WESTEEN OB ST. MALO DISTEICT. 

Places visited and aided by Captain C. L. Harvey or Mr. Dowling. 



Angers. 


Chatellerault 


Auray. 


Cherbourg. 


Avranches. 


Cholct. 


Belle Isle. 


Combourg. 


Brest. 


Craon. 


Bricquebcc. 


Granville. 


Caen. 


Laval. 


Carenton. 


Le Mans. 


Chateau Gonticr. 


Lorient. 



Mayenne. 

Montcbourii;. 

Morlaix. 

Nantes. 

Napcleonville. 

Niort. 

Poitiers. 

Port Louis. 

Quimper. 



Bedon. 

Bonnes. 

Savcnay. 

St. Brieuc. 

St. Malo. 

St. Sauvcur le Vioomtc. 

Valognes. 

Vanncs. 



33 



13. VEESAILLES DEPOT— Supplied :- 



Argenteuil. 

Beaugency. 

Belleme. 

Brie Comte Robert. 

Buc. 

Cbampigny. 

Chartres. 

Chatenay. 

Chaville. 

Chenay. 

Colombes. 

Connem'. 

Corbeil. 

Courbevoie. 

Ecouen. 

Etiolles. 

Garcbes. 



Gonesse. 

Jouey. 

Lagny. 

La Ferte Bernard. 

Le Mans. 

Mass) r . 

Montmorency. 

Nanterre. 

Orleans. 

Paris : 

Hospitals of tbe Erench 
tional Society. 

Ambulance de la Presse. 

College Chaptal. 

Intendance Militaire. 

Luxembourg Palace. 
&c. &c. 



Parigne l'Eveque. 
Puteaux. 
Rueil. 
St. Calais. 
St. Cloud. 
St. Cyr. 
St. Denis. 
St. Germain. 
Sceaux. 
Sevres. 
Na- Vaucresson. 
Versailles. 
Yille d'Avray. 
Yillejuif. 



14. MOVEMENTS OE THE WOOLWICH AMBULANCE. 

(The names of places where a prolonged halt was made to tend wounded are given in italics.) 



Havre. 
Bouen. 



St. Pierre. 
Louvier. 



Vernon. 
Mantes. 



Maule. 

St. Germain (Head- 
Quarters). 



A Diyisiok. 

(Under charge of Deputy Inspector-General Thomas Guy, M.D. 

subsequently assumed charge.) 



St. Germain. 

Versailles. 

Longjumeau. 

Montlhery. 

Monnerville. 

Angerville. 

Toury. 

Janville. 

Pithiviers. 



Beaune la HolanJe. 

Pithiviers. 

Malesherbes. 
Eaye aux Loges. 
Orleans. 
Mer. 
Blois. 

Tours. 
Moisv. 



Chateaudun. 

Bonneval. 

Chartres. 

Eambouillet. 

Versailles. 

St. Germain. 

Versailles. 

Houdan. 



Staff-Surgeon Jameson 



Dreux. 

Chateauneuf. 

La Loupe. 

La Eerte Bernard. 

Connerre (Chateau 

Breteau). 
Le Mans. 



B DlYISIOK. 

Left St. Germain 12th November, under command of Surgeon Manley, V.C. 

charge of Staff-Surgeon Ball.) 



Afterwards under 



St. Germain. 


Nogent le Botrou. 


Coulmier. 


Vendome. 


Bambouillet. 


Authon. 


Beaugency. 


St. Calais. 


Chartres. 


Chateau Caille, or Co 


- Oucques. 


Bouloire. 


Marville les Bois. 


chardie (nr. Brou). 


Cloyes sur le Loir. 


Le Mans. 


Chateauneuf. 


Aujonvillc. 


Meslay la Vidame. 


Savigne l'Eveque. 


La Loupe. 


Immonville. 


Chartres. 


Change. 


Bretoncelle. 


Champilory. 


Arthenay. 


Le Mans. 


Berdhuis. 


Auneux. 


Meung. 


Connerre. 


Belleme. 


Bagneux. 


Oucques. 


Le Mans. 




C Division. 




(Left St. Germain 


12th Nov. under Charge 


of Staff-Surgeon Ball. 


Afterwards under charge 




of Staff-Si 


irgeon Wiles.) 




St. Germain. 


JB eaten e la Iiolande. 


Chartres. 


Connerre. 


Chevreuse. 


Eaye aux Logos. 


Bambouillet. 


Le Mans. 


Dour dan. 


Orleans. 


St. Germains. 


La Eleche. 


Escobelle. 


Meung. 


Houdan. 


Ecommoy. 


Anrjerville. 


Jilois. 


Chateauneuf. 


La Breil. 


Janville. 


Chateaudun. 


Nogent. 


Le Mans. 


Pithiviers. 









34 



LIST OF THE SOCIETY'S AGENTS. 



NOBTH-EASTEEN DISTBICT (see Maps 2 to 8). 



Name. 



Brackenbury, H. (Capt. E.A.) 



Anderson, Alfred 
Andresen, Aug. F. 
Aubin, Duret (M.D.) . . 
Beck, Marcus (M.B.) . . 
Bennett, F. G. . . 

Bingley, E 

Blewitt, Byron 
Blok, M. ' 
Bovill, Edward 
Boylan, J. D. 
Bushnan, J. C. . . 
Busbnan, Earn say 
Butler, Eev. W. J. 
Capel, Hon. Eeginald . . 
Cbapman, W. D. 
Chater, Sidney 
Clark, Hugb (M.D.) . . 
Connolly, B. B. (M.B.) 
Crooksbank, H. . . 
Dorin, Arthur 
Duke, Douglas 
Duncan, A. S. . . 

Engelbardt, E 

Frank, Philip (M.D.) . . 



Gildea, James (Captain Warwick 
Militia) 

Grant, A. S. 

Hall, Geoffrey C 

Hardwick, W. 

Harris, E. W 

Herdman, W. S. 

Hewett, Fred 

Hinton, W. C. (late Lt. 25th 
Begt.) 

Hirschfeld, J. C 

Hunter, Sir Paul, Bt. 

Hutchings, E. H. 

Inglis, James 

Junker de Langegg, F. (M.D.) . 



James, Ealph N. 

Jerningham, A. F. 

Jeune, J. F. 

Job, J. Eobarts 

Kane, William (M.D.) . . 

Kane, Henry 

Kennett, Vincent B. 

Le Cren, James D. 

Lee, H. Austin 

Lewis, James 

Ligbtfoot, Eobert (M.D.) 

Lloyd, E. H 

Lungley, Frank 
Lyman, A. B. 
Lyman, W. W. 
Mansfield, F 

Markbeim, Alf. 
MacCormac, W. 

Mcintosh, John.. 

Murray, John (M.D.) . . 



Capacity in which employed. 



Chief of BT. E. District. 
Head-quarters : Brussels, 
Arlon, Saarbruck, Metz, 
Meaux. 



Storekeeper — Arlon, Metz . . 
Convoy agent 
Surgeon — Chalons 

„ — Sedan 

„ — Eemilly 
Storekeeper — Arlon, Metz . . 
Surgeon — Sedan, Epernay 
Dresser — Aix-la-Chapelle 

,, — Saarbriicken 
Storekeeper and Convoy agent 
Chief of Saarbriicken depot . . 
Chief of Metz depot 
On special service 
Chief of Arlon depot 
Convoy agent — Eemilly, &c. . 
Surgeon — Douzy, Balan 

,, ■ — Sedan 

,, — Beaumont, Briey . . 
Dresser — Balan, Epernay 

,, — Hanau 

,, — Saarbriicken 
Surgeon — Sedan 
Transit agent — Luxembourg . . 
Surgeon — Anglo-American 
Ambulance and Chief of Hos- 
pitals at Balan and Epernay . 



Storekeeper — Saarbriicken 
Storekeeper — Charleviile 
Dresser — Saarbriicken 
Surgeon, on special service 
Storekeeper — Saarbriicken 
Dresser — Briey, &c. . . 
,, — Sedan 

Convoy agent 
Surgeon — Briey, &c. . . 
On special service 

Dresser — Beaumont, &c. 
„ — Saarbriicken 

Surgeon of Saarbriicken Hos 
pital 

Storekeeper — Balan . . 

Storekeeper — Arlon . . 

Convoy agent 

Convoy agent 

Surgeon — Saarbriicken 

Dresser — Sedan 

Convoy agent 

Storekeeper — Forbacb 

Chief of Eemilly depot 

Surgeon — Versailles, &c. 
„ — Saarbriicken 
,, — Bazeilles, &c. 

Dresser — Briey, &c. . . 
„ —Briey, &c. . . 

Storekeeper — Arlon . . 

Clerk to Dr. Frank's Am 
bulance 

Surgeon — Sedan, &c. . . 
„ — Anglo-American 
Ambulance 

Dresser (deceased) — Saar- 
briicken 

Surgeon, on special service 



During what period. 



3 September, 1870, to 
31 January, 1871. 



30 Sep. 1870, to April 14, 1871. 
14 Aug. to Sep. 15, 1870. 
11 Aug. 1870, to 31 Jan. 1871. 
8 Sep. to 12 Oct. 1870. 

11 Oct. to 12 Nov. 1870. 
8 Sep. to 23 Dec. 1870. 

20 Aug. 1870, to 26 Feb. 1871. 
24 Aug. 1870 to 27 Feb. 1871. 

12 Oct. to 20 Dec. 1870. 

7 Oct. 1870, to 29 Mar. 1871. 
24 Sep. 1870 to 31 Mar. 1871. 
24 Sep. 1870 to 20 Jan. 1871. 
20 Sep. to 19 Oct. 1870. 
3 Sep. to 30 Nov. 1870. 
23 Sep. 1870, to 17 Jan. 1871. 

1 Sep. to 7 Nov. 1870. 
7 Sep. to 15 Oct. 1870. 

2 Sep. to 27 Dec. 1870. 

2 Sep. 1870, to 8 Feb. 1871. 
20 Aug. to 17 Dec. 1870. 
12 Oct. to 12 Nov. 1870. 

3 Sep. to 24 Oct. 1870. 

14 Sep. 1870, to Mar. 1871. 



20 Aug. 1870, to 24 Feb. 1871 

30 Sep. to 31 Oct. 1870. 

12 Sep. to 26 Dec. 1870. 

21 Oct. to 31 Dec. 1870. 
7 Sep. to 4 Oct. 1870. 

15 Oct. 1870, to 27 Mar. 1871. 
14 Sep. 1870 to 22 Jan. 1871. 
28 Aug. 1870 to 19 Jan. 1871. 

27 Sep. 1870 to 13 April, 1871. 
17 Sep. to 1 Nov. 1870. 

3 Sep. to 11 Oct. 1870. 

7 Sep. 1870, to 16 Jan. 1871. 
6 Sep. 1870, to 31 Dec. 1870. 

13 Sep. to 31 Dec. 1870. 

14 Sep. to 11 Nov. 1870. 

22 Sep. to 11 Oct. 1870. 

11 Nov. 1S70 to 4 Mar. 1871. 

9 Sep. 1870, to 10 Mar. 1871. 
13 Oct. to 20 Dec. 1870. 

28 Aug. to 28 Nov. 1870. 

13 Oct. 1870, to 12 April, 187L 

8 Oct. 1870, to 8 Mar. 1871. 

23 Sep. to 8 Nov. 1870. 

11 Oct. to 17 Dec. 1870. 
8 Oct. to 28 Nov. 1870. 

1 Sep. 1870, to 3 Jan. 1871. 

12 Oct.1870. to 11 Mar. 1871. 
27 Aug. to 10 Dec. 1870. 

8 Sep. to 19 Oct. 1870. 

8 Oct. 1870, to 19 Jan. 1871. 
1 Sep. to 24 Nov. 1870. 

25 Aug. to 17 Oct. 1870. 

10 Oct. to 23 Nov. 1870. 
22 Sep. to 7 Oct. 1870. 



Name. 



Nevill, Eicbard (late Captain 
Imp. Eoy. Austrian Army) . . 
Norman, W. F. . . 

Norton, A. T 

Parker, E. W 

Porter, Eev. Eeginald (M.A.) . . 

Pratt, W. S 

Preston, Aug. E. E. 
Eawson, 0. W. . . 

Eyan, Chas. 

Eeeves, H. A. . . 

Eettich, Alexander 

Eodger, Jas. (M.B.) 

Eugg, Poster 

Eussell, J. Cecil (Capt. 10th 

Hussars) 
Sandwith, Humphry (M.D.,C.B.) 
Sartoris, Charles 
Sauvage, Eugene 
Scott, John 

Scbodts, W 

Sewill, H 

Smith, H. B. L 

Smith, Thos. E 

Sutherland, Stewart 

Thomas, G. D. P 

Thomas, P. A 

Tyler, W.J 

Walker, J. E 

Ward, W 

Warriner, Geo. ^ . 

Watson, W. G 

Webb, W. Woodham (M.D.) . . 

Wethered, T. A 

Williams, John. P. 

Wood, Hon. C. L 

Wyman, John . . 

Lady Nurses. 

Alsager, Mrs. 

Barclay, Miss E. A 

All Saints — Lady Superior 

„ Sister Catherine . . 

„ „ Cecilia 

„ „ Charlotte . . 

„ ,, Eliza 

ft » Emily 

„ „ Helen 

,, j, Mary Ann . . 

,, „ Eosamund . . 

Capel, Hon. Mrs. 

Chater, Mrs. Amable 

Goodman, Miss Margaret 

Holteman, Mrs. 

Hornby, Miss 

Mason, Mrs. 

McLaughlin, Miss 

Neligan, Miss 

Pearson, Miss 



Commissionaires, Sfc. 
Barrett, Francis. . 
Bertrand 
Carty, Thomas 
Connell, John 
Cowell, Thomas 
Laws, Edward 
Lee, Michael 
Love, Joseph 
McKeown, Andrew 
Norris, John 
Sonder, Christian 
Willis, Clement 



Capacity in which employed. 



Chief of Meaux and Vesoul 

depots 
Convoy agent 
Surgeon — Briey 

„ — Anglo-American 

Ambulance 
Chaplain-storekeeper — Balan . 
Dresser — Metz 
Surgeon — Bazeilles, &c. 
Storekeeper — Briev, Meaux, 

&c 

Dresser — Anglo-American 

Ambulance 
Surgeon 

Transit agent — Metz, &c. 
Surgeon — Saarbriicken 
Dresser — Arlon 

Convoy agent . . ,T 

Surgeon on special service 
Storekeeper — Sedan 
Infirmier — Balan 
Surgeon — Sedan 
Transit agent — Conz, &c. 
Surgeon — Briey 
Dresser — Pont-a-Mousson 
Clerk — Saarbriicken 
Convoy agent 
Surgeon — Chalons, &e. 

,, — Balan 
District paymaster and secre- 
tary .. . 
Surgeon — Saarbriicken, &c. . . 

„ —Metz 
Storekeeper — Arlon 
Dresser — Bazeilles, &c. 
Surgeon — Sedan, Metz. 

„ — Saarbriicken 
Convoy agent 

Superintendent of hospital 
orderlies and nurses at Sedan 
Surgeon — Sedan, &c. 



During what period. 



Nurse — Saarbriicken 
— Sedan 
—Balan.. 
— Balan. . 
— Balan. . 
— Saarbriicken 
— Balan, Epernaj' 
— Balan. . 

— Sedan, Saarbriicken 
— Balan, Epernay 
— Saarbriicken . . 
— Bazeilles, &c. 
— Douzy, Bazeilles 
— Balan, Carignan 
— Sedan 
—Metz . . 
— Sedan 
— Sedan 

— Bazeilles, Metz 
— Sedan 



Commissionaire 

Courier 

Commissionaire 



Transport foreman 
Commissionaire 
Transport foreman 
Commissionaire 



Courier 
Commissionaire 



11 Nov. 1870, to 13 April, 1871. 

22 Sep. 1870, to 29 Mar. 1871. 

26 Aug. to 1 Oct. 1870. 

15 Aug. to 14 Oct. 1870. 

20 Sep. to 11 Oct. 1870. 
11 Aug. to 21 Nov. 1870. 

13 Oct. to 11 Nov. 1870. 

21 Sep. 1870, to 11 April, 1871. 

2S Aug. to Oct. 1870. 

21 Aug. to 3 Oct. 1870. 

11 Sept. 1870, to 8 April, 1871. 

9 Sep. to 22 Oct. 1870. 
3 Sep. to 31 Oct. 1870. 

14 Nov. to 1 Dec. 1870. 

20 Aug. to 29 Sep. 1870. 

15 Sep. to 17 Oct. 1870. 

23 Sep. to 15 Oct. 1870. 
28 Aug. to 15 Oct. 1870. 

10 Sep. to 20 Dec. 1870. 

27 Aug. to 22 Sep. 1870. 
18 Aug. to 7 Nov. 1870. 

9 Sep. 1870, to 3 April, 1871. 

24 Sep. 1870, to 15 Mar. 1851. 
15 Aug. to 27 Oct. 1870. 

3 Sep. to 26 Oct. 1870. 

24 Sep. 1870, to 29 Mar. 1871. 
6 Sep. 1870, to 8 Feb. 1871. 

11 Aug. to 22 Nov. 1870. 

21 Sep. to 30 Sep. 1870. 
3 Sep. to 7 Dec. 1870. 

28 Aug. 1870, to 8 Feb. 1871. 
13 Oct. to Dec. 1870. 

30 Sep. to 14 Oct. 1870. 
During Sep. 1870. 

28 Aug. 1870, to 8 Feb. 1871. 



15 Sep. to 31 Dec. 1870. 
Sep. and Oct. 1870. 
17 Sep. 1870, to 19 Jan. 1871. 
20 Sep. 1870, to 19 Jan. 1S71. 

20 Sep. 1870, to 19 Jan. 1871. 

21 Oct. to 21 Nov. 1870. 

17 Sep. 1870, to 19 Jan. 1871. 
17 Sep. to 21 Nov. 1870. 
17 Sep. to 21 Nov. 1870. 
17 Sep. 1870, to 19 Jan. 1871. 
17 Sep. to 21 Nov. 1870. 
3 Sep. to 25 Nov. 1870. 
1 Sep. to 7 Nov. 1870. 
20 Sep. to 7 Nov. 1870. 
15 Aug. to 17 Oct. 1870. 
7 Dec. 1870 to 13 Feb. 1871. 
15 Aug. to 10 Oct. 1870. 
15 Aug. to 27 Oct. 1870. 
15 Aug. 1870, to 13 Feb. 1871. 
15 Aug. to 27 Oct. 1870. 



27 Sep. to 17 Dec. 1870. 

27 Sep. to 17 Dec. 1870. 
27 Sep. 1870 to 2 Jan. 1871. 
27 Sep. to 31 Oct. 1870. 

13 Oct. to 26 Dec. 1870. 

27 Sep. to 17 Dec. 1870. 
27 Sep. to 19 Dec. 1870. 
21 Sep. 1870, to 31 Jan. 1871. 
13 Oct. 1870, to 19 Jan. 1871. 



36 



NORTHERN OR BOULOGNE DISTRICT (See Maps 9 and 10) . 



Name. 


Capacity in which employed. 


During what period 




Eyre, Major-Gen. Sir Vincent, 


Chief of Northern District. 


22 Aug. 1870, to 




K.C.S.L, C.B. 


Head-quarters : Boulogne. 


31 April, 1871. 




Allatfc, H. T. W. (Lt. 46th Foot) 


Convoy agent 


17 Jan. to 9 Feb. 1871. 




Berington, J. (Lt.-Col., Here- 








ford Militia) 


Chief of Douai Depot. . 


2 Nov. 1870, to 20 April, 


1871. 


Blundell, Jolm 


On special service 


16 Sep. to 1 Oct. 1870. 




Carey, J. Brenton (Lt. h.-p. 3rd 








TV. T. Regt.) 


Convoy agent 


24 Jan. to 10 Feb. 1871. 




Cox, J. TV. (Colonel, C.B.) . . 


Chief of Amiens depot 


12 Oct. 1870, to 31 Mar. 


1871. 


Cox, Mrs. 


Nurse 


)? )) 3) 




Goodenough, Mr. 


Acting as Surgeon 


28 Nov. 1870, to 15 Mar. 


1871. 


Knowles, Charles (Capt., G7th 








Foot) 


Convoy agent 


30 Nov. to 15 Dec. 1S70. 




Leslie, L. G. 


Surgeon 






Lloyd, R. H 




4 Jan. to 31 Mar. 1871. 




Merridevv, II. M 


On special service 


16 Sep. to 1 Oct. 1870. 




Molloy, James 


Convoy agent 


IS Jan. to 13 Mar. 1871. 




TJniacke, Norman F. (late Capt., 








60th Rifles) 


Convov agent 


17 Oct. 1870, to 14 Feb. 


1871. 


Vaillant, M 


Secretary to Boulogne Sub- 








Committee ... 


3 Oct. 1870, to 31 April, 


1871. 


"Wedderburne, C. F. W. (late 








Capt.) 


Convoy agent 


20 Jan. to 31 April, 1871 




"Wilcox, ¥ra. 


;5 5) 


3 Oct. to 31st Oct. 1870. 





TOURS OR WESTERN DISTRICT (See Map 11). 



Elphinstone, Nicholas, C.B. 


Chief of "Western District. 


18 Oct. 1870, to 


(Colonel.) 


Head-quarters : 


Tours. 


31 March, 1871. 


Carey, J. Brenton (Lt., h.-p., 3rd 








TV.I.Regt.) 


Convov agent . . 




7 Dec. to 22 Dec. 1S70. 


Chater, Sidney 


Surgeon 




30 Nov. 1870, to 24 Feb. 1871. 


Chater, Mrs 


Nurse 


• • • • 


30 Nov. 1870, to 24 Feb. 1871. 


Couttolenc, S. . . 


Convoy agent 


• • • • 


25 Jan. to 6 Mar. 1S71. 


Dowling, T. L. TV. (Lt., 34th 








Regt.) 


;> 5? 


• * ■ • 


25 Jan. to 4 Mar. 1871. 


Eraser, T. Keith (Capt., 1st Life 








Guards) 


5) 55 


■ • • • 


30 Nov. to 22 Dec. 1870. 


Frost, Mrs. Theresa 


Nurse 




25 Jan. to 20 Mar. 1871. 


Jarvis, R. E. C. (Lt., 67th Regt.) 


Convoy agent 


• • • ■ 


16 Nov. 1870, to 3 Jan. 1S71. 


Kennett, Vincent B. 




• • • • 


13 Oct. to 5 Nov. 1870. 


Knowles, Charles (Capt., 67th 








Regt.) 


» it 


• • 


16 Nov. to 29 Nov. 1S70. 


Knox, T. F. E, (Lt., 67th Regt.) 


;> >> 


• . 


3 Feb. to 21 Feb., 1871. 


Lee, Stephen S. . . 


Secretary to Tours 


Sub-Corn- 






mittee 


. * . . 


IS Oct. 1870 to 31 Mar. 1871. 


Lewis, Miles T. . . 


Convoy agent 


. . . . 


13 Nov. 1870, to 22 Feb. 1871. 


Rennick, R. H. F. (Lt., Bengal 








Artillery) 


55 55 


. . . . 


14 Dec. 1870 to 31 Mar. 1871. 


Trench, Charles (Capt., R.A.) . . 


55 55 


. . 


9 Jan. to 31 Jan. 1871. 


Wilcox, TV 


55 55 


• • 


18 Jan. to 6 Mar. 1871. 

• 



37 



NOETH-WESTEEN OE ST. MALO DISTEICT (See Map 12). 



Name. 



Harvey, Chas. Lacon, Capt. 
71st Highland Lt. Infy. 

Dowling, L. W., Lt. 34th Eegt. . 
Kennett, H. B., Lt. 51st Lt. Infy 



Capacity in which employed. 



Visiting Hospitals and German 
Prisoners in North-Western 
France 

Convoy agent 

Convoy agent 



During what period. 



25 Jan., 1871, to 10 April, 1871. 
15 March to 11 April, 1871. 
11 Feb. 1871, to 



VEESAILLES DEPOT (See Map 13). 



Name. 



Capacity in which employed. 



During what period. 



Furley, John 

Jones, Lewis T. F., Major h.-p. 
Kleinmann, Aug. 

Thomas, C. G. M. 
Thomas, G. D. P. 
Sister Marie Josephine. . 
„ Caroline 



Eepresentative at Paris and 

Versailles 
Convoy agent 
Storekeeper at the depot, 

Versailles 
Convoy agent 
Dresser 
Nurse 



1 Oct. 1870, to 9 June, 1871. 
21 Dec. 1870, to G Feb. 1871. 

6 Oct. 1870, to 9 June, 1871. 
31 Oct. 1870, to 17 Jan. 1871. 
1 Nov. to 6 Dec. 1870. 
28 Sep. 1870, to 22 Mar. 1871. 
28 Sep. 1870, to 22 Mar. 1871. 



AVOOLWICH AMBULANCE (See Map 14). 



Name. 



Capacity in which employed. 



During what period. 



Guy, Thomas (M.D.) Dep. Insp.- 

Gen. of Hospitals 
Ball, Tertius, Surgeon, E.A. . . 



Jameson, Jas. (M.D.) Staff Sur- 
geon 

V. G. Manley, W. G. N., Sur- 
geon, E.A. 



Porter, Joshua H., Surgeon, 97th 
Foot 

Wiles, Julius, Staff Surgeon . . 

Malcolm, John V. T. (M.D.) 
Staff-Assistant Surgeon 

MacEobin, A. A. (M.B.) As- 
sistant Surgeon Eifle Brigade. 

McNalty, G. W. (M.D.) Staff- 
Assistant Surgeon 

Melladew, H. F. L. (M.D.) As- 
sistant Surgeon 12th Lancers . 

Moore, Sandford (M.B.) Assist.- 
Surgeon4th Dragoon Guards . 

Power, J. L., Staff Assistant 
Surgeon 

Young, J. S., Assist Commissary 

SShee, li. Jenery. . 



Chief of the Ambulance 
Surgeon (in charge of C Div.) 
succeeded Mr. Manley as 
Chief of the Ambulance 16th 
Feb., 1871. 
Surgeon 

„ (in charge of B Div.) 
succeeded Dr. Guy as Chief 
of the Ambulance 2nd Feb., 
1871. 



Assistant Surgeon 



Commissary 
Secretary 



12 Oct. 1870, to 2 Feb. 1871. 
to 15 Mar. 1871. 



» to „ 

to 16 Feb. 1871. 

to 15 Nov. 1870. 

28 „ to 15 Mar. 1871. 

12 „ to 

„ to „ 

„ to „ 

„ to 10 Feb. 1871. 

„ to 6 Mar. 1871. 

» to 

to 31 March 1871. 
to 6 Dec. 1870. 



G 



38 



LIST OF AGENTS NOT ATTACHED TO ANY DISTRICT. 



Atthill, W. E. B 

Bury, Viscount, M.P., K.C.M.G 
Carter, Bonham-, H 

Colville, Col. the Hon. W. J. 



Cooper, Chas. A. 

Edis, Robt. W 

Galton, Douglas, Capt, C.B. . . 

Galton, J. C 

Herbert, Rt. Hon. Sir Percy, 
K.C.B. 

Horner, A. C. 

de Kantzow, Herbert, Capt. R.N 

Loyd, A. Kirkman 

Mayo, Chas. (M.D.) . . 

Millson, Geo. 

Reicbel, B. M 

Bundle, H. 

Pratt, T. T 



Smith, Catterson 

Swaine, Leopold V., Lieut. Rifle 

Brigade 
Trench, Thos. Weldon 



Dresser, Darmstadt 

On special service — Havre . . 

On special visit to hospitals in 
France and Germany 

On special service to Stras- 
bourg, Metz, and Phals- 
bourg 

Dresser, 5th French Amb. . . 

On special service — Havre . . 

On special visit to hospitals 
of France and Germany 

Surgeon, Darmstadt 

On special service 

Dresser, 5th French Amb. . . 

On special service 

,, . . • . 

Surgeon, Darmstadt 

„ 5th French Ambulance 

On special service 

Surgeon, Darmstadt 

Chief of Anglo-American Am- 
bulance 

Convoy agent to Germany . . 

On special service to French 
prisoners in Germany 

Special service 



11 Aug. 1870, to 31 Jan. 1871. 
3 Oct. to 17 Oct. 1870. 

During Sep. 1870. 



22 Sep. to 5 Oct. 1870. 
15 Aug. to 20 Feb. 1871. 
4th Oct. to 17 Oct. 1870. 

During Sep. 1870. 

11 Aug. 1870, to 31 Jan. 1871. 



15 Aug. to 20 Feb. 1871 
Aug. 18 to Oct. 11, 1870. 
13 to 24 Feb. 1871. 
11 Aug. 1870 to 31 Jan. 1871. 
15 Aug. 1870 to 20 Feb. 1871. 
20 July 1870 to 26 Jan. 1871. 
11 Aug. 1870, to 31 Jan. 1871. 

30 Nov. to 19 Dec. 1870. 

26 Nov. 1870, to 12 Jan. 1871. 
During Sep. and Oct. 1870. 



Forwarding Agent at Dover 

Folkestone 



>» 
»> 



n 

» 



Southampton 
Liverpool 
Ostend 
Havre 

St. Malo 

Bordeaux 

Cologne 



Mr. "W. Forster. 
Mr. W. Forster. 
Mr. E. K. Corke. 
Messrs. Moss & Co. 
M. Gerard. 
Mr. F. F. Langstaff. 
M. Gaudin. 
MM. Albrecht fils. 
Mr. Niessen. 



39 



TABLES SHOWING STAGES OF WORK DONE. 







u 






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1—1 ^2 



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40 



1st Stage. 

{September.) 

2nd Stage. 

{October to 
February.) 



Table II.— MAJOR-GENERAL SIR V. EYRE, C.B., K.C.S.I. 

Boulogne {Depot.) 



Amiens. Cambrai. Lille. Douai. Valenciennes. Avesnes. Hirson. Maubeuge. 

Boulogne {Depot.) 

Amiens {Advanced Depot.) 
Supplying the above places on the Franco-Belgian frontier and southward 
to north of Paris. 



Table III.— THE ANGLO-AMERICAN AMBULANCE. 
1st Stage. 



(28 Aug. to 25 Sept. 1870) 



Sedan . . .. Drs. Marion Sims and Wm. MacCormac. 

Balan . . . , Dr. Prank. 



2nd Stage. 



(25 Sept. to 1 Oct. 1870) 


Sedan . . 

Balan . . 
I 


Dr. MacCormac. 

• 




1 
Monvillet 

l 


.. ^-Dr. Prank. 

i 




1 
Bazeilles 


•• 1 
••J 


3rd Stage. 






(1 Oct. to 10 Oct. 1870) . . 


Sedan . . 


Dr. MacCormac 


4th Stage. 






(14 Oct. 1870 to end of Feb. 1871) . . 


Orleans 


. . Dr. Pratt. 



Table IV.— THE WOOLWICH AMBULANCE. 



1st Stage. 



(13 Oct. to 22 Nov. 1870) . . Versailles 



Dr. Guy, Chief Officer, in com- 
mand. 



2nd Stage- 

{'22 Nov. 1870, to 3 Feb. 1871).. Janville, Pithiviers, Beaune Dr. Guy, Chief) 

la Rolande, Blois. Officer of the > A Div. 

Ambulance. j 

12 Nov. 1870, to 18 Jan. 1871 ... Chartres, Bagneux, Artenay, Dr. Manley, B Div. 

Meung. 

12 Nov. 1870, to 18 Jan. 1871 . . Angerville, Janville, Pithi- Dr. Ball, C Div. 

viers, Beaune la Rolande. 



3rd Stage. 

3 Feb. to 7 Mar. 1871 
18 Jan. to 7 Mar. 1871 
18 Jan. to 7 Mar. 1871 



. . Blois, Connerre, Le Mans . . Dr. Jameson, A Div. 
. . Meung, Connerre, Le Mans. Dr. Ball, B Div. 
. . Blois, Connerre . . . , Dr. Wiles, C Div. 



41 



LIST OF ARTICLES CONTRIBUTED AND PURCHASED. 



Name. 



Beds 

Bedsteads . . 

Bed straps. . 

Blankets . . 

Cork beds . , 

Mattrasses. „ 

Mattrass-cases 

Pillows 

Pillow-cases 

Sheets 

Rugs 

Towels 



Name. 

Boots and Shoes, pairs 

Caps 

Comforters 

Cuffs 

Collars 

Coats and jackets 

Cloth in piece, yards 

Calico in piece, yards 

Drawers and trousers^ pairs 

Dressing gowns . . 

Flannel belts 

Flannel shirts 

Flannel in piece, yards 

Gaiters 

Hospital suits 

Handkerchiefs 

Jerseys and vests 

Nightcaps or headnets 

Nightingale jackets 

Overcoats 

Slippers, pairs 

Socks and stockings, pain 

Shawls 

Shirts, cotton 



Name. 

Aromatic vinegar 
Condy's fluid 
Chloralum 
Carbolic acid 
Chloride of lime . . 
Disinfecting powder 
Fumigating papers 
Lime water 
Mudie's disinfectant 
Pastilles 
Ruban do Bruges. . 



BEDDING. 






Contributed by 


Purchased by 


Total. 


the Public. 


Committee. 


5 


— 


5 


6 


250 


256 


— 


300 


300 


16,566 


67,292 


83,858 


3 


— 


3 


15 


— 


15 


250 


1,686 


1,936 


30,188 


— 


30,188 


54,329 


1,200 


55,529 


29,530 


200 


29,730 


358 


— 


358 


21,435 




21,435 


CLOTHING. 






Contributed by 


Purchased by 


Total. 


the Public. 


Committee. 




179 


— 


179 


473 


— 


473 


2,970 


650 


3,620 


300 


— 


300 


158 


— 


158 


2,348 


— 


2,348 


100 


— 


100 


200 


2,514 


2,714 


18,162 


50,278 


68,440 


307 


1,200 


1,507 


52,917 


— 


52,917 


30,364 


53,598 


83,962 


270 


8,301 


8,571 


9 


— 


9 


2,354 


6,561 


8,915 


14,019 


1,200 


15,219 


4,500 


18,170 


22,670 


6,905 


250 


7,155 


7,839 


— 


7,839 


110 


1,000 


1,110 


7,263 


14,800 


22,063 


44,109 


127,212 


171,321 


75 


— 


75 


63,395 


3,600 


66,995 


DISINFECTANTS. 






Coutributed by 


Purchased by 


Tntfll 


the Public. 


Committee. 


J. ULUl. 


• . • • — 


24 dozens. 


24 dozens. 


. . 8 doz. bottles. 


50 „ 


58 „ 


. . 4 dozens. 


— 


o 4 " 


..10 „ 


326 dozens. 


336 „ 


.. 200 lbs. 


4 tons 2 cwt. 


4 tons 3^ cwt 


— 


3£ cwt. 


3^ cwt. 


. . 150 boxes. 


— 


150 boxes. 


■. . 100 gallons. 


— 


100 gallons. 


i . , . 4 tons 6 cwt. 


10 tons 9 cwt. 


14 tons 15 cwt 


. . 10 boxes. 


— 


10 boxes. 


.. 50 „ 


50 boxes 


100 boxes. 



42 



DRUGS AND MEDICINES. 



Name. 



Contributed by 
the Public. 



Bismuth . . . . . . — 

Castor oil . . . . . . — 

Chloroform 480 lbs. 

Chi oro dyne . , . . . . 86 bottles. 

Chloral, hydrate . . . . . . 100 bottles. 

Laudanum . . . . . . 49 bottles. 

Morphia . . . . . . 60 bottles. 

Opium . . . . . . 80 bottles. 

Quinine . . . . . . — 

Pills 3,700 

Medical cases (Bell's) : — For wounded — 

1 lb. carbolic acid. 

2 lbs. olive oil. 

1 lb. disinfectant. 
4 oz. laudanum 

2 oz. chloral, hydrate. 
200 opium pills. 

100 morphia pills. 
100 Dover's powders. 
2 lbs chloroform. 
1 lb. chalk. 
J lb. tinfoil. 
Medical cases (Bell's) : — For sick . . — 

1 lb. hydrochloric acid. 
1 lb. laudanum. 

1 oz. opium. 

6 oz. ipecacuanha. 

2 oz. quinine. 

2 oz. Dover's powder. 

4 oz. tannin. 

4 lbs. castor oil. 

1 lb. gum arabic. 

12 tins essence beef. 

1 lb. linseed. 

4 boxes mustard leaves. 

1 lb. glycerine. 
Medical cases (Bailey's) : — 

2,880 opium pills. 

2,880 morphia pills. 

2,304 quinine pills. 

100 oz. chloroform. 

50 oz. chloroform in ^ oz. bottles. 

48 oz. chloral, hydrate. 
Medical cases (Savory and Moore) — 

Medical cases, packed in Society's stores 60 



Purchased by 
Committee. 

157 lbs. 

200 lbs. 

190 lbs. 
614 bottles. 
368 bottles. 
150 bottles. 
93 bottles. 
174 bottles. 

105 lbs. 

405,450 

30 cases. 



30 cases. 



14 cases. 



15 cases. 



Total. 

157 lbs. 

200 lbs. 
2,390 lbs. 
700 bottles. 
468 bottles. 
199 bottles. 
153 bottles. 
254 bottles. 

105 lbs. 

409,150 

30 cases. 



30 cases. 



14 cases. 



15 cases. 
60 cases. 



FIELD REQUIREMENTS. 



Name. 

Bridles 

Canteens 

Cooking apparatus 

Driving aprons . . 

Etnas 

Flags 

Head stalls 

Havresacs 

Horse rugs and rollers 

Kna;> acts 

Nose bags . . 

Lamps 

Rob Roy ci hi ,i 

Saddles 

Tuts 

Water bottles 



Contributed by 


Purchased 


by 


Total. 


the Public. 


Committee. 







12 




12 


1 


— 




1 


— 


9. 




2 


1 case 






1 case 


— 


2 




2 


— 


33 




33 


— 


100 




100 


— 


49 




49 


— 


100 




100 


— 


13 




13 


— 


100 




100 


— . 


6 




6 





1 




1 


, 


12 




12 


. 


L0 




10 


— 


13 




13 



45 



SURGICAL INSTRUMENTS— continued, 



Name. 

Syringes, hypodermic . . 

Syringes, various 

Scalpels, finger knives, an 

lancets 
Spatulas. . 
Scissors, various 
Stretchers 
Splints, various 
Saws, various 
Slings, bed cradles, and leg 

slings 
Spray producers 
Silver wire 
Tourniquets 
Tenaculee 
Tongue depressors 
Trusses 
Various instruments for nurses 

combs, brushes, &c. 
Various needles and pins 
Vulsella^ 



Contributed by the 
Public. 

50 
24 



50 

37 
30 sets 



80 



150 



Purchased by 
Committee. 

327 
204 

562 

20 

499 

1,435 sets 
193 

482 

51 

110 hanks 

510 

83 

5 

6 

228 

2,834 

2 



Total. 

377 

228 

562 

20 
549 

37 
1,465 
193 



sets 



562 

51 

110 hanks 

660 

83 

5 

6 

228 
2,834 
2 



WATERPROOFING. 



Name. 

Air beds and water 
Air pillows 
Ice bags 

India-rubber sheeting 
Hydropellis . . 

Waterproof sheets 
Waterproof sheeting 
Waterproofing in cases 

Bellows 



Contributed by 

the Public. 

75 
si 



350 



37 

38 yards. 

8 

106 

500 yards. 
32 cases packed 
in Society's 
stores. 



Purchased by 

Committee. 

772 

1,627 

500 



500 
12,269 



300 



Total. 

847 

1,977 

537 

38 yards. 
8 

606 

12,769 yards. 

32 cases. 



300 



WINES, SPIRITS, &c 



Name. 



Claret 
Marsala 
Port 
Sherry 

Brandy 
Rum 



Odd cases of wines and spirits 

Ale 

Stout .. .. ... 



Contributed by Purchased by 
the Public. Committee. 



Total. 



6 dozens. 


68 dozens. 


74 dozens 


220 dozens. 

9 N 


40 
867 
138 


,5 

11 
11 


40 

1,087 
147 


55 


6 „ \ 
26 „ 


383 

285 


,5 


389 
311 


55 

55 


17 „ 






17 


55 


36 „ 
6 „ 


1,018 dozens. 
1,476 „ 


1,054 
1,482 


55 
,5 


H 













SUNDRIES. 






Name. 


Contributed by 
the Public. 


Purchased by 
Committee. 


Total. 


Candles 


4 cwt. 


8 cwt. 


12 cwt. 


Nightlights 


. . 75 doz. boxes. 


— 


75 doz. boxes 


Soap 


2 tons. 


4 tons 3 cwt. 


6 tons 3 cwt. 


Candlesticks 


22 


^_ 


22 


Drinking cups 


559 


— 


559 


Dishes 


61 


— 


61 


Knives 


100 


246 


346 


Forks 


100 


234 


334 


Spoons 


190 


100 


290 


Lanterns 


. . . — 


24 


24 


Pails 


. . . — - 


24 


24 


Tin basins 


135 


— 


135 


Teapots 


3 


— 


3 


Watercans. . 


— 


50 


50 


Earthenware goods 


— 


5 cases. 


'5 cases. 


Pins 


. . large quantity. 


— 


large quantity 


Needles 


. . . ditto 


— 


ditto 


Tapes 


. . ditto 


— 


ditto 


Buttons 


ditto 


— 


ditto 


Pincushions 


ditto 


— 


ditto 


Nurses' cases 


17 


— 


17 cases. 


Leather 


2 bales. 


___ 


2 bales. 


Paste for leather 


15 bottles. 


— 


1 5 bottles. 


Molliscorium for leather . . 


. . 564 packets. 


— 


564 packets. 


Mops 


— 


36 


36 


Fuel for 100 firea 


. . 100 packets. 


— 


100 „ 


Refrigerator 


1 


— 


1 



47 



TABQLAR STATEMENT OF MEDICAL AND SURGICAL WORK. 

(Returns are not complete.) 



Names of Surgeons attached 
to the Society. 


Places where 
serving. 


Sick and Wounded Re- 
gistered and treated 
in Hospitals. 


Sick and Wounded in 
improvised Hospitals 
unregistered. 


Date. 


O 

u 

CO . 

■g'-S 

3 CD 

o 


Deaths (so far as they 
are known). 


Dr. Aubin. 


Chalons. 


286 


— 


1870-71, 
Sept 1 to 
March 31. 


286 


11 


Mr. Chater, with Messrs. Lloyd 
and Crookshank. 


Douzy. 


32 


13 


1870, 
Sept. 5 to 21. 


45 


1 


Mr. Chater, with Messrs. Thomas 
and Crookshank. 


Balan. 


42 


— 


1870, 

Sept. 12 to 

Oct. 28. 


42 


9 


Mr. Chater. 


Tours. 


64 


— 


1870-71, 

Dec. 10 to 

Jan.^4. 


64 





Dr. Woodham Webb, with 
Messrs. Wyman, Crookshank, 
Walker, and Fosbroke. 


Metz Hospital. 


476 


— 


1870-71, 

Dec. 7 to 

Feb. 8. 


476 


48 


Dr.'iThudicum, with a staff of 11 
Surgeons and Dressers. 


Bingen. 


172 


— 


1870, 

Sept. 16 to 

Nov. 26. 


172 


20 


Dr. Mayo, with Messrs. Bundle, 
Galton, and Atthill. 


Alice Hospital, 
Darmstadt. 


710 


— 


1870-71, 
Oct. to March 5. 


710 


Not 
stated. 


Dr. Marion Sims, Mr. MacCor- 
mac, and the Anglo-American 
Ambulance Staff. 


Sedan. 


593 


200 


1870, 

Aug. 31 to 

Oct. 9. 


1,193 


153 


Mr. Norton, with Messrs. Sewill, 
Connolly, Hirschfeld, Lyman, 
Herdman, and Lungley. 


Briey. 


350 


— 


1870, 

Aug. 30 to 

Sept. 30. 


350 


Not 
stated. 


Dr. T. T. Pratt, with a Staff of 
12 Surgeons and Dressers. 


Orleans. 


1,400 


800 


During 
4 months* 


2,200 


Not 
stated. 


Dr. Frank, with Dr. Webb and 
Messrs. Wyman, A. Thomas, 
Blewitt, Crookshank, H. Kane, 
Scott, Preston, Watson, and 
Hewett. 


Montvillet, Balan, 
and Bazeilles. 


280 


— 


1870, 

Aug. 31 to 

Oct, 15. 


280 


70 


Dr. Prank and a portion of the 
above Staff. 


Epernay. 

H 5 


162 


20 
i 


1870-71, 

Nov. 14 to 

Jan. 15. 


182 


Not 
stated. 



48 



TABULAR STATEMENT OF MEDICAL AND SURGICAL WOUK— (continued.) 

(Returns are not complete.) 



Names of Surgeons attached 
to the Society. 



Places where 
serving. 



1 Ti 
id a> 

P -tj 'a. 

bo 



a ^2 

a> fie 

^ s 

p- cd a> 



a 

c3 



c5 



03 

■p.s 

o tc 



Date. 



o 

a '43 

"o 
H 



a 
-a 

m ■ 

03 r^3 

^^ <B 

03 (h 
,0 03 

■*» 
03 

<L> 



Mr. Blok.* 



Coulommiers. 
(Railway Station.) 



1,990 



1870, 

Aug. 23 to 

Sept. 4. 



l,990f 



Not 
stated. 



Mr. Blok. 



Tournai. 
(Eailway Station.) 



4,210 



1870, 
Sept. 6 to 
Nov. 24. 



4,210f 



Messrs. Welsh and Dorin. 



Philippsruhe. 
Hanau. 



265 



1870-71, 

Sept. 4 to 

Feb. 24. 



265 



5th French Ambulance,J during 
the period that Messrs. Mill- 
Bon, Horner, and Cooper were 

attached to it. 



Ditto. 



Autrecourt. 
La Ramaurie. 
Artenay. 



347 
146 
185 



3870-71, 
from Ang. 15 



347 
146 
185 



Orleans. 
Terminiers and 

Echelles. 
Neuvillers. 



191 



43 
172 



to Jan. 27. 



43 
191 
172 



A Division of Woolwich Ambu- 
lance. 



St. Germain. 
Beaune-la-Rolande 
Blois. 
Connerre. 



57 
523 
160 

14 



1870-71, 

Nov. 7 to 
March 7. 



57 
523 
160 

14 



B Division of Woolwich Ambu- 
lance. 



Auneux. 
Chartres. 
Meung. 
Le Mans. 
Connerre. 



1870-71, 
Nov. 12 to 
March 7. 






C Division of Woolwich Ambu- 
lance. 



r Angerville. 
J Beaune-ia-Rolande 
\ Blois. 
Le Mans. 



1870-71, 

Nov. 12 to 

March 7. 



£2 



Not 
stated. 



Not 
stated. 



36 



Not 
stated. 



Messrs. R. H. Lloyd, L. 
Leslie, and Goodenough. 



G. 



Amiens, &c. 



Jan. 3 to 

March 31, 

1871. 



a 

S-i 
CD 



Messrs. W. Ward and W. Pratt. Metz 



Mr. B. B. Connolly. 



Aug. 11 to 

November 1, 

1870. 






Beaumont, &c. 



Sept. 2 to 
Oct. 1870. 



1 



o a 



* Mr. Blok was also at Aix-la-Chapelle, but found no work there worth recording, 
f These numbers represent patients only temporarily under Mr. Blok's charge, treated en route 
to Germany at railway stations. 

\ This Ambulance was mainly sustained by grants from the Society. 



49 



APPENDIX B. 



CORRESPONDENCE OF THE SOCIETY'S AGENTS. 

The following is Lieutenant-Colonel Loyd-Lindsay's account of the journey under- 
taken by him, at the Committee's request, to convey a sum of £20,000 for the use of the 
German Authorities at Versailles, and a like sum to the heads of the French Military 
Medical Department in Paris : 

2, St. Martin's Place, London, W.C., October 2-Uh, 1870. 

I have to report my return to England after an absence of sixteen days, having 
left London lor Havre via Southampton on the 5th of this month. I am the bearer of 
a great number of letters from various people at Paris, including officials at the English 
Embassy, private persons, and Correspondents of London papers. Before consenting 
to carry letters I begged it to be understood, which indeed was scarcely necessary, 
that letters must contain nothing likely to prove useful, or the reverse, to either 
besieged or besiegers, and feeling satisfied that such was the character of the commu- 
nications of Avhich I was the bearer, I gladly consented to a great service and kindness 
to many anxious and very unfortunate people, who found themselves suddenly cut off 
from their relations, with whom they had previously been in daily and hourly communi- 
cation — husbands separated from wives, children from parents, and proprietors from 
little estates left entirely at the mercy of foreign soldiers. To these last I was able to 
give a general assurance that property was well protected by the German Army, and 
that although their houses might be occupied by soldiers, yet no wanton injury had 
been, or would probably be, done to their property. 

I informed the Committee of my arrival at Havre on the 8th, and of the prepara- 
tion made by Lord Bury for the reception and despatch of the War Office Ambulance, 
which I met yesterday at Rouen. I did not mention to the Committee that Lord 
Bury had placed at my disposal an excellent carriage and horses for my conveyance 
to Versailles, and I have to report that I brought the horses and carriage safely back 
to Rouen, and that they are again engaged in the service of the Society. I think it 
right to say that I defrayed my own expenses to and fro in all things, save the cost of 
the carriage and horses, and these were lent me by the Society. 

Railway communication ceases at St. Pierre, 1") miles beyond Rouen, and from 
this place I made the entire journey by road. I reached Vernon at 6 o'clock on the 9th, 
the day on which I left Havre. On entering Vernon, we were civilly requested by two 
men, not in uniform, to attend before the Colonel of the Garde Mobile, and after 
descending at Lion d'Or Inn, and ordering our dinner, we went, escorted by a Captain, 
to wait upon the Colonel, who turned out to be an old Crimean officer, with whose 
name I was once familiar, and who was wounded at the battle of Inkerman. Our 
reception was all that could be wished, and after a gentlemanly remonstrance from 
the old soldier, on account of England not having stood by its old Crimean ally, we 
departed, with our papers countersigned, with all due formality. The Lion d'Or gave 
us everything at moderate cost, and our dinner, Ave were told, was similar to that 
furnished to a party of German cavalry, who were quartered there a few days before. 
The soldiers had been bivouacked in the town, and the officers at the hotel ; the whole 
charge being defrayed by the Maire, upon whom a forced requisition was made. The 
conduct of officers and men was said to have been good. Next morning, starting early, 
we reached Mantes at 11. The German soldiers, who we were told were at Mantes, had 
quitted it on the 4th, four days previously. Their course of action had been the same 
as at Vernon, making a forced rate upon the town to defray expenses of their visit, but 
leaving the comforting assurance that the amount which they had paid would be placed 
to their credit when the whole bill was paid for by France. The infantry lay out in 
the open place without shelter or covering. The houses which were occupied by then- 
owners had soldiers quartered in them. Those deserted were, of course, also taken 
possession of by the troops, the doors being forced open to enable them to enter ; and 
of this I heard many complaints as very barbarous and wrong, in which, however, 
under the circumstances, I could not agree. I fear, however, that, on returning, the 
owners will find their unprotected property much injured, and I foresee many complaints 
on this head. When talking to Colonel Walker, Military Commissioner at the Head- 
Quarters of the German Army before Paris, on the subject of forced requisitions, he 
told me that quite recently the Crown Prince had informed him as a piece of very good 
news, that forced requisitions were to be abolished, on the ground of the unjust burden 
on the towns and villages along the whole line of march, but on returning ten days 
after I found them still in operation, although I was told that an improvement had taken 
place, inasmuch as the Maire with the Municipal Council were allowed to select the 
cows and the horses, which, my informant naively remarked, gave them the oppor- 



50 

tunity of always selecting the oldest and the worst. The fine bridge over the Seine 
at Mantes has been blown up and utterly destroyed, by order of the French Govern- 
ment, although the town of Mantes protested vigorously against an utterly useless 
and stupid action. I am bound to remark that most of the injury done up to this 
time, in this district, has been done by the French themselves. The destruction of 
two bridges at Vernon has been done since the occupation by the Prussians, and was 
executed by a party of French Engineers, who came down expressly for the purpose, 
and blew up all of the five arches, although fourteen of the principal inhabitants 
formed a deputation, and prayed for their bridge to be spared. The reason assigned is 
to stop heavy artillery coming from Strasburg. The only soldiers we heard of at 
Mantes were six Francs-Tireurs lying in prison, awaiting then trial by the French for 
misconduct. The question of the Francs-Tireurs will become an important one ; at 
present their conduct is exciting the direst animosity on the part of the Germans, who 
doubtless would like to invade and conquer France with as little bloodshed, and be, at 
the same time, on as good terms as possible with the people whose country they invade 
and whose property they take. 

They have succeeded in this to an extent far beyond what I should have thought 
possible; but the case against the Francs-Tireurs is that it is not known whether 
they are friendly peasants, brigands, or soldiers ; and, in point of fact, they assume all 
characters in turn. On entering Mezziere the first sad signs of war presented them- 
selves. The whole village is a blackened ruin, having been absolutely destroyed as a 
punishment for the treacherous conduct of some Francs-Tireurs. The poor villagers 
have now come back to the blackened and tottering walls, and are endeavouring to 
make a little shelter for themselves before the winter comes on. On the first occasion 
when I saw the Crown Prince at Versailles, he told me that he had that morning been 
in deliberation upon the question of how the Francs-Tireurs should be treated, and I 
understood him to say that they would be treated as soldiers, which I think is right, 
but, he added, they are doing infinite injury to France ; and this I can confirm by my 
own observation. On first consideration we are apt to suppose that when a country 
is invaded every man turns soldier, and fights for his hearth and his home, but this 
does not appear to be the case. Submission is found much more convenient, and from 
Vernon to Paris submission to the Germans is the order of things, always excepting 
the small bands of Francs-Tireurs, who I wish distinctly to explain are in almost every 
respect unlike our Volunteers, resembling more the first stage of the movement as 
represented by Rifle Clubs ; differing again from these in the character of the personnel, 
which in France is in most cases from the lowest, while in England it was from the 
most respectable classes. From what I have seen of this unfortunate invasion, I am 
convinced that our Volunteers must act as regular troops in Division and Corps 
d'Armee should our country ever be invaded, lest they should come to be like the 
Francs-Tireurs, a curse instead of a protection to the country. Before leaving this 
question, I think it right to mention one other village which has fallen into disgrace 
through the conduct of these men, who shot two German soldiers a few days ago, and 
on Sunday last, I grieve to say, the village was set on fire in a dozen places, but the 
poor people succeeded in saving their village from destruction, aided perhaps by the 
rain which had been falling heavily. Their sentence, however, hangs over them, and 
yesterday they were to pay 15,000 francs by the middle of the day. The name of the 
village is Fontenoy St. Pere, it lies four miles north of Mantes. A band of Francs- 
Tireurs had been in Mantes a few days before I passed, headed by a leader who, I was 
told, had done nothing but demand rations at the public expense. 

I passed Sunday morning, 9th October, at St. Germain, and entered Versailles that 
afternoon. I called immediately on Colonel Walker, our Military Commissioner with 
the German Army, and received from him every assistance necessary to enable me to 
carry out my mission. On Monday I had the honour to take luncheon with the Crown 
Prince, and was placed in a seat next His Royal Highness, Count Bismarck sitting on 
the Prince's right hand. The Prince talked to me in perfect English upon many 
subjects of interest in the present war, including that of the Francs-Tireurs, which part 
of the conversation I thought it no indiscretion to repeat. I also made acquaintance 
at the Prince's table with Count Bismarck, General Blumenthal, Count Eulenburg, and 
Colonel Von Gottburg. I spoke of my mission to Count Bismarck, and stated to him the 
necessity of my being able to give equal assistance to the French as that which wo 
wure prepared to give to the Germans. Count Bismarck desired me to write to him on 
the subject; which I did, sending him at the same time a copy of the letter addressed 
by the Committee to Prince Pless. 

During the afternoon I called on Prince Pless, who is appointed by the King Chief 
Commissioner of the Voluntary Aid Societies, and delivered the letter addressed to him 
by the Committee. The letter is as follows : — 

" National Society for Aid to the Sick and Wounded in War, 

" 2, St. Martin's Place, London, W.C., 

" October 4th, 1870* 

" Sir, 

" Having received an application from the Prince von Putbus, on behalf of the 
" 3rd Prussian Corps d'Armee, now before Paris, for some pecuniary assistance to the 



51 

" extent of ten thousand pounds from the funds of this Society, we venture to 
" address our reply to your Highness as the Principal Officer controlling the Sanitary 
" Affairs of the Army. 

" The funds of this Society have been subscribed for the sole and exclusive purpose 
" of carrying relief to the Sick and Wounded in War ; and it would be inconsistent 
" with our trust to permit any portion of our funds to be applied to the purposes of a 
" military chest, or to the support of soldiers in active service. 

" Moreover an equal regard to the claims of French and of German soldiers is an 
" essential part of our trust. 

" Under these circumstances we have resolved to place the sum of "20,0001. at the 
" command of General Trochu, under the distinct and honourable understanding, in 
'.' both cases, that this subvention is applied exclusively to the purposes above stated. 
" We must further rely upon His Majesty the King being graciously pleased to 
" grant the necessary facility for conveying this communication through our Chairman, 
" Lieutenant-Colonel Loyd-Lindsay, V.C , M.P., who goes out expressly for the 
" purpose of personally carrying out the details of this arrangement to General 
" Trochu, it being obvious that this arrangement must be carried out in its entirety or 
" not at all. 

" We have the honour to be, 

" Your faithful and obedient Servants, 
« SHAFTESBURY. 
" OVERSTONE. 
" HARRY VERNEY, M.P. 
" DOUGLAS GALTON." 

His Highness Prince Pless was most civil in all he said and did, and expressed 
much gratitude for the 20,000/. which I handed him by means of a cheque on Messrs. 
Coutts' correspondent at Berlin. Up to this time I have received no written word of 
acknowledgment in reply to the letter of the Committee or for the sum of money for 
the sick and wounded soldiers. Before leaving Versailles, however, I called on Count 
Bismarck, who received me in his own cabinet, and was good enough to talk to me for 
an hour upon many of the most interesting subjects of the present war, and, after ex- 
pressing his own thanks for the aid given to the sick and wounded, he informed me 
that a letter would be written to the Committee, and signed by the Crown Prince or by 
the Minister of War. I said that a letter from the Crown Prince would be very 
acceptable, for I was sure people in Germany were scarcely aware of the unprece- 
dented efforts which had been made in England in the cause in which I was at that 
moment a messenger. I said the Queen was the Patroness, the Prince of Wales the 
President, many members of the Peerage and House of Commons were members and 
subscribers to the fund, and that the subscriptions went down to very small sums 
subscribed by the lower and humbler classes. Before quitting this subject, I think it 
right to mention a conversation which I had with Prince Pless on the day before 
leaving Versailles. Prince Pless informed me that, speaking in his official character, 
he wished me to understand that great thanks were due to us for the vast quantity of 
things which had been sent for their use during the last two months, and that 
they were most grateful for all materiel, but that with regard to personnel it was 
different. That the Military Surgeons made great difficulty in admitting Civilian 
Surgeons into their hospitals, and that he had that morning sent back to Germany a 
great many surgeons and German women nurses. Having somewhat expected this 
announcement, I was prepared with an answer, and informed him that I had power 
from the Committee to send back every person engaged under our Society, now with 
the Crown Prince's army, and that I would issue the order that afternoon for them all 
to retire, with the exception of the War Office Ambulance, which had received special 
permission. This he asked me not to do, stating that if there was a bombardment 
all our surgeons would be required, and many more besides. I them handed him a 
list of all persons belonging to our Society now with the Crown Prince's army, and I 
gave a similar list to Colonel Walker. I am particular to mention this, because there 
are many persons wearing the Red Cross who have nothing to do with any Society, 
and some who wear the Red Cross and share the privileges accorded to it by the 
Geneva Convention, who have no right whatever to do so. The Society is of course 
only responsible for those who go out under its orders, but the want of a proper 
understanding upon this and other points appears likely to bring ruin upon an insti- 
tution which has been acknowledged to me by the chiefs of both armies to have been 
of incalculable service to the sick and wounded during a war which, up to the present 
time, has laid low a hundred thousand men on each side, by death or wounds in 
battle. The period of sickness, should the war continue, is now only about to begin, 
and I foresee that, under any circumstances, the whole of the large fund subscribed in 
England will be required. I would, therefore, beg the Committee to continue to dis- 
pose of the fund gradually and carefully, without any fear of being left with a sum of 
money unused in their hands. 

The rules of the Geneva Convention are little known in England, but as they are 
quite simple, and founded on plain sense, they need only be mentioned to be at once 
understood. The foundation upon which the institution rests is a guarantee given by 



52 

the Governments who signed the Convention, that all persons and things engaged in 
the service of the sick and woimded should have the protection of neutrality during 
time of war. My being escorted by a German Officer through the lines of the Prussian 
outposts into a besieged town to carry aid to a sick and wounded enemy is a thing 
which could not have been done except under a Convention like that of Geneva. The 
journey which I have been enabled to make, to and fro, from Havre to Paris, passing 
a dozen times through the outposts of both armies, is a matter astonishing to those 
who have been accustomed to war under former circumstances. I was never detained 
two minutes (except on entering Paris) along the whole road, and the red cross flag 
was generally saluted both by soldiers and peasants. To preserve to the red cross 
flag the respect in which it is now held must be our aim and object ; but, as I said 
before, laxity of rules and scandalous abuse of privileges threaten to bring ruin and 
destruction upon the institution. As our Government has signed the Convention of 
Geneva, I consider it only right to ask them to aid in the proper working of the rules 
which they have agreed to, and this can best be done by some explanations and 
agreements between the Governments of the various countries or their representa- 
tives. The explanations or agreements should be somewhat as follows : — 

A recognised badge and paper, signed and stamped by the authorities, should 
always be carried both by surgeons and lay agents, and this paper and badge should 
be demanded before giving employment to surgeons or other people. All those who 
have been sent out by the London Committee have both paper and badge, but I regret 
to say that neither one nor other is, as a rule, ever asked for, and there is nothing to 
prevent a swindler from wearing a red cross, and walking into a hospital and demand- 
ing employment as a surgeon, or undertaking to deliver stores, which he may purloin 
for his own use. The abuse of the red cross in Paris by men who have no right to it 
has produced the most indignant remonstrance on the part of the newspapers there. 
An article which I noticed, headed " Parasites of the Red Cross," describes these men as 
continuing to wear the badge on their casquettes notwithstanding the disdain and 
comtempt with which they are regarded by all honest men, and thus saving their 
precious skins from the fatigue and danger of active service. The newspapers demand 
a most severe law to deal with these impostors. 

A real service might be done by our Government by helping to clear away the 
discreditable excrescences, which have grown up rapidly upon a noble institution. The 
abuses, I am sorry to say, are not confined to the personnel, but extend even more 
largely to the materiel. Sham hospitals are arranged, or rather houses not hospitals at 
all pretend to be so, having neither sick nor wounded, nor any preparation for their 
reception — they mount the red cross flag, and thus escape all billeting of soldiers and 
imposts of that character. A board stating the number of sick being cared for and the 
number of beds prepared for their reception should be placed outside the windows. 
Indignant remonstrances, I foresee, will be made when the War is over on the working 
of the Red Cross Society, and it is right the English branch should be prepared to show 
that they have endeavoured to aid what is good and cut down what is bad, although 
they can have little power to do either one or the other unless backed up and aided by 
our Government. The recent despatch of a complete military hospital train, served by 
army surgeons, and with English soldiers as orderlies, to the seat of war, will give our 
Government an opportunity of doing that which the belligerents are too busy and 
occupied to undertake at the present time. 

It was eleven o'clock at night on Tuesday when I received permission to enter 
Paris, and, as all preparations had to be made, it was eleven o'clock next morning 
when I started from Versailles. A Lieutenant of Hessian infantry was told off 
to accompany me as far as Ville d'Avray, at which point he handed me over to the 
Colonel of the regiment occupying that village. The Colonel ordered out a young 
Lieutenant of Hussars, whose figure and face were as handsome as possible, to ride 
with me down to the outpost near the old porcelain manufactory in the village of 
Sevres. In the long street opposite the manufactory I was ordered to leave the 
carriage, and preceded by a trumpeter riding with a white flag fastened on his sword, 
and accompanied by the officer also on horseback, and my servant Whittle, formerly 
Sergeant Scots Fusilier Guards, carrying my little bag and a red cross flag, we 
marched in solemn silence to the barricade at the end of the long and entirely deserted 
street. At the barricade we were ordered to halt, and the trumpeter, sounding a blast, 
and waving his white flag, advanced ; I felt a little uneasy for the poor man's safety, 
because Count Bismarck had told me that the objection to a parlementairc was that 
a trumpeter was generally used up on each occasion, but fortunately this time he 
returned unharmed, and Ave all again advanced towards the bridge, at the farther end 
of which I could see flit! French barricade, with one or two French heads cautiously 
advanced above it, and a little white flag waving on the parapet. The end arch of 
the bridge was broken, we had therefore to descend to the river and cross in a. little 
boat. After about an hour's delay, during which time an Aide-de-camp went up to 
ask permission for me to pass, we crossed the river in a small boat and walked to the 
head-quarters of the General commanding the outpost in the village of Boulogne. A 
carriage was there civilly provided lor me, and accompanied by a superior officer, we 
drove through the Bois-de-Boulogne, passed through the Barriere de l'Etoile and 
through the Champs Elysees to the Palace of the Louvre, where is the Etat Major of 



53 

the Governor of Paris. General Burnside, who had been allowed to enter Paris a few 
days before me, was blindfolded during a part of this journey. This formality was not 
gone through in my case, but it reminds me that I must say nothing of what I saw inside 
or outside the fortifications which may prove useful or the reverse, to the besieged or 
besiegers. 

General Trochu was not at his office, so I proceeded to the English Embassy; 
and I not a little astonished by my sudden appearance Colonel Claremont and Henry 
Wodehouse, Her Majesty's representatives, Civil and Military, in the besieged citv of 
Paris. Through the kindness of these two gentlemen, by 12 o'clock next day, I had 
completed my business with M. Jules Favre and General Trochu ; leaving only details 
to be carried out in a visit to General Le Flo, Minister of War, and Count de Flavigny, 
President of the French International Society for Aid to Sick and Wounded Soldiers 
in War. From the fact of there being no less than fifteen different societies engaged 
in giving such aid, and each society having its own separate fund, and distributing it 
for the benefit of its own sick und wounded soldiers, I found it impossible to lodge 
the money with any one person, not even with the Minister of War, for had I done 
so the money would have gone entirely to the military hospitals, to the exclusion of 
the much more numerous hospitals, prepared for the reception of the wounded and 
sick of the whole male population of Paris, numbering nearly five hundred thousand 
men, now under arms in defence of their town. The plan adopted for the distribution 
of the 20,000/. will be seen set forth in a letter from General Le Flo, which I herewith 
enclose. The Committee which was formed for the management and distribution of 
the fund is as given below : — 

Count Flavigny, President of the International Society. 

Doctor Ricord, President of the Societe de la Presse Francaise. 

An Intendant of the Military Hospitals. 

A Doctor of the Hospitals of Paris. 

Colonel Claremont. 

Doctor Gordon, ) Medical Officers sent by War Office to report on French 

Surgeon Major Wyatt, \ system. 

I have to say that being able to place this sum from the English fund at the 
disposal of the French gave me great satisfaction. I was told, and believe, that it 
will be of immense service. The letters from the Minister of War, and from Count 
Flavigny, show how greatly it is appreciated, and I trust it will be the means of 
saving the lives of many poor men, who, at famine prices, could hardly hope to have 
such things given them as become almost necessary to enable them to gain strength 
to recover from sickness or wounds. I did not find it advisable, owing to the different 
circumstances of the case, to form any similar Committee for administering the Fund 
placed at the disposal of the Prussian authorities ; but from the arrangements and 
conditions made, and the assurances I have received, I am satisfied that both funds 
will be equally well administered, and will be employed in ameliorating the condition 
of the sick and wounded of both armies. The appearance of Paris is of course greatly 
changed. The shops and cafes are all closed at half-past 10. The butchers' shops are 
besieged by people who are only allowed to buy rations calculated on the size of their 
families, five ounces being allowed for a man, and three for a woman, rich and poor 
faring alike. The troops have alternate rations of horse and beef served out to them, 
and the number of horses de luxe, for which their owners have neither food or use, 
supply the market with what is said to be very good meat. While I was in Paris, I 
saw the Castle of St. Cloud burnt to the ground by shells thrown into it from Mont 
Valerien. The tapestry was not destroyed, it having been previously taken out, but 
everything else was burnt or destroyed, for no one could approach on account of the 
firing. I understood that the Crown Prince was very anxious that a picture of Her 
Majesty the Queen of England, representing her visit to Paris, should be saved, but 
whether this was done or not I have not been able to ascertain. I was told on good 
authority that the number of Prussians wounded by guns, fired from the fortresses 
round Paris, averaged only about five per day. This of course does not include the 
losses by sorties and engagements outside the fortifications. I was in Paris, and 
heard the details of a sortie, which was made from the south-west side of the city. I 
next day heard the story of the same engagement from the opposite party, but found 
no similarity in the accounts. I was told that the Generals were well satisfied with 
the conduct of the Garde Nationale. In the gardens of the Tuileries artillery is 
encamped; no one is admitted within the iron railings; the beautiful trees inside 
appear to me to be likely to be much injured. During my visit to General Trochu I 
told him, thinking it no indiscretion to do so, of the defeat of what is called the Army 
of the Loire, and knowing that great expectations had been built up on the probable 
action of the Southern Army, I made no scruple of telling him what could do no 
harm, and might do good. I did not then know, what I afterwards heard, viz., 
that Orleans had been taken the evening after the defeat of the French outside 
its walls. 

This increase of territory from which to draw supplies for the Germans before 
Paris, must be of immense advantage to the army of the Crown Prince. It is pro- 
bable that Rouen will soon be in the same condition as Orleans ; in fact, there is 
nothing to stop the Germans from occupying the whole of France between Paris and 

I 



54 

Havre. Numerous bands of half armed undrilled men are met with in the towns, bust 
they are quite unfit for the regular business of soldiers, and even more unfit for that of 
a guerilla character. It appears to me that the majority of the French people are quite 
unsuited to this sort of warfare, and for the sake of France I cannot but hope it will 
not be resorted to; guerilla warfare, I presume, only means little warfare, as opposed 
to " la grande guerre" in which civilised rules of fighting are observed. If half-armed 
peasants fire on soldiers, soldiers will fire on peasants, and burn their villages and 
destroy their crops, but up to this time, so far as my own observation goes, I can testify 
cnat very little injury has been done to France by the Germans. The influence of 
Garibaldi at Tours may inspire the French people to exasperate by petty acts of war- 
fare six hundred thousand armed men, who are, to all intents and purposes, masters in 
France. In some of the proclamations circulated in the towns in the South, the object 
of the Francs-Tireurs is, in the words of the proclamation, to harass the enemy without 
truce or mercy. I found in Paris that the Francs-Tireurs are not at all well looked 
upon. 

I remained one day longer in Paris than I intended, in the hope of being able 
to arrange some system of communication by which wounded prisoners might be 
able to communicate a few words with their friends, telling them of their existence, 
their condition, their health, &c. ; but whether I have succeeded in this remains uncer- 
tain. I left Paris, and returned to Versailles on Saturday, 15th. I left Versailles, on 
my way to England, the afternoon of the following day. 1 ought to have mentioned 
that on Tuesday, 1 1th, I had the honour to dine with the King, and that I delivered to 
His Majesty Lord Shaftesbury's letter, for which the King desired me to thank his 
Lordship. The King also expressed his thanks to the English people for their large 
contribution for his wounded soldiers, but he added, with a bow, " You are very 
impartial indeed." The whole sum subscribed in Germany by the Johanniters, who 
are the great voluntary aiders in this war, amounts to £21,000. I believe it to be the 
established system throughout the German Army, but it will astonish English surgeons 
and English people to learn that with the Army now before Paris there is no provision 
whatever for the extra care and comfort of the sick and wounded. No tents, no hospital 
diet, no blankets, no hospital suits of clothing, no slippers, no under-clothing. The old 
blood-stained uniforms are worn in the hospitals, and again when discharged from 
them. The men walk about with naked feet and scanty clothes, their rations are 
issued as usual, and are made the most of. Everything else is supplied by voluntary 
contribution ; and I state it as a fact, and am prepared to prove it if necessary, that 
thousands of French and German soldiers have had the necessaries of life given them 
by English contributors to the National Fund. 

If the Germans err on one side, I am convinced the English err as much on the 
other. The number of things demanded by the War Office Ambulance for their proper 
equipment, the Committee are aware, was quite appalling, and yet they were all laid 
down in the Regulations. An English Ambulance for 200 beds must cost four times 
as much as that of any other nation. The harness is heavy and cumbrous, and the 
waggons require four horses to draw them ; there is no box from which a man can 
drive, but every other horse must be ridden, which is a great inconvenience and w T aste 
of strength and power. The best ambulance waggons which I saw were the American, 
which were adapted for two horses, and were, in my opinion, models of arrangement. 
The English Army Ambulance was at Rouen, where I met it on the 18th. I was not 
myself present, but I understand that, within four hours of their arrival at Havre 
from England, the Ambulance waggons were all put together, and everything ready 
for the march. It will follow the road by Vernon, Mantes, and St. Germain to 
Versailles, and, I trust, will arrive there on the 24th. There has been nothing lost 
from this delay in starting the Ambulance, for up till now there has been nothing 
doing in Versailles. The permission given to the English Army Ambulance is quite 
exceptional; no other hospital train having been admitted during the war; and I 
trust it will be the first step towards establishing a more regular and recognized order 
of things, under the Society established by the Convention of Geneva. I reached 
Havre on my way back to England on the night of the 18th ; there was no boat to 
Southampton that night. At 12 o'clock at night on the 19th I went on board the 
Southampton steamer, but a severe gale of wind blowing from the north-west prevented 
the steamer starting as it ought to have done that night. The whole of the following 
day it blew a gale, which again prevented the boat from crossing. I therefore went 
round by Rouen and Calais, and crossed to Dover on the 21st. 

I must here mention that a portion of the Irish so-called Ambulance returned in 
the same steamer in which I took my passage. Many of these men have been drinking 
and fighting in Havre; during the interval between the 7th and 20th, and have now, 53 
in number, returned in great disorder to England. They were marched on board by 
an armed parly of French Garde Mobile, and I am told they were battened down in 
the hold of the ship. I myself saw a French sentry placed over them to prevent them 
returning on shore. I beg to state that many of these men have been wearing the 
badge of the Red Cross Society. 

In concluding my report, I offer an apology for touching upon questions which 
are not immediately connected with my mission abroad; but I have thought it right 
to give some evidence on certain subjects which must be of interest to the Committee 



55 

and to the subscribers to the Fund. I refer especially to the condition and manage- 
ment of the German Field Hospitals, to aid which the English public hive so liberally 
contributed; and to the working of the Red Cross Society, through whose machinery 
that aid has to some extent been given. 

On these two subjects I have stated certain facts, without comment or desire to 
criticise. I say this more particularly with regard to the hospitals, which are managed 
on a system of the closest economy. Some knowledge of this system is essential, 
in order properly to understand the extent and nature of the aid which has been given 
by this Society to the French and German wounded soldiers during the war. 

With regard to my special mission, which was to give the sum of £40,000 for the 
benefit of the Sick and Wounded of both nations, I repeat that I have returned entirely 
satisfied with the result and usefulness of the mission with which you charged me. In 
the first place, the aid has been given precisely in the manner most gratifying and 
agreeable to the parties themselves. With regard to the French, it was the only 
manner in which assistance could be conveyed into the besieged city of Paris. 

The public are aware that the larger portion of our Fund is being administered 
by the Committee through their agents abroad. It would not have been right for the 
Committee to shrink entirely from the responsibility of carrying the actual materiel 
to the wounded even on the fields of battle, and this the Committee have been able to 
accomplish through their agents. 

The 40,000/. of which I was the bearer will be distributed on the responsibility of 
the Generals and Chief Sanitary Commissioners of the belligerents themselves ; and 
to those high officials we willingly confide the trust, being satisfied that they will 
dispose of the Fund to the best advantage of the suffering soldiers. As an evidence 
of the kindly and grateful feeling produced in Paris by this gift, I shall close my 
report by quoting the words written to me by General de Flo, Minister of War under 
General Trochu. 

R. LOYD-LINDSAY, Lieut-Col, 
Chairman of the National Society for Aid to Sick and Wounded in War. 



" MlNISTERE DE LA GUERRE. 
" Cabinet du Ministre. 
" M. le Colonel, 

" In accordance with the kind intentions which you did me the honour to 
" express, I hasten to point out the first steps which it will be necessary to take, to 
" ensure the best employment of the sum of 20,000/., which you have undertaken, in 
" the name of your generous countrymen, to place at the disposition of the War 
" Office, for the relief of French sick and wounded soldiers, under treatment in our 
" hospitals and ambulances. 

" Allow me first to express, in the name of the army and of our whole country, 
" the sentiment of profound gratitude with which this brilliant manifestation of the 
" sympathy of your generous nation inspires me. In happier and still recent times, it 
" was granted to the soldiers of our two countries to fight side by side for a common 
" cause, and the deed which you this day perform is a proof of the esteem with which 
" you still regard us. I am deeply touched by it. 

" If I rightly understood you yesterday, M. le Colonel, your idea, and that of the 
'• English subscribers to your fund, is, that the sum which you place at my disposition 
" should be specially devoted to procuring for our sick and wounded such additions to 
" the regular hospital allowances as may enable them to feel that a friendly hand has 
" been extended for the relief of their sufferings. 

" In furtherance of this idea I would suggest, as articles to distribute, tobacco, 
" generous wines, delicate articles of diet, coffee, tea, beer, and some few objects for 
" distraction and amusement for convalescents. If you approve this application of 
" your fund, I should propose, in order to secure its being carried out in the best and 
" most equitable manner, that a committee of direction and superintendence should 
" be formed, and should be composed as follows : — 
•' Colonel Claremont. 
" Doctor Gordon. 
. " Dr. Wyatt. 
" Count de Flavigny, President of the French International Society. 
" Dr. Ricord, President of the Committee of the Ambulances of the French Press. 
" A Sous-Intendant Militaire. 
" A Doctor from the Paris Hospitals. 

" It is my wish that this programme, which will nevertheless be subject to modifi- 
" cation by the Committee, should, as far as possible, carry out the end you propose to 
" yourself; and I consider myself fortunate, while becoming the interpreter of the 
" grateful feelings of my nation, to be enabled to offer to yourself personally, M. le 
" Colonel, the expression of the high consideration with which I have the honour 
" to be, 

" Your humble Servant, 

" The Minister of War of the Republic, 
" Lieutenant- Colonel Loyd-Lindsay. "GENERAL LE FLO." 

12 



56 

Since closing the Report, the following letter, written by desire of His Majesty 
the King of Prussia, has been received : — 

"I have had the honour to receive the letter of the 5th inst., whereby the English 
" National Society for Aid to the Sick and Wounded in War places, through the 
" medium of Colonel Loyd-Lindsay, the sum of £20,000 at the disposal of His Majesty 
" the King of Prussia. His Majesty, my most Gracious Master, has ordered me, as 
" his Chief Commissioner and Military Inspector of Voluntary Aid to the Sick of the 
" Army in the Field, to assume the control of the said sum, to administer it, and to 
" express to the English National Society his Royal thanks for this handsome gift 
" dedicated to a noble cause. 

" I have only to add that it will be my endeavour to make the expenditure con- 
" form to the spirit of the self-sacrificing donors in alleviating the sufferings of the 
" Sick and Wounded. 

" The Royal Commissioner and Military Inspector of Voluntary Aid 
" to the Sick of the Army in the Field, 

" PRINCE PLESS. 
" Versailles, 18th October, 1870." 



The following letter from Surgeon-Major Wyatt contains an account of the 
disposal of a large part of the £20,000 taken by Lieutenant-Colonel Loyd-Lindsay to 
Paris : — 

" Corps Le'gislatif, Paris, November 1th, 1870. 

" I have written several letters to you, and as often have been obliged to destroy 
them from failure of the anticipated opportunity for transmission, and I have not suffi- 
cient faith in the balloon post to confide any communication of importance to its aerial 
flight. 

" You desired me to keep you informed of the arrangement made by the Com- 
mittee appointed by the Minister of War after your departure, to distribute the English 
offering for the sick and wounded here. The members nominated by General Le Flo 
were Count Flavigny, Colonel Claremont, M. Blaisot (Intendant), Dr. Kicord, Dr. 
Gordon, Dr. Berancon, and myself, and we had our first meeting, with Colonel Clare- 
mont as president, within a very few days after your departure, the result of which, 
and four subsequent reunions, has been that we have expended, as you will perceive 
by the enclosed memorandum, the sum of £13,4(57, I hope in a manner satisfactory to 
you and the Committee, though I fear the British donors will not quite comprehend 
the requirement for sick and wounded people of some of the articles specified in the 
list. However, they must be good enough to remember that the tastes and sentiments 
of the two nations equally vary, and that as English members of the Committee our 
position was a delicate, and might have become an invidious one, if we had interfered 
too much with the dispensation of the funds. 

" I did venture to propose, as the result of Crimean experience with the French 
army, the importance of warm underclothing and preserved meats, which was attended 
to ; and now that we have a reserve and the cold weather has set in, I shall prosecute 
a similar line of appeal, as well as the importance of providing suits of common serge 
clothing for the unfortunate poor people who are dismissed the hospitals and ambu- 
lances after having suffered amputations, &c, which prevent their being able to return 
to their regiments. This is a very important question, and has been so treated since I 
had the honour of submitting it also for the consideration of the Council of the Inter- 
national Society, of which both my colleague Dr. Gordon and I have been made 
members also since your visit, so that you perceive how much we are both indebted to 
the circumstance of your having dropped amongst us. I can personally testify to the 
vast difference of my official recognition, and I now find the days not long enough to 
achieve all I could wish to accomplish. I am quite persuaded that a second conference 
of the Geneva Convention style will become absolutely essential after this war has 
terminated, because it is undoubted that the opportunities of abuse of the Flag have 
been many and great ; but it was a bright and humane conception, and is capable of 
achieving in the cause of humanity incalculable blessings. Let us then apply the 
Eton motto* to it as an institution, and believe in its power of reformation and 
regeneration. 

" I must not forget to report to you a little circumstance which [ feel sure that 
the International Society in London will appreciate as an evidence of true international 
sympathy for our countrymen here, many of whom are making the effort to start 
to-ra irrow with very small means. The whole of the ambulance carriages will bo 
pi iced at their disp isal, as they were on the occasion of the ' false start; and they 
will be conducted to the Prussian advanced posts, which will be a greet 1> ton Tor many 
of them. I am glad to tell you that the Palais de I'lndustrie has been given up as a 
res .1-1 for the sick and wounded, who, on the first of the month, were transferred to 
the Grand Hotel, which has now been converted into a large and convenient hospital, 
whore the warmth and ventilation will be far better. The best specimen by far of all 



57 

the permanent hospitals which I have seen extemporised for the war is that from 
which I date this letter, and it is here that I have witnessed the best surgery. It is 
conducted by Baron Mundy, an Austrian physician of great and varied experience, 
who is well known in London for his surgical researches in genuine science; he is 
ably assisted by his friend Dr. Mosetig, of great talent and experience in military 
surgery especially, and I have now the honour of being associated with them, and 
Baron Mundy has been so good as to place two comfortable rooms at my disposal here. 
I have jusl been appointed on a very important sub-committee to consider and report 
on the best method of removal by railway of the sick and wounded from Metz, Stras- 
bourg, &c, and there cannot be any subject of greater value, or one to which railway 
authorities themselves ought to be more keenly alive in the interest of their own 
passengers, who are often, when injured, compelled to travel to their homes in the 
ordinary ill-adapted receptacles. There has been as yet no proper military ambulance 
constructed. The best model is that which the ingenious Americans display here, but 
that is by no means perfect ; and you know what the resources are in this respect in 
civil life, a scandal to the age ! for it is a subject in which the rich and poor have a 
common interest. 

" J. WYATT." 



ENGLISH DONATION. 

£ s. d. 

Received 20,000 

Expended as below 13,467 

Remaining 6.533 



£ s. d. 

1,700 

600 

144 

560 

2,400 

800 

160 

142 

.. .. .. 142 

540 

560 

40 

948 

Honey 96 

Preserved fruits, syrups, &c. . . . . . . . . . . . . 16(» 

Biscuits, &c 160 

Tapioca, arrowroot, &c, 1,800 pounds . . . . . . . . . . 60 

Cherry brandy 50 

Preserved meats, soups and fish .. .. .. .. .. 3,596 

T . . , f 12 oxen 204 

Live animals < , A • o- n n 

[ 10 pigs . . . . . . . . . . . . 9o 

Beef suet (preserved), 180 pounds .. .. .. .. .. 25 

Tobacco and cigars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205 

Aromatic vinegar and eau de Cologne . . ... . . . . . . 80 



Flannel shirts 


648 dozen 


Flannel waistcoats 


214 „ 


Worsted knitted ditto 


44 „ 


Worsted socks 


889 „ 


Bordeaux wine 


4,600 „ 


Burgundy ditto 


1,000 „ 


Malaga, port, &c. 


110 „ 


Brandy 


75 „ 


Rum 


100 „ 


Coffee 


8,400 pounds 


Sugar 


20,000 „ 


Tea 


200 „ 


Chocolate 


12,000 „ 



£13,167 



Captain Douglas Galton, C.B., at the request of the Committee, made a tour of 
inspection of the hospitals in the neighbourhood of the Rhine, and in the following 
letter gives interesting details : — 

'■'■Baden, September 21, 1870. 

" Bonham-Carter and I have now visited all the places in the vicinity of the 
Rhine, where the efforts for the care of the wounded in what are termed the Reserve 
Hospitals appear to have attained important dimensions. From the general results 
of this visit it does not seem necessary to extend our tour to the hospitals further in 
the interior of Germany, to which the sick and wounded are being daily removed to 
prepare for new cases from the seat of war. The hospitals at the places which we 
have visited, extending from Dusseldorf to Baden, contain about 22,500 beds. It is 
very difficult to say how many of these beds are occupied on an average at the present 
time, because the daily fluctuations are very great. All men who are lit to be moved 
are continually draughted off to the hospitals more in the interior, and many of the 
men who are nearly recovered and many of the slightly wounded are taken, one or 
two at a time, into private houses to finish their cure. 



58 

" Of the hospitals a small proportion are under direct military management. The 
others are managed by the Societies or Committees for Aid to Sick and Wounded. 

" At the beginning of the war the Prince of Pless was appointed lloyal Commis- 
sioner and Military Inspector of Voluntary Aid to Sick and Wounded, with the object 
of controlling the aid and equalising the wants of the various hospitals throughout 
the country, so as to prevent a surplus in one place and a deficiency in another. But 
no practical result appears to have followed the appointment. 

" There are two central societies in Berlin — viz., the Prussian Association for Aid 
to Sick and Wounded, formed in 1865 or I860, under the Geneva Convention, and 
the subsidiary Association of the Women of the Fatherland for Aid to Sick and 
Wounded. 

" These Societies send materials and provisions for the wounded as well as assist- 
ance to the troops of a nature to prevent sickness. They have established depots 
near the frontier and subsidiary depots in the rear of the Army. They are also 
more or less in communication with local societies in the several towns which are, 
nominally at least, branches of these central Berlin Societies. 

" There are also the two orders of Johanniters — viz., the elder Catholic Order 
and the Brandenburg Order. The main development of these latter Societies is with 
the field hospitals, in connection with which they have established a chain of depots, 
but they have also reserve hospitals in some of the towns which we have visited. 

" The local Committees of the several towns, although generally in name sub- 
associations to the Berlin Committees, do not appear, except in special cases, to derive 
much assistance from it, but they depend on local exertions. 

" As a general rule, the local Association makes an arrangement with the Govern- 
ment to pay to the Association so much per man per day for the wounded or sick they 
take charge of. This is partly based on the assumed cost of a soldier in hospital in 
the locality, but partly apparently upon the bargain the Government can make. We 
understood that the price varied from about 8(7. to about Is. 3d per man per day. 
The Associations can in some ways work cheaper than the Government ; they receive a 
large amount of voluntary aid ; ladies act as assistant nurses, as housekeepers or 
matrons, as assistants in the kitchen, and make up clothing and other necessaries. 
Surgeons give gratuitous services. They receive numerous gifts of food. Yet we are 
told that the cost of the maintenance of the hospitals varies from Is. Sd. to 2s. Ad. per 
man per day, chiefly arising from extra comforts given in the civil hospitals. 

" In cases where^additional hospital accommodation has been required to be built, 
and where the Government has contributed it appears that the Government has given 
a sum in aid, leaving with the local association the control and risk of the expenditure. 
Thus we were informed that at Mannheim the Government had promised for a wooden 
hut hospital a sum of 20,000 guilders, whereas before it was fit for winter use they 
would cost 39,000 guilders, although we were informed that workmen and contractors 
all charge a reduced rate. 

" The efforts which have been made by the communities we have visited have 
been very great. Private houses, beautifully fitted up, have been given up for 
hospitals by their owners, who devote their time and money to their maintenance. 
Palaces, schools, stores, manufactories, railway sheds, are also converted into hospitals. 
Of these conversions, those which afforded the best hospital wards were the galleries 
in the Palace of Philipsruhe at Hanau, in charge of Mr. Dorin and Mr. Welsh, English 
surgeons sent out by our Society, who seem doing admirably. The walls of scagliola, 
the parquet floors, the windows on each side from floor to ceiling, afford ample oppor- 
tunity of keeping these wards fresh. 

" Great care has been exhibited in the selection of buildings in healthy sites, and 
situated widely apart from each other ; the great defect of all these buildings is that 
there is no ventilation except from the windows, which are almost invariably closed. 
The want of suitable hospitals has led to the erection of a large number of temporary 
buildings of wood, as well as to the use of tents. Neuwicd, Frankfort, Mannheim, 
Heidelberg, Darmstadt, and Aachen afford some very good examples of hospital wards 
of this nature. In all these the effect has been to give the patient as much fresh air 
as possible. The sides are in many cases capable of being entirely opened, and are so 
kept. Along the ridge is a very large space devoted to the admission of air. Where 
the sides are continuous, and there are windows, a large opening for fresh air is 
reserved along the eaves, and frequently along the floor. The floor is raised from two 
to four feet off the ground. In a few cases only are arrangements for the removal 
of foul matters so perfect as they should be. There are, no doubt, exceptions to 
this good form of ward construction, but the general result will, I believe, form an 
era in hospital building. I must, however, add I saw with regret some of the best 
being prepared for the winter in a manner to prevent any access of fresh air. The 
surgeon of one hospital at Mannheim said he would prefer to keep the wounded in the 
open air till December, but that the nurses would not stand the cold. This surgeon, 
in addition to the arrangements for securing fresh air in the huts, causes many of his 
wounded to be carried in their beds by day into the adjoining meadow. 

" The treatment of the wounds seems to be very simple. A solution of carbolic acid 
is largely used, as is also permanganate of potash, to wash the wounds. Sponges are 
used as little as possible; and many surgeons said they had them burnt after being 



59 

used a second time : they always use clean charpie instead, when possible. As far as 
I can learn, there has been comparatively little of hospital diseases, even in the 
permanent buildings. It is melancholy to turn from the well-kept private hospitals 
to the military hospitals of Cologne and Mayence, where the air of the wards was 
close, the rooms dirty ; these hospitals reflected no credit on the officers who manage 
them, and in them there were mentioned many cases of gangrene and pyaemia. 

" In addition to the organisation for hospital management in each town, there is 
an Association, more or less connected with it, for dressing the wounds and giving 
food and other assistance to those who pass in the trains. The ladies and gentlemen 
of this Association attend by turns at the station night and day, as the coming of the 
trains of wounded is quite uncertain. They also provide frequently for soldiers and 
prisoners who are not wounded. They receive contributions of money or in kind — 
one person sending meat or bread one day, another coffee, and so on. 

" A very large expenditure has been incurred along the whole line of country 
we have traversed. But as a result of the organisation being local the expenditure 
has fallen very unequally on various towns ; and, whilst it cannot be said that any 
large contribution seems specially needed at the present time, yet, after a careful 
examination of the circumstances of the several places we have visited under your 
instructions, we have felt it our duty to assist the local Committees in several towns 
which have been subjected to extreme pressure with sums varying from £500 down- 
wards, in addition to the very large amount of materials and provisions which we 
have asked you to send ; and if the war should continue it must be anticipated that 
further demands will be made on our Society, for the Germans have made a most 
enthusiastic effort to raise the required funds. They have expended them not only on 
their own people but also on their French prisoners, between whom and the Germans 
I cannot see that any difference is made in the treatment or in the administration of 
extra comforts. They lie side by side ; they are cared for alike. Many individuals say 
that their means are nearly exhausted. 

" It appears that there are still about 1,500 wounded in Alsace near Hagenau, 
Schloss Souris, Brumath, and other towns, but Alsace is unable to supply food for 
these hospitals. They are, therefore, provided with subsistence from the depots of 
Carlsruhe, &c, and money distributed on the spot would be comparatively useless. 

"We shall not proceed there, but intend to visit Saarbriicken on our way back. 

"DOUGLAS GALTON." 



Mr. John Furley was one of the earliest of the Society's Agents to leave England 
for the seat of war, and did useful work in preparing the way for subsequent opera- 
tions. The following are two extracts from his letters : — 

" Sept. 3rd. 1870. — My predictions have been verified, and the great battle has 

been fought in and around Sedan ; the French have again yielded to the disciplined 

battalions that a few days since I was watching as they streamed along every road in 

the neighbourhood of Metz, conscious of their strength, proud of late victories, and 

anxious for fresh ones. As I listened to the continuous roar of cannon, I felt my 

utter powerlessness, knowing how impossible it would be for me, even if permitted 

to pass the endless column of German troops, to be of any service, unless aided by 

others. Hurrying into Belgium I determined to enlist strangers if I could not find any 

of my own countrymen ; but fortune favoured me, and at Arlon I again met Captain 

de Kantzow, than whom I could not- desire a more generous and self-sacrificing 

associate. Our arrangements were speedily made, and early on the following morning 

we travelled as fast as four horses could take us towards the frontier. Our party 

consisted of five volunteers, and included a lady and her maid. Your letter had 

informed me that we might soon expect aid from England, but the cry for help was 

too real to allow us to hesitate. We had with us some linen, medicines, and chocolate, 

and on the road we bought bread, red wine, cognac, and cigars, and every corner 

of our carriage was stuffed with useful packets. At Florenville, the last village on 

the Belgian side, we made a halt for a couple of hours. No report could be believed 

except that of the cannon, and although we were informed that permission had 

been given to_ receive wounded men on Belgian territory, and the school house and 

other large buildings were placed at our disposal by the commandant, Colonel Charmet, 

we decided to leave the ladies there and to push our reconnaissance still farther. As 

we approached the frontier, the general excitement became more and more apparent, 

and there was great confusion amongst the unfortunate refugees on the no man's 

land which stretches between France and Belgium. Soon we were in France, and 

every step we advanced the terrible effects of the three days' fighting manifested 

themselves in all their horrible intensity. Here a dead soldier lying on his back 

with eyes wide open and arms extended, there a peasant, a victim to his nationality, 

and a little farther on a horse with as much expression on its face as on that of its 

late owner lying .stretched at its side. All around, waste and destruction ; tumbrils, 

guns, waggons, and broken material of all kinds strewn as far as the eye could reach, 



60 

and overhanging all a dark canopy of smoke which rose from the burning village of 
Bazeilles. 

" At Douzy we visited several hospitals, and distributed comfort as far as it was 
in our power to do so ; the surgeons told us that we were most welcome, as their 
duties were quite beyond their strength, and their stores could not last beyond two 
days. Again the Soeurs de Charite are conspicuous by the completeness of their 
arrangements, and the care and love they bestow on the poor sufferers left in their 
charge. But night was closing in ; so notwithstanding our wish to enter Sedan, we 
felt our duty was to return to Arlon, and seek additional assistance. Between 10 and 
11 we reached Florenville, and leaving our companions with Belgian friends, who 
promised to commence with them a campaign of usefulness in the morning, De 
Kantzow and I started off at midnight for Arlon, which we look upon as our base of 
operations. It was fortunate that our carriage had a hood to it, for rain and hail fell in 
torrents, and the night was very cold, and keeping dos a dos in order to retain as much 
warmth in our bodies as possible, we found occasional amusement sometimes in thinking 
of the four unaccredited volunteers we had left behind us without any resource whatever, 
excepting their own willing hearts and the hospitality they might receive from others, 
and at other times, from our coachman, whose nerves were considerably shaken by the 
scenes he had witnessed, and the constant challenge of the Belgian sentries. We 
reached Arlon at 5.30 in the morning, after a run of twenty hours. 

" Leaving De Kantzow busy hiring waggons and horses, I went on to Luxem- 
bourg to make purchases, which extended from lucifers, at two sous the box, to fifty 
beds complete with blankets and pillows ; from a packet of salt to fifty dozens of wine; 
from tallow candles to a cwt. of chocolate. I must remind you that we have no 
information as to the state of the Society's funds; but if we find that we can dispose 
of a large sum usefully, we shall do so, with the conviction that we shall be supported 
in England. My own resources being exhausted, De Kantzow has placed 300/. at my 
disposal. 

" At Luxembourg I met Mr. and Mrs. Chater and Mr. Lloyd, who had just arrived 
from England, and the same evening they returned with me to Arlon. 

" Early on the following morning (Sept. 4) two waggons laden with stores having 
been sent on in the night, we all started for Florenville. Here we were joined by 
those whom we left behind us the day before yesterday, and who had been obtaining 
much useful information ; and as no wounded men had been brought across the frontier, 
we determined to go on with our personnel and materiel, and late in the day we arrived 
at Douzy. Our party of ten soon found a small house, one room was given to the three 
ladies, and another was appropriated to the seven men and the stores, while the 
kitchen served also as dining-room. Within half-an-hour we were established ; one 
swept the floors, another opened bales and packages, a third arranged the stores. 
Appeals for help came in before the waggons were unloaded, and three or four of the 
party hurried off with pails of wine and water and baskets of bread and biscuit. Our 
friends M. Gustave Nothomb and his brother gave us great assistance, one as chef 
de cuisine, the other as stud groom. All worked well and cheerfully. 

" The same evening, in answer to a summons from the Crown Prince of Saxony, 
I went off to Mouzoti to take charge of the property left by poor Colonel Pemberton 1 
returned the next morning, and even during my short absence much had been done 
towards the relief of the many poor fellows whom we found huddled together on straw, 
with little surgical aid and — an insufficiency of every comfort." 



" Nov. 30, 1870. — There had been firing throughout the night, and when I turned out 
at 7 this morning it was rapidly becoming more serious, and an hour later frequent 
discharges of musketry indicated that a fight was on. The batteries on the right (of 
St. Germain) were particularly lively. A most pressing application for assistance had 
reached Young and myself from the Prussian Hospital at Ecouen, and all being ready, 
he and I stxrted on horseback between 8 and 9 o'clock, followed by a heavily laden 
general service waggon. Among the contents of the waggon were 250 lbs. of biscuit, 
150 lbs of sugir, b cases of port wine and porter, a large supply of Liebig's meat 
extract, condensed milk, corn-flour, syrups, medicines, &c, and 1,500 cigars. 

" I must premise that the authorities had offered us an escort as we were going 
on a service of danger, but this as in other similar cases I declined, believing that the 
smaller the party the less likely it would be to draw fire. 

" The morning was very bright and cold, and the beautiful landscape and the 
towers and roofs of Paris glowed with radiance as we rode along the terrace, while 
wreaths of white smoke rolled over the fields below Mont Valerien, and hung about 
the wooded heights of Bougival and St. Cloud. At the end of the terrace we left 
the forest, and passing through Maisons Lafitte came to the Seine. Imagine a heavy 
waggon being drawn over a long railway-bridge from which the rails had been torn, 
leaving all sorts of iron and wooden excrescences; however, we managed to get over 
without accident, and went on through Sartrouville towards Argenteuil. By this time, 
not only was it evident that a battle was going on (though whereabouts we could not 
tell, it seemed to extend all round Paris), but a very brisk fire was being sustained close 
in front of us ; and while passing over the last mile before entering Argenteuil it was 



61 

so perfectly plain that quiet practice was being made upon us, I suggested we should 
trot. I saw one fellow put his head over a wall and deliberately pot at us, and small 
arms having no effect upon us a big gun was brought into position, but the gunners 
had only time to send one heavy shot over us before we were sheltered behind the 
houses of the town. 

" On we went to Margency, the head-quarters of the Crown Prince of Saxony. 
Here we halted for an hour, and then continued our journey. At Montmorency we 
again came under fire, and this time shells flew about us in a very unpleasant 
manner. An officer of engineers told us that as he was the father of a family 
he could not be expected to keep in our company. The truth is that, however 
anxious we were to hasten our pace, the journey was a very long one ; and we could 
not press our horses, as they were too heavily laden. Through Sarcelles we came on 
to the beautiful chateau of Ecouen, where we received a most hearty welcome. Indeed, 
not once since I came out have I been so much gratified as on this occasion. One of 
the doctors insisted on giving up his own room to us. Our visit was looked upon as a 
fete, and although the fare was rough, it was given with the most hearty hospitality. 
After dinner the chief, Dr. Tegener, made a speech in which he said that many had 
made promises to them which had not been performed, but this day they had amongst 
them gentlemen who, having made a promise, came through fire to keep it. I must 
add that Mr. Forbes (correspondent of the ' Daily News ') dined with us, and he was 
the messenger who kindly came to Versailles to seek the aid which we were fortunately 
able to bestow. 

" On the following day, having visited all the patients in the hospital, and having 
seen the first train of the Berlin Hiilfsverein start from Gonesse with wounded men for 
Germany, we started off on our return journey. The firing was not so severe as 
yesterday, but in one or two places the rifle practice upon us was very deliberate, 
and it is a good thing for us that there were no ' running deer cracks ' amongst the 
tirailleurs. 

" I am particularly delighted with this journey, because it proves the advantage 
of a certain amount of independent action, and it also shows how promptly assistance 
may be carried to a great distance without trouble to military authorities and without 
interference with military discipline. Had we taken an escort with us my satisfaction 
would have been considerably diminished. 

" I cannot close this letter without admitting that it would have been almost, if 
not quite impossible to undertake this journey but for Mr. Young, and its success 
is chiefly due to his energy, and the great experience of transport service which he 
possesses. 

" JOHN FURLEY." 



NORTH-EASTERN DISTRICT. 



The following letters from Captain H. Brackenbury, R.A., who had charge of this 
district, and from some of the gentlemen who served with him, contain particulars of 
the work of the district in most of its important centres : — 

" Hotel de V Europe, Arlon, 2th September, 1870. 
" For the first time for more than three days, I find a single moment my 
own — and I sit down in the hopes that I may not be too tired to write you a report 
of the last few days' work. As far as I can remember, I last wrote to you on 
Tuesday morning. I started with Furley for Marbehan by the 3.50 p.m. train. 
Arrived there, we found that the carriage and horses which Furley had laid down for 
our transport had gone off with somebody else — specimen number one of want of 
organisation. We managed to get on to Florenville by the malle-poste, and arrived 
by midnight in a pouring rain. Florenville was crowded with troops and refugees 
from the French towns and villages deserted or destroyed. By good luck we got 
some supper, and some shelter in the lodgings of a M. Nothomb, a son of the 
Commissaire of the Arrondissement of Arlon, who turned out of his own bed to let 
us lie down. We found at Florenville Cape! with the five surgeons or dressers who 
had gone on in the early morning with the Luxembourg Ambulance. I tried to 
arrange with the Bourgmestre for a large room as a depot for stores, if necessary, 
but failed, as he thought everything would be required for troops. I am not sorry 
now, as we can do just as well without it. We got Furley's carriage, and there was 
a fresh change of horses ready ; so, after arranging for the movement of the waggons 
at Florenville, I went on ahead of the surgeons and stores with Capel and Furley to 
Douzy. There I found Dr. Chater, Dr. Lloyd, and Mr. Crookshank, with about 32 
wounded, mostly Germans. I inspected their arrangements, and found that though 
they, aided by some amateurs, had been working very hard, there was a great want 
of blankets, linen, and shirts. They had no system of supply; one or other of 
them would come back to Arlon, or Luxembourg, or Marbehan, or somewhere else 
and get the best things he could. Their wounded were in a house, ground and 

K 



62 

first floors, well enough looked after, but indifferently supplied with the first 
necessaries. I called a council together of Dr. Cliater, his wife, who had been working- 
hard, and Furley, and I asked Capel to be present. After some consultation, I 
decided on placing Chater in charge of the hospital, and holding him responsible for 
its conduct, and for the stores which I proposed to send him. I have formally 
enlisted Mrs. Chater in our service. I entered into the question of establishing a 
larger hospital there, but abandoned it, as for many reasons it would not answer ; 
and if there were nothing else, there are too many men buried only a foot or two 
underground close to the hospital building, for it to be good in a sanitary point of 
view. Indeed, I hope to break up the Douzy establishment altogether very soon. 

" While I was at Douzy, De Kantzow came back from Sedan, and other places 
where he had been exploring, and brought me the welcome news that Dr. Frank was 
at Balan within three or four miles. I drove on at once with Furley, in a little light 
trap which I had got from grande vitesse, and found him established at the Mairie. 
Before I speak of him, let me say in a few words what I saw en route. I know you 
and I agree in not wishing to call up British feeling by dint of relating horrors, so 
I shall speak in a matter of fact way. Horses dead and dying ; newly made graves, 
with dead men a foot or two under the soil ; fields trodden down ; the debris of the 
fight all around ; broken waggons ; boxes for mitrailleuses, all the marks of the battle 
on every side. Presently we reached Bazeilles, which Joanne calls in his guide a 
town of 2,048 inhabitants, situated in the midst of beautiful plantations, with cloth 
factories, forges, and other industry. It was a heap of blackened ruins. Not one 
house stands, from one end of the town to the other. Burnt walls, heaps of stones, 
mud, and desolation, constitute the town of Bazeilles. Balan is not so badly off. 
The fire which was put to it failed to destroy the whole. 

" At Balan, then, I found Dr. Frank and Mr. Blewitt at work in the Mairie, given 
over to them as a hospital. If England can ever gam kind thoughts from France and 
Prussia, it is by the work of such men as these — Frank dressing wounded men all 
through the battle, in a house where the bullets came in like hail through the windows, 
and crashed into the walls of the room — Blewitt going out through the hot fire to get 
what was needed to help. It must have been an awful fight here. 129 Bavarian 
officers, and 2,000 men killed in and about Balan. Street fighting in its worst form, 
and what is worse than street fighting % They had gone from Sedan to Balan the 
night before the battle, on purpose to be ready for the work. And now I found them 
at the work ; and no words that I could use would express the pride that I felt that 
such men had come out from us. They had then 120 wounded, and I learn that they 
have since got many more. I will tell you what I saw. I found them dressing a wounded 
Bavarian who had been hit in the left side by a chassepot ball, which had passed 
through his left lung and out near his spine. I wish the people who have given us 
money so generously could have seen that one sight alone. The young, handsome, 
plucky Bavarian, sitting so coolly while his wounds were dressed with a solution of 
carbolic acid, leaning so completely on Frank, who is a woman in gentleness, and a 
man in strength and firmness, and a young girl of the village helping him and 
Blewitt bravely and quietly. The next case I saw him dress was a French soldier, 
wounded in the thigh by a needle-gun bullet, Avhich seems not to be yet extracted, 
and who groaned so that Frank gave him chloroform, while Blewitt dressed his 
wound. Those were but two sights of many. There they lay together side by side, 
French and Germans, enemies no longer, all quiet in their common suffering. Floors 
covered with the poor fellows, with every sort of wound. Some dying with balls 
through the chest, some with crushed arms or legs from shells. One Frenchman had 
lain for three days in a ditch, and was brought in to have his thigh amputated. He 
asked for a cigar the moment the amputation was over. Another Bavarian with his 
thigh and hip smashed to pieces by a shell ; and alas, in such a condition that I could 
not go near him, though his wounds are dressed with pure carbolic acid. The wounds 
are now in their stage of suppuration, and a cigar was necessary for men who, like 
myself, are not accustomed to such places. But I must pay the highest tribute to 
Dr. Frank for the care with which his patients are tended, the cleanliness and purity 
of his hospitals, and the evident love with which he was regarded by his wounded. 
He speaks French and German perfectly. Blewitt is a thoroughly good French 
speaker. These are the men who do us credit — to whom not only French and 
Germans, but England should be heartily grateful. Dr. Frank has several other 
houses in the village near the Mairie, full of patients. In one he had utilised the 
bacon-hooks in the kitchen ceiling, to sling a broken leg. He is a man of endless 
resources. But I found him badly off for chloroform, while at Douzy they had cases 
of it lying useless. His subcutaneous syringes for morphia were worn out. He was 
badly off for carbolic acid; badly off for linen; badly off for almost everything. He 
had been badly off for food, but now the Bavarians supply rations. I could write 
yon nearly a volume about Frank's hospital alone. But let me wind up with one fact 
fbr the information of medical men: He tied a carotid artery unassisted, and by 
the light of a candle, and with perfect success. Frank wanted no surgical assistance, 
unless I could guarantee him a gentle, clever man. I sent him Mr. F. Aubrey 
Thomas, who came to us with high surgical recommendations from Edinburgh, and 
■/hose charming disposition I had learnt in the few days we passed together. 

" Dr. Frank then went with me to Sedan. There I saw the hospital of our 



63 

An glo- American Ambulance in the caserne on the top of the hill. They have 
400° beds. There we have at work for our Society as surgeons Dr. McCormac, 
Dr. Woodham Webb, Mr. Wyman, Mr. Hewett ; and as dressers, Mr. Scott, Mr. Ryan, 
Mr. Walker ; while the Americans have Dr. Marion Sims as chef d'ambulance, 
Dr. Tilghman, Dr. Pratt, Mr. Nicholl, and Mr. Hayden. I was glad to hear they had 
no fever, though they have gangrene and other mischief. I was unable to stay 
Ion"- enough to see much of the work; but the rooms seemed pretty good for a 
hospital, though not high enough. However, my opinion on these points is worth 
very little. I was iudeed chiefly occupied in filling a bag with bandages for 
Dr. Frank, and my pockets with what bottles they could spare him, of chloroform 
and carbolic acid. Next day I supplied him from the excess at Douzy with some 
useful stores. 

" From Sedan back to Balan, and there we took some supper with Frank, and 
others, in the room where a French officer was lying wounded. To my great 
interest he belonged to the 19th battalion of Chasseurs, of the division of Guyot de 
l'Esparre, which I had travelled with about the end of July from Strasburg to 
Haguenau — the division which covered McMahon's retreat from Woerth, and which 
took a wonderful route to regain McMahon at Chalons, only to suffer terribly again 
at Sedan. I could tell you how much of interest I learnt from him, but it would be 
out of place in this particular business which we have on hand. I should tell you, we 
learnt with much regret, that the Prussian authorities had given orders to break up the 
hospital at Sedan, and Frank's work at Balan ; to remove the wounded, and to place 
the few who cannot be moved under then own surgeons. I was inclined to protest, 
but Dr. Hardwick, whom I saw to-day, thinks it is from mere sanitary motives. You 
will of course understand that the Anglo-American Ambulance behig now attached 
to and working under the French Societe de Secours, I dropped my authority as 
your representative altogether while with them, and was merely an inquirer with a 
view to reporting to you, and to assisting them with supplies. Frank spoke in the 
highest terms of Dr. McCormae's and Dr. Woodham Webb's energy. To show how 
well they are united, a young American surgeon, Dr. May, rode back with us in the 
dark to Balan, to show a peculiar method of using some particular splint to 
Dr. Frank. 

" Back with Furley in the dark to Douzy, past Prussian patrols, who questioned 
nothing, as our white flag with its red cross protected us even from inquiry. Every 
carriage or waggon employed in the service of the wounded carries one of these 
flags ; and every man wears his brassard. 1 am delighted you have sent me some 
brassards, as I requested, stamped with our Society's stamp, which will carry weight. 
Then from Douzy, Capel, De Kantzow, and myself, started for Balan, and drove all 
through the night, changing horses at Florenville, arriving at Arlon at 8 a.m. 
yesterday morning. At Florenville we found a poor cure, dead-beat with his 
exertions, having walked from Sedan, and gave him a lift for 20 miles or so. I 
left Dr. Duncan and Mr. Watson at Douzy, so the staff there consists now of 
Dr. Chater, Dr. Duncan, Mr. Lloyd, Mr. Watson, Mr. Crookshank, and Mrs. Chater. 

" There have been gigantic individual efforts, which have nearly worn out Furley, 
De Kantzow, and others, but which were only isolated efforts. Had there been a 
central power anywhere, and a good staff, we would have made a gigantic combined 
effort, and shown abroad what England can do here, something worthy of the great 
work which her people are doing at home. Even now I do not think it is too late.. 
I am too tired to continue writing, so I must reserve for to-morrow what I have 
done since I came back from Arlon, which I think will please you. I will only add 
now that Capel, who returned to Arlon at 8 A.M. yesterday, and who had driven with 
me nearly 100 miles in 36 hours, started again at 10 A.M. with a convoy of stores back 
to Douzy. He had only the rough country waggon to drive in, and small chance of 
a bed either at Florenville or Douzy. That is work. Such a man, willing to act 
under orders, anxious to help a genial, cheery companion, and speaking French, is 
simply invaluable. Such men save life, save misery, and are a credit to the country 
that sends them out to help in such a glorious cause. 

" I am fast organising a thorough system here ; I am glad to find not only that 
every one lends me the most untiring assistance, but that every one previously out 
here, and every one who comes out, recognises the value of a commander-in-chief, 
from whom they get systematic instructions. Expect further news to-morrow of 
what I have done, after seeing with my own eyes the state of things on the battle- 
field of Sedan. 

" I will only say now that I despatched a convoy to-day to Beaumont, and another 
goes to-morrow to Stenay, another to Douzy, another to Balan. 

"HENRY BRACKENBURY." 



" 2, St. Martins Place, October 4dh, 1870. 
" During the few hours of my stay in England, where I have arrived in order 
to consult the Committee on some important questions connected with our future 

K 2 



G4 

proceedings, I have only time to write a. short report of the work which has been 
carried on under my immediate supervision during the month of my absence as your 
chief representative on the Continent. I started on the 3rd of September, accompanied 
by the Hon. Reginald Capel. Alter obtaining, through the kindness of His Excellency 
Mr. Savile Lumley, valuable credentials at Brussels, I proceeded to Luxemburg and 
inquired into the desirability of establishing a depot there. I found that, owing to 
difficulties in connection with customs and railway transport, Luxemburg was not a 
desirable situation. Arlon and Libramont were the two places between which to 
decide. Libramont offered certain advantages ; it was nearer to Sedan than any 
other station on the railway, and it was nearer to London and Brussels than Arlon. 
But, on the other hand, there was no building there obtainable as a store; the urgent 
needs of the hospitals about Sedan rendered it impossible to wait some days while a 
store could be built. Besides, at Libramont, which is a small village, there was no 
facility for hiring transport or for buying wine, cigars, and other comforts and neces- 
saries for the wounded. Moreover, Libramont was already overcrowded by the stores 
of the Belgian and other societies ; the railway staff was insufficient to work on a 
large scale, especially as the difficulties might at any moment be complicated by the 
transport of the wounded through the station. On the other hand, Arlon offered the 
greatest advantages. A first-rate store, the ground floor of the Palais de Justice, was 
placed at my disposal by the authorities : everything could be bought in the town. 
The commissary of the arrondissement arranged for the hire of transports ; the com- 
missary of police for labour. By way of Florenville Sedan could be reached in twenty- 
four hours by our waggons ; and for the important district about Stenay, Beaumont, 
and Mouzon, Arlon was even nearer than Libramont. Besides it had this advantage, 
that it would at once serve as a depot for our own hospital at Briey, and, as soon as 
our organisation should be sufficiently advanced, for the supply of necessaries and 
comforts to all the hospitals around Metz on the left bank of the Moselle. Our 
progress was necessarily slow till a sufficient staff was sent out from England. But 
within a week of my leaving England we were fully at work, supplying the hospitals 
round Sedan by means of country carts hired in the neighbourhood of Arlon. The 
wants at this time were immense, and although we had at one time between 40 and 
50 two-horse waggons at work, I found it was impossible to supply Briey or the Metz 
district west of the Moselle to any extent, 

" I was once compelled to divert a convoy of ten waggons, loaded and about to 
start for Briey, to the Anglo-American hospital at Sedan, where I found how urgent 
were its immediate needs. In course of time, as our establishment at Arlon became 
known, requisitions poured in upon us from Prussian, French, Bavarian, and Belgian 
ambulances, and these were invariably complied with, not always to the full extent 
demanded, but always to the full extent of what was really required, both from the 
stores sent out from England and from what we purchased at Arlon and at Brussels. 
Our own hospitals at Beaumont, Douzy, Balan, Bazeilles, and Sedan were thoroughly 
supplied. I forwarded to you a letter from the secretary of the Belgian Comite de 
Secours, thanking me for Vappui incessant et utile which I had rendered to them ; and 
one from the French Societe to the same effect, speaking of our tres genereux gifts. I 
may add here that, with your permission, I advanced the sum of £1,000 to the Surgeon- 
in-Chief of the 5th French Ambulance, which was urgently in need of pecuniary aid, 
and must, but for our assistance, have been disbanded. Three of our own surgeons, 
Messrs. Cooper, Millson, and Horner, were attached to this ambulance. As the wants 
of the Sedan district became supplied, and as the wounded were rapidly evacuated 
from the hospitals on that battle-held, it became possible for me to turn my attention 
to the Metz district. Hitherto the strain had been so great that I had neither time to 
examine into the wants round Metz, nor to establish those personal relations with the 
chief authorities which it was desirable I should maintain. But Dr. Hardwicke, 
Mr. Ernest Hart, and Dr. Berkeley Hill, had rendered us valuable services by inquiring 
into and reporting upon the condition of things here, and we specially have to thank 
these two latter gentlemen, who, though not agents of our Society, took the very 
greatest trouble on our behalf. Thus, when I was able to go to Saarbriick, the way 
was, to some extent, paved for our reception. By this time also Sir Paul Hunter had 
bought a number of covered camions at Brussels, with horses and harness, and had 
hired drivers, so that we became independent of hired transport, almost impossible to 
obtain in the Metz district. At Saarbriick I was fortunate in establishing friendly 
relations with the Royal Commissioners of the Freiwillige Krankenpfiege, commonly 
known as the Johanniter, and with their aid obtained a piece of ground in the railway 
premises, adjoining a siding. There I caused a large Avooden store to be built, beside 
the doors of which the railway vans can load and unload our goods. After some little 
difficulty I obtained independence of action in the distribution of our stores, and at the 
same time arranged to work in concert both with the military authorities, the 
Johanniter, and the Berlin Iliilfsverein. I will take this opportunity of expressing my 
conviction that this independence of action is actually necessary. Both the Johanniter 
and the Berlin Society have given from their stores to Prussian troops who are not 
ill, on the principle that * prevention is better than cure.' However sound this 
doctrine may be in the abstract, it is undeniable that we should be guilty of a breach 
of neutrality if we allowed any of our stores to go to any but the sick and wounded in 
hospitals, and although we might have the guarantee of the Johanniter and Berlin 



65 

Society that our goods should only be given to sick and wounded, yet practically we 
should be enabling them to help still further the troops from their own stores. I 
have, therefore, everywhere insisted upon independence of action as an indispensable 
condition of our rendering assistance. Our present position in the country where I 
have been working is this : — The Arlon depot is in charge of the Hon. R. Capel, and is 
still supplying the needs which remain about Sedan by hired transports. Every 
hospital north of a line due east and west through Florenville, has been visited by 
the Rev. W. Butler ; all south of that by Mr. Stewart Sutherland. I send you their 
written reports, shewing that comparatively few wounded remain. These reports 
were accompanied by requisitions from all the heads of hospitals, and these requisitions 
have already been complied with from Arlon. At the same time our advanced depot 
is established at Briey, where we have surgeons at work. This depot is sup- 
plied by hired transport from Arlon. Our own horses and waggons convey the 
stores daily from Briey to the hospitals on the left bank of the Moselle. Similarly 
at Saarbriick our depot under Mr. J. C. Bushnan is by this time in working- 
order. Our advanced depot, under Captain Norman and Mr. Austin Lee, is at 
Remilly. There our own horses and waggons are stationed, and convey stores 
daily to the hospitals on the right bank of the Moselle. Within a few days 
from this date, I trust we shall be in a position to say that all the sick and wounded 
French or Germans in the whole circle round Metz have all the comforts they require. 
Would that we were allowed to do as much in the inner circle in French possession ! 
Now with regard to hospitals ; we have no longer nearly a thousand wounded under 
English charge. Dr. MacCormac remains at Sedan with some 70 bad cases ; Dr. Frank, 
at Bazeilles and Balan, with about an equal number. I have accepted charge of a 
hospital of 90 or 100 beds, at Saarbriick, and placed Drs. Junker and Rodgers in charge. 
Dr. Hirschfeld has some 60 cases at Briey. With these surgeons are several assistants 
and nurses whom for the sake of brevity I do not name. 

" It will doubtless be asked in what proportion have we given aid in this district 
to French and to Germans ? At Sedan they were all lying side by side in the hospitals, 
in charge, some of French, some of German, some of English, some of Belgian 
surgeons. Aid was given by us to all equally ; and I say unhesitatingly that by 
French and German surgeons the same assistance and comforts were given to the 
wounded in their hospitals, whatever their nationality. The peculiar difficulties under 
which the French Society labours made me specially anxious to come to its aid, and 
the letters which I have already mentioned show this has been done. About 
Metz the aid will of necessity be mostly given to the Germans, but not entirely. 
There are many French wounded in the hospitals, and there will be several 
in the hospitals under our care. In regard to the future, we must now push 
on into the interior of France. Everywhere we shall find the Johanniter to 
act in concert on the German side with us. I have already held a conference with the 
head-quarters of the French Society at Brussels, whom I am again to meet to-morrow 
to arrange for affording them every assistance. The great questions now are depots 
and transports. To have the stores at hand and the means of conveying them where 
they are wanted are the two first necessities of the moment. With these I trust we 
shall at once successfully deal. I hope that this report will show that we have not 
been idle or wanting hi judgment. A gentleman whose presence among us for a short 
time was the sole really disagreeable fact in a month of unceasing labour, otherwise 
made pleasant by the hearty friendship of the whole staff, has thought fit to criticise 
our domgs in a hostile spirit in the columns of the press. The only tangible com- 
plaints which he makes are answered by this report. We have not perfection of 
organisation. Much might have been better. But it must be remembered that our 
Society was not commenced till three weeks after the war broke out, that one month 
ago we had no organisation in this district, and that the gentleman in question came 
here before we had been a week at work. Before closing this report I wish in the 
first place to thank you and the Committee for the staunch support you have given 
me, and then to express my unbounded obligations to the whole staff who have 
worked with me. Always through the whole day, often through the working night, 
every one has shown a spirit of pluck and energy that have alone enabled us to do 
even what has been done. It is difficult to select any for special mention, but the 
Hon. Reginald Capel, who travelled out with me, Sir Paul Hunter, Mr. Ramsay 
Bushnan, Mr. Bingley, and Mr. J. C. Bushnan have rendered specially valuable services. 
There is ample work for a few more gentlemen of good position, who can speak French 
and German. The Johanniter are all noblemen, and prefer to deal with gentlemen ; 
but all who are not, to some extent, linguists are comparatively useless. I ought not 
to end without again thanking Mr. Lumiey for his aid, and also the Belgian authorities, 
especially those of Arlon. The Luxemburg Committee rendered us considerable 
assistance, and among the Johanniter who befriended us I would especially beg to 
thank Count Konigsmarck and Herr von Treskow, the latter of whom remains at 
Remilly on purpose to facilitate our operations. 

" HENRY BRACKENBURY, Captain R.A." 



66 

" Metz, 21st November, 1870. 
"Dear Colonel Lindsay, 

" I write you a line to say that 1 was at the Governor's house to-day when 
the news was brought in that a magazine had exploded in Fort Plappeville, and that 
a number of men, mostly French prisoners, were severely injured. 

" Within less than an hour four of our spring fourgons, with mattresses, blankets, 
and pillows, and well provided with lint, brandy, and all necessary comforts, were on the 
spot under Mr. Ramsay Bushnan and Mr. Anderson. Their brandy and their blankets 
were invaluable, and they brought back eight of the most severely wounded to the 
hospitals, while the remainder had to be removed in springless country carts. I hope 
you will think the shouts of ' Bravo Englander ! ' which greeted Mr. Bushnan on his 
arrival at the Fort were not undeserved. 

" Believe me, 

" Ever sincerely yours, 

" HENRY BRACKENBURY, Captain, R.A." 



" Royal Military Academy, Woolivich, Feb. 4, 1871. 

" I leave with the less regret the work which for five months our Committee has 
confided to my care, because the conclusion of an armistice, which it is earnestly to 
be hoped may lead to a lasting peace, coincides exactly with the expiration of the 
term during which my services were placed at your disposal by the military 
authorities. I would now ask the press kindly to publish these few closing remarks 
on the nature and results of the Society's efforts in the large district in which I have 
acted as your chief representative from the battle of Sedan to the capitulation of 
Paris. 

" First let me state in what condition I leave the Society's work in that district. 
We have a depot at Meaux constantly supplied with the most important articles for 
hospital use, by way of Ostend and Saarbruck. 

" At Ostend, Brussels, and Luxembourg, our own agents expedite the passage of 
our stores ; and at Saarbruck we have a depot for unloading the Belgian waggons, 
and loading the German waggons, which are thence sent to the front under charge 
of English gentlemen, who never leave their waggons on the road, even sleeping in 
them at night. Nothing can exceed the dulness and monotony of this railway 
convoy work, to which Captain Norman, Mr. Boylan, and others have steadily 
devoted themselves for many weeks past. 

" I enclose you a map showing 76 towns and villages round Paris, containing 
hospitals that have been supplied from our depot at Meaux with such necessaries and 
comforts for the sick and wounded, by whom they are filled, as it is morally 
impossible they could ever have received, but for volunteer aid. These villages are 
almost entirely deserted by the French inhabitants, and the Germans, though doing 
all they can, are unable to meet the great wants of these numerous hospitals, con- 
taining thousands of sick and wounded, too ill to be moved from the beds on which 
they lie. Our aid, given most impartially to the French and Germans, has saved 
lives and relieved suffering to an extent difficult to realise. 

" And it has been very gratefully received. Not only are our fourgons hailed 
with pleasure by the surgeons in charge of the hospitals, but I have myself been the 
witness of the expression of thanks of high German military authorities, and French 
civilians. The French Mayor of Lagny has had the names of our Meaux staff 
inscribed in the records of the town. The Mother Superior of the Hotel Dieu at 
Lagny told me the wounded in their hospitals must have died but for us. The 
Crown Prince of Saxony and the Wurtemberger General in command at Meaux are 
among those on the German side who have publicly expressed their gratitude. 

" Now I am very anxious to make known at what cost of personal exertion by 
our staff the Society's work is carried out, for the large sum of money subscribed by 
the public by no means represents all that England is doing in this noble cause. 
I will take Meaux as an example of our depots — its staff as an example of the men 
working on our behalf — their labours as an example of the labours freely and 
ungrudgingly given by our volunteer agents. The depot at Meaux is under charge 
of an English gentleman, a retired captain of Austrian cavalry, whose previous 
experience of war, when on the Staff in the campaign of Italy, and whose thorough 
knowledge of languages peculiarly fit him for the post. Under him are two officers, 
retired from our own army, a Cambridge Wrangler reading for the Bar, a clerk of 
the House of Lords, a captain of the London Scottish Volunteers, a bankers' clerk, 
and a medical student, besides business men in charge of the stores. The 23 horses, 
and their English and Belgian drivers, are under the control of the driver of the 
Waterloo coach. 

" In Bpibe of thin strange mixture of classes and professions, so well has the staff 
been selected, that among all those; sent out by your Committee — amounting to 
considerably more than 100 in my district — there has not been one case of 
dishonesty, and scarcely one failure of any kind. And I must not omit here to 



speak of the noble self-sacrificing exertions of the medical staff of our various 
hospitals, and the English ladies who have acted as nurses. 

" When authentic requests for supplies are received at the depot, the stores 
are sent in our own fourgons, under charge of a member of the staff. The journey is 
generally of from two to six days' duration. The fourgons have been well under 
tire; the chances of shelter for the night are always doubtful. Mr. Hinton was 
searching for stabling for his horses from 4 o'clock one afternoon till 2 o'clock the 
next morning. Through all that bitter weather of the past' two months, our 
English fourgons showed their Union Jacks everywhere round Paris, with English 
gentlemen sitting for hours upon the driving seat, exposed to the piercing cold. 
In some instances the hardship has caused personal suffering. Mr. Sutherland, 
Mr. Jeune, Mr. Hinton, Mr. Barrington Kennett, Mr. Job have done what Capel used 
to call our ' carter's work' under much exposure and privation, with the most 
unflinching good humour. It is not to be wondered at that, as Captain Nevill 
writes, the people who see the work can only slowly believe that it is done without 
some deep ulterior motive. 

" I have been grieved to see persistent statements that We have done more for 
the Germans than the French, and that we have only been relieving the Germans 
from doing for their own and the French wounded what otherwise they must have 
done. Both these statements are very wrong, and the last argues entire ignorance 
of the terrible strain under which Germany is carrying on this war. Germany is 
makhig enormous efforts on behalf of the sick and wounded, but do all she can she 
cannot meet the wants. Belgium, Luxembourg, Switzerland, Russia, have all lent 
a hand to the poor suffering victims, to raise them from their straw to decent beds, 
to give them the sustenance required to sustain life in bodies drained of blood, to 
aid by surgical skill the overtaxed exertions of the German surgeons. But I need 
not say England stands pre-eminently first in this work of charity. In regard to 
our aid not being given equally to the French, I have often been accused abroad of 
doing more for them than for the Germans. 1 have honestly striven to keep the 
balance even, but the spectacle of destitution and humiliation, mental and bodily 
suffering which the invaded districts of France afford, compel the sympathies of 
most men rather towards weak France than towards strong Germany, proud in her 
consciousness of power. We have done all in our power for the French. Not a 
tale of sore need has reached my ears but it has been inquired into, and relieved 
according to its circumstances. And I am bound once more to speak of the frank 
gratitude with which France has accepted our help. AVere it necessary, I coidd call up 
an overwhelming array of evidence to show, how much we have done for the French 
side. I have never asked for testimonials or an expression of thanks ; and you 
knoAV in what manner the French Govornment has desired to show, through me, its 
appreciation of our Society's efforts. There is not a Frenchman in the north of 
France who would not repudiate the idea of our Society's having failed in its duty 
to his country. 

" In conclusion, I append a short summary of the heads of the work done in my 
district during five months. That it has been given to me to act will be to me for 
ever a source of supreme gratefulness and pleasure. 

" HENRY BRACKENBURY." 



«' Summary of Work from the 1st of September, 1870, to the 31st of 

January, 1871. 

" Establishment and maintenance of field hospitals in connection with the English. 
Society at Sedan, Balan, Bazeilles, Douzy, Beaumont. 

" Supply of necessaries and comforts to all the hospitals on the battle-field of 
Sedan by the Society's transport from a depot established at Arlon. 

" Supply of the field hospitals round Metz by the Society's transport from depots 
established at Saarbriick, Remilly, Briey. 

" Establishment of an hospital at Metz. 

" Relief of 20,000 wounded in the hospitals at Metz by a depot established in the 
town. 

" Establishment of an hospital at Epernay. 

" Supply of the hospitals round Paris from a depot at Meaux. 

" Visits to the French hospitals throughout the district, and their relief by grants 
of money or of stores. 

" Assistance to the French Societe de Secours, enabling it to organize several of 
its ambulances, which would otherwise have been dissolved. 

" In all the hospitals (except that at Metz, which was exclusively French), both 
French and German wounded were treated." 



68 

The following is an extract from the Report of Messrs. Millson, Cooper, and 
Horner, who were attached to the Fifth French Ambulance : — 

" Having been sent out by the Society, August 15, we first went to Paris, and 
offered our services to the French Society ; not being required there, we left on the 
18th for Chalons, were there accepted for the 5th French Ambulance, and joined it 
at Rheims on the 21st, taking with us our knapsacks and rugs. 

" The Ambulance consisted of 1 surgeon in chief, 4 surgeons, 12 aides, and 24 
sous-aides; 1 constable in chief j 6 constables, 100 infirmiers; 6 voitures laden with 
necessaries. 

" Following MacMahon's corps on foot, and being in the rear, we had even 
greater privations to suffer than his soldiers — a hayloft or a truss of straw our 
usual sleeping place. We carried our own provisions with us, and when a halt was 
called, cooked our beefsteak or whatever we had the good luck to lay our hands on 
during the day's march. Without further enlarging on the details of our march, 
continued daily from the 21st to the 30th, we pass to our first active operations, at 
a village called Autrecourt, where a thread manufacturer offered his house and factory 
for the disposal of the wounded. The village having fallen into the hands of the 
Prussians, the Ambulance soon received a large number of Prussian wounded, and also 
of French, the total number there treated by them being 347. As soon as possible, the 
voitures were unloaded, the instruments and drugs got ready, rooms and beds 
prepared for the wounded, as well as separate rooms for operations and for the 
pharmacie. Some of the voitures, when empty, were got ready for transporting 
surgeons, infirmiers, and brancards to the field, to return with wounded. A very 
large tent and a smaller one were also pitched ; and the red cross flags posted every 
where. After numbers had been brought in from the terrific battle, the voitures 
were sent out again in the afternoon for those lying too far off for the infirmiers to 
bring in on brancards ; and during the greater part of the night fresh arrivals were 
constantly brought in, keeping us hard at work. The building being filled, and the 
tents also, other sufferers were provided for on the 31st, in the church, the school- 
house, the barns, and in private houses." 

On September 3rd, Messrs. Millson and Cooper remaining at Autrecourt, part 
of the Ambulance, including Mr. Horner, left for La Ramaurie, a village 1^ miles from 
Sedan, and passed through Bazeilles still fresh from its recent utter destruction. 
At La Ramaurie a terrible scene presented itself. Wounded were lying in a horrible 
condition, only having been dressed once, at the time of the battle. Several ampu- 
tations had to be performed. Food they had none, except biscuits and potatoes. 
Alas ! the bridge being broken, the provision waggon did not arrive before night- 
fall. September 4th was spent in a further search for wounded ; and even as late 
as the 12th fresh wounded were brought in, having hitherto had no proper surgical 
attendance." 

Mr. Horner having for a time been detached to help Dr. Frank at Balan and 
Bazeilles, he then returned to La Ramaurie : and the greater part of the Ambulance 
hurried forward on the 19th to enter Belgium ; provision being made for the care 
of their patients at Autrecourt and La Ramaurie. Our three agents soon found 
themselves at Brussels, and were fortunately able to make some provision for the 
severity of the coming winter. 

"September 26. After three days' travel with the same 5th Ambulance, 
we endeavoured to enter Paris — thence to Blois — thence marching the whole 
way to Orleans, not obtaining any rest until reaching there on October 6th. 
On the 9th on to Artenay, where we helped in the charge of 185 sufferers, 
after the battle there on the 10th, resulting in the capture of Orleans. All 
day long we were under fire, but were mercifully unharmed. From the 10th to the 
26th, having been employed between Orleans and Artenay, we next went towards 
Louny, and joined the 15th Corps d'Armee of the Army of the Loire; and on the 
3rd December were near the French in retreat. That evening and next day large 
parties of Turcos appealed for help, having lost their way, tired and very hungry, 
and many of them wounded. Marching from village to village, we reached 
Terminiers on December 9, where part of us remained; the rest proceeding to a 
village called l'Echelles ; and found full employment in both places, in the charge of 
191 wounded, besides that of 172 at Ncuvilliers, by another portion of the Ambu- 
lance. The wounded were lodged in the school, in farms, in private houses; and at 
l'Echelles many were in barns, where at night sheep or cattle were driven in to the 
adjoining shed to keep the patients as warm as we could. They almost buried 
themselves in the straw during the very cold weather. We had great difficulty in 
keeping good ventilation ; for the cold was often too intense to permit the windows 
being opened for more than a few minutes at a time." 



69 

Messrs. A. T. Norton and H. Sewill report as follows on the hospital established 
at Briey, near Metz : — 

London, October 7, 1870. 

In accordance with your request, we now proceed to give, as briefly as possible, 
an account of our proceedings whilst at the seat of war in the service of the Society, 
both as regards the duties we performed as medical men, and as regards the supplies 
forwarded to us for distribution. 

We arrived in Briey, via Esch, in Luxembourg, on the evening of August 30th, 
having with us a waggon and two carriages loaded with stores. We were immediately 
waited upon by the Prussian Inspector of Hospitals, by Staff-Surgeon Josephsohn, by 
two Swiss volunteer surgeons in charge of wounded, and by the Maire of the town, all of 
whom were in the greatest need of the materials we had brought. A distribution was 
at once made, and to each was given enough for the moment. Reserving a portion of 
the stores for our own use in Briey, we made an excursion the next day to the villages 
of St. Privat, Ste. Marie, AmanviJliers, and Jerusalem. Here, as we have already 
informed you, we found numbers of badly wounded men in great want of necessary 
appliances and comforts, and we therefore supplied them freely from our stock. 

On the following morning, September 1, Mr. Sewill returned to Esch, with the 
empty waggons, for the stores which had been left at the railway station there. 
Mr. Norton in the meantime visited the wounded at Briey with the Swiss surgeons, 
whom we have already mentioned, and was begged by them to take charge of twenty 
cases lying in the Maine, it being understood that the rest should be handed over 
within the next few days. We must here remark that there were in Briey about 200 
German sick under Dr. Josephsohn, and about 150 wounded, chiefly French, under the 
Swiss surgeons, who were about to leave. Mr. Norton at once commenced the 
treatment of the cases. He also distributed medicines, &c, to the other ambulances in 
the town. 

Mr. Sewill returned from Esch September 2, with a large supply of material. 

The rest of the wounded were now handed over to us in conjunction with 
Dr. Josephsohn. They were lying some in the convent and schools, some in the 
Mairie, and others in the numerous houses and cottages scattered through the town. 

The wounded in Briey were all comparatively well lodged ; and this, with the 
unusually healthy site of the town, the abundance of good water, and sufficiency of 
food, together with other circumstances which we will presently mention, placed them 
under exceptionally favourable conditions towards recovery. 

We found that most of the capital operations had been done immediately after 
the battle, but there remained a percentage of secondary amputations and excisions 
of joints, and also some minor operations to be performed. Many of the compound 
fractures, at the time of our arrival, were put up in the necessarily rough apparatus 
of the battle-field. We had neither splints nor suitable appliances for these cases in 
our possession, nor could we obtain them in the town. We therefore commenced to 
improvise them from plaster of Paris and sheets of tin-plate, a moderate quantity of 
which was fortunately to be obtained. With the assistance of a carpenter, who 
constructed bed-cradles, a suitable apparatus was adjusted to each case. 

The nursing at Briey was of the best kind. It was carried out by five trained 
sisters attached to the convent, and by a number of yotmg ladies who volunteered for 
the service. 

Having this able assistance, one or more of our party was released from time to 
time to return to Esch for supplies, and to make excursions to the villages around 
Metz, there to inquire into the condition of the wounded, to assist the medical men 
in charge, and to supply them with articles from our depot. 

We need not enter into details with respect to the daily treatment of the 
wounded under our care at Briey. Suffice it to say, they remained in our hands 
until we left for England, by which time, although some few had died, and others 
were still desperately ill, many were convalescent, and many more were out of danger. 

We come now to speak more particularly of the stores which we distributed. 
We received from Esch, during our stay at Briey, altogether eleven waggon loads. 
The following list of the contents of one of these waggons, copied from our invoice, 
will show what was the general character of the supplies : — 

4 bales of blankets, 25 in each. 

2 bales of bandages, lint, &c. 

2 bales of clothing and sundries. 

1 bale of beds and pillow cases. 

1 bale of india-rubber goods and various apppliances. 

4 bales of shirts, night caps, and old linen. 

1 case of biscuits. 

2 cases of rum. 

1 case of cognac. 

1 case of wine. 

1 case of carbolic acid. 

1 case of medicines. 

1 c:ise of extract of meat. 

1 case of coffee. 

L 



70 

In addition to these supplies, which had been sent from England, we purchased 
large quantities of wine, spirits, cigars, chocolate, and bread in Luxembourg. 

The wounded at Briey, whilst under our care, were supplied almost exclusively 
from our depot with medicines and medical appliances, and also with wine and spirits, 
chocolate, cigars, extract of meat, and similar medical comforts. In addition, we 
provided them with blankets and clothing. The Prussian fever and dysentery cases 
were, at the time we arrived at Briey, very inadequately provided for. The patients 
were in numbers upon straw, without blankets ; and there was great want of 
medicines, as well as of wine and spirits, extract of meat, and similar stores. We 
were able to supply beds and blankets from our ample stock, and to distribute from 
day to day considerable quantities of every other requisite. 

In our excursions we visited the following villages, some of them repeatedly ; 
Moutier, Auboue, Malancourt, Ste. Marie, Roncourt, St. Privat, Batilly, Jerusalem, 
Jouaville, Amanvilliers, Doncourt, Montigny-la-Grange, Chatel, Gravelotte, Ars- 
sur-Moselle, Corny, Mars-la-Tour, Gorze, Ancy, St. Marcel, Yionville, and Verne- 
ville. Each of these places contained sick and wounded, and in each there was 
urgent Avant of material such as we were able to dispense. It is not necessary that 
we should specify the articles distributed in each village ; it is enough to say the 
supplies were given in each instance after a personal investigation of the nature and 
requirements of the cases. Wo have great confidence in assuring you that, although 
the misery we beheld appeared to defy any power to cope with it, still the stores of 
the Society distributed in the districts above mentioned must have been the means of 
mitigating much suffering, and probably of saving many lives. 

On September 23rd Mr. Sewill set out for England. Mr. Norton went to Arlon, 
where he gave in a requisition at the chief depot of the Society, for stores sufficient 
to fill five waggons, and these were at once despatched. He then returned to Briey, 
and made the necessary arrangements for stabling and storage, so that this place, 
continuously supplied from Arlon, should in future become a depot, from which stores 
might be constantly forwarded to the villages on the north and west of Metz, and that 
when that city should be opened supplies would be at hand to relieve the sufferings 
necessarily existing there. 

Mr. Hirschfelcl, with Mr. Lyman and Mr. Herdman, was now placed in medical 
charge of the Society's ambulance at Briey ; and, having seen all the final arrangements 
completed, Mr. Norton left for London on the 1st October. 

We must not omit to mention that Mr. Lyman, who accompanied us from England, 
was associated with us in the work above described. 

In conclusion, we are glad to inform you that in the neighbourhoods in which we 
worked the benefits conferred by the Society appeared to be gratefully appreciated. 
Inspector of Hospitals Lehmann told us that he had written to thank you in the 
name of the Prussian authorities for what they had received ; and before leaving 
Briey we were called upon by the Maire and Sous-Prefet, who presented us with an 
official letter, of which the enclosed is a copy, expressing the thanks of the towns- 
people for the services we had rendered and for the stores we had distributed. 

A. TREHERN NORTON. 
HENRY SEWILL. 



" Briey, le 22 Sept., 1870. 
kk Messieurs, 

" An nom des habitants de Briey, le Maire de la ville et moi nous venons vous 
remercier des soins que vous avez donnes a nos blesses et des secours de toute nature 
que vous avez distributes dans nos ambulances. 

" Pendant votre sejour au milieu des blesses de St. Privat, de Ste. Marie, et de 
Doncourt, vous avez pu apprecier l'etendue de leurs besoins et rinsuffisance de nos 
ressources. Aussi nous n'hesitons pas a faire, en faveur des blesses de l'armee 
Francaise, un nouvel appel a la generosite de la Societe que vous represent ez. 

" Veuillez agreer, Messieurs, avec tous nos remerciments, Tassurance de nos 
sentiments les pins distingues. 

" Pour le Maire de Briey, 

" L'adjoint, SIMONNE. 

" Le Sous-Prefet de Briey, 

" A. GHEERBRANT. 
" Messieurs A. Norton et II. Sewill." 



Mr. Henry Austin Leo was lor some time in charge of the depot opened at Remilly. 
Dear Metz. He writes as follows: — 

" Remilly, October 25th, 1870. 
" I forward to you a report of the last expedition which we have made in the 



71 

neighbourhood of Metz, with the fc fourgous " belonging to the National Aid 
Society. 

" On the 18th instant, leaving Mr. Drummond Chapman in charge of the store at 
Remilly, with full instructions and permission to distribute the stores and to satisfy 
all requisitions liberally, but judiciously, I started, accompanied by Captain W. F. 
Norman and Dr. Bennett, at the head of five fourgons all heavily laden with the 
stores most likely to be useful, in the direction of Corny, the head-quarters of Prince 
Frederick Charles. The Hospital which lay immediately in our route, had either 
been already visited and supplied by our waggons on a previous journey a few days 
before, or had themselves sent for stores to our depot at Remilly, so we were able to 
push on with all speed to reach Corny the same night, where we hoped to find good 
quarters for our twelve horses. Owing to the position of the outposts we were 
compelled to make a somewhat long detour, and we passed in succession the villages 
of Sorbey, Mecleuves, Cherisey, and Verny, stopping to rest our horses at 
Pommerieux. We failed to find any accommodation, so there was nothing to be 
done but to prepare to spend the night ' sub Jove frigido.' A night bivouac was no 
pleasant prospect with a wet clay soil beneath your feet, and a temperature not 
many points above freezing. We selected the driest spot in a field half ploughed 
half bog outside the village, and drawing up our waggons in line, we picketed our 
horses near them, and lighted a large camp fire on which we cooked our supper. Our 
bed was on the deal boxes in the waggons ; and packed like sardines in a tin box we 
slept, or tried to sleep, till day broke. A shake then completed our toilette, and I went 
off to see Dr. Loeffler before making arrangements for our day's work. He received me 
with great courtesy and seemed glad to be able to select some stores from our well-filled 
waggons. I left some potatoes for the iise of the sick, and he expressed his regret at 
being unable to procure them in sufficient quantities for the troops, as they were an in- 
valuable antiscorbutic. I heard from Dr. Loeffler that the hospitals further to the west 
were in want of stores, and so I determined without delay to go on there at once, and 
to detach Captain Norman and Dr. Bennett to go southwards visiting and relieving 
all the hospitals which lay on their route to Remilly. I desired them to make their 
way back as soon as possible, as the capitulation of Metz is expected daily, and we 
shall then go into the town as soon as possible, and relieve the many sick and 
wounded who must be lying there. With two waggons, and accompanied by two 
Special Correspondents, I crossed the pontoon bridge to Novrant, where there are 
many sick, and not a few wounded, but all Dr. Loeffler told me of we cared for. 
Our first halting place was Gorze, a pretty town situated in a basin, surrounded by 
high hills. It has been rendered for ever famous as being the spot where began that 
series of battles which have rendered historic the third week of August, 1870. The 
streets then flowed with blood, but now for the most part the wounded are eva- 
cuated, and only the sick remain. The road from Gorze to Rezonville runs through 
the ground which was the scene of the most deadly and determined fighting. The 
number of graves marked by rude crosses, which stud the roadside, tell of a deadly 
struggle, and a sickening smell which the barrels of lime scattered over the fields 
have not sufficed to disperse, prepares one for the universal statement that typhus 
fever is everywhere rife. At Rezonville we met with a hearty welcome from the 
Chef-Arzt. Stores were much needed, and the distance from a railway station made 
them difficult to be obtained. Victims from the battle-field around still lay there, 
and a liberal distribution of port wine and preserved soups and broth was thankfully 
received. This village and Gravel otte were the two greatest hospitals after the 
three days' battles. It was late in the evening ere we reached the village of Grave- 
lotte ; we had better luck than at Corny, for, thanks to the good offices of two 
officers of a Schleswig-Holstein regiment, we found good quarters for man and beast. 
A few wounded still remain here unable to be moved, but typhus and dysentery are 
now the soldier's most bitter and most relentless enemies. The former disease has 
in some cases assumed the form called by doctors, I believe, ' erythematous,' and in 
many parts its type is most violent. Dr. Loeffler had told me that a supply of stores 
at Etain and Conflans was much required, but I hardly dared to venture so far from 
Remilly, for our horses were already beginning to show signs of fatigue ; and besides, 
being so close to Briey, they should be supplied from there, so I have already 
written to you to request that a telegram may be sent to Arlon and cause this to be 
done at once. The next morning, after having visited the Lazareth and supplied it 
with stores of wine, &c., we turned northwards. At one point we lay down or hid 
behind trees, stalking up to the crest of the hill lest our too prominent forms on the 
sky-line might draw the French fire upon us. Hearing at Hauconcourt that the sick 
and wounded had for the most part been transferred to Richemont and other hos- 
pitals, I left a few cases of wine to be sent to them, promising to send a large supply 
of stores soon after, a promise which I have since fulfilled, for this afternoon three 
waggons started under the care of Dr. Bennett and Mr. Chapman for that neigh- 
bourhood, and llerr von Treskow has kindly undertaken the charge of supplies for 
hospitals lying more to the south, so I hope that no hospital will have been left un- 
cared for. Hurrying on as fast as our horses, now tired out, could take us, we 
reached Vigy at dusk, having crossed the pontoon bridge over the Moselle, and 
passing the villages of Ennery and Antilly, in the former of which lie oOO sick 

L 2 



72 

and wounded who are constantly supplied from our store at Remilly. The hospitals 
at Vigy are full of wounded and sick, but they are judiciously placed in separate 
building's, so that both classes of patients do well. Visiting- the hospitals Avancy 
and Chenby en route, the former of which had just lost a young doctor from typhus, 
and leaving with them what was left in our waggons, we pushed rapidly forward to 
Remilly, taking with us an officer who had been wounded at Noise ville on 1st Sept., 
and was now going home. So ended this expedition. We had made the complete 
tour of Metz, and I hope that we were enabled to do much that will tend to heal the 
sick and comfort the dying. 

•' H. AUSTIN LEE." 



A restaurant for sick and wounded soldiers was established at Forbach, between 
Saarbruck and Metz; and the following letters will show that the measure was a 
useful one : — 

" Saarbruck, 9th March, 1871. 

" I enclose you a letter of thanks from Baron von Hovel, the Delegirte at Forbach. 
By it you will perceive we have relieved up to 5th March no less than 46,964 sick 
and wounded, French and German. I also enclose you a report from Mr. Le Cren, 
but dated further back. Mr. Le Cren leaves in a day or two for London, and will 
give you, should you wish it, all information as to the working of the establishment. 

" J. C. BUSHNAN." 



" Erfrischungs Station, Forbach, 17th February, 1871. 

" Respecting what has been done at this station in the way of relief to the sick 
and wounded passing through on their way to Germany, I beg to hand you the 
following information. 

" During the four months, from 2nd October, 1870, to the 31st of January, 1871, I 
find by the books that the number of men relieved from the kitchen established 
here jointly by our Society and the Johanniters, amounted to 39,181. 

" There are also three small hospitals here, with about 100 to 120 patients 
in all, that are chiefly dependent upon us for such medical comforts as are not supplied 
by the authorities. 

" The total quantities of stores issued during the above period, including those for 
hospitals, and for men passing through, are as follows, viz.: — Cigars, 102,577 ; tobacco, 
383 lbs. : red wine, 4,691 bottles ; port and other strong wines, 421 bottles ; Cognac, 407 
bottles ; brandy, 50 gallons ; stout and porter, 252 bottles ; seltzer water, 905 
bottles ; coffee, 1,344 lbs. ; sugar, 1,592 lbs. ; bread, 5,412 lbs. ; rolls, 34,338 ; biscuits, 
900 lbs.; rice, 200 lbs.; pearl barley, 150 lbs.; hams, tongues, and sausages, about 
520 lbs. ; herrings, 2 hhds. ; candles, 180 lbs. ; condensed milk, 253 tins ; Liebig's 
extract, 165 pts. ; soups and vegetables, 150 tins; matches, 920 boxes; butter, 
142 lbs.; cheese, 130 lbs.; eggs, 2,500. 

" In the way of clothing : — Flannel belts, 730; socks, 3,140 pairs ; drawers, 953 
pairs ; jerseys, 923 ; flannel shirts, 752 ; linen shirts, 1,052 ; blankets, 39 ; pocket 
handkerchiefs, 78; sheets, 222; pillows, 82: pillow cases, 195; slippers, 274 pairs ; 
comforters, 208. 

" This being the evacuation station, whence the sick and wounded are spread over 
the various hospitals in Germany; and the journey having lasted sometimes three 
and four days in very cold weather, the men require rest, and are kept here one night. 

" The accommodation here consists of three barracks, with mattrasses and 
blankets, capable of sleeping 500 men, together with some 85 large railway waggons 
fitted with stoves, for warming them, which are specially attached to this station for 
forwarding the sick to their destination. 

" The personnel attached to Forbach, and acting under the orders of the 
Johanniter Delegirter, consists of two companies of Krankenpfleger, mustering 
originally about 80 men in each. The one from Duisburg, where the men have 
all undergone special training, looks after the sick and wounded while here; and 
the other company from Berlin attend to the loading and unloading, and also travel 
with the wick and wounded on the road. In addition, the Evacuation Commission 
bas a staff surgeon and some 14 assistant surgeons at its disposal. 

" Our usual routine is as follows: — At 3 p.m. we general!}' get a, few men— say, 
from 50 to 100; between 8 and 9 p.m. a few more: and then between 2 and 4 in the 
morning the regular sick- train arrives with from 400 to 700 men. 

" As soon as the train arrives flic men are unloaded by tin- Berliners, the wounded 
being put into one barrack, and the sick into the two others ; hut should there not 
he room enough, then we can put some 100 into tin 1 waiting-rooms, and the rest into 
the waggons with sieves in them. Then, from our kitchen, coffee, bread (or a roll). 



73 

and one cigar, are served out by the Duisburgers, as well as any additional nourish- 
ment required by men that are weak ; at 8 a.m. the men then get breakfast from the 
military kitchen ; at 9 a.m. the Doctors go their rounds, assisted, if necessary, by the 
Duisburgers, and this will sometimes last till 11 or 11.30 a.m., and during the same 
time such articles of clothing are given out to the sick as are really necessary; at 
noon, dinner from the military kitchen; at 1 or 1.30 p.m. the men fall in, and get into 
the train, accompanied by the Berliners to destination ; these latter being provided with 
one cigar for each patient, and also with wine, brandy, Seltzer water, and candles in 
case of need on the journey ; and at about 3 p.m. the train leaves generally just as 
the first lot for the next day's work arrives. 

" You will be pleased to hear that we constantly have men on their way back 
to join their regiments in France, that come in and thank us for the kindness 
shewn to them when going home ill ; besides this, many letters have been received 
to the same effect. 

" There can be no doubt that much good has been done through this station, as 
often men have arrived in the middle of the night, after three days' jotirney with 
nothing to eat but a piece of black bread, and here they get a night's rest, at least, 
in the warm, and some coffee and something to eat as soon as they arrive, which 
enables them to hold out till the military kitchen is open. 

" JAMES DALLIN LE CREN." 



A depot for the supply of hospitals near Paris was formed at Meaux, and after the 
capitulation the stores were established at Vesoul, near Belfort. The following letters 
from Captain Nevill, who was in charge at both places, and from Mr. Hinton, will be 
found to contain much interesting detail : — 

" Meaux, December 11th, 1870. 

" I am sure that you will be pleased to hear that we are able, at last, to reach 
from this depot and alleviate the great misery of the French sick, wounded, and 
prisoners. 

" The sortie of the 30th ultimo, and the fight of the 2nd instant, have filled Lagny 
with French wounded. These are under the care of M. Bonney, Maire, and principal 
doctor of the town. 

" The commune of Lagny has no money, no credit, and the people hardly enough 
to sustain life. 

" Every house, from garret to cellar, is crowded nightly with thousands of sick 
and wounded, who come pouring in daily from the front and the direction of 
Germany. But large numbers must remain behind, the state of their wounds or 
sickness rendering further removal impossible. This naturally increases difficulties, 
as the number of arrivals is greater, not less, day by day. 

" To give you an idea of Lagny is quite impossible. It is at this moment the 
centre of all transport. It receives by rail all the food for the army round Paris, 
sending it on by those long halting convoys that you must remember well. 

" Besides these, and the sick and wounded already mentioned here, the French 
prisoners arrive from all parts, and after hours of agony and hunger are sent on by 
train to Germany in open trucks, at least most of the trucks are open, and those trains 
are so often shunted that they take between five and eight clays to reach Nancy, 
the prisoners, of course, never leaving the waggons, and exposed night and day to 
whatever weather chance may send them, and hunger reaching almost starvation. 

" I have received such pressing demands from both French and Germans at Lagny, 
that I thought it best to go and see for myself how things stood. I drove over there 
last Thursday (15th), and found things even worse than reported. As Oberstabs- 
arzt, Dr. Baer, who came from Lagny yesterday to entreat the town of Meaux to 
help their brethren at Lagny, said, ' No one who has not seen the state of Lagny 
could believe it.' 

" Madame Simon is working there as only she can work, and I am giving her all 
the help [ can. Doctors are not wanting, but the number of sufferers is so great that, 
like an enormous flood, it seems to carry all before it. Here and there those one can 
reach get soup, and even meat, and their wounds dressed, but others are drafted on 
with their wounds undressed for five days at a time, thinking themselves lucky with 
a bit of bread, a drop of water, a handful of straw to lie on. Every corner is crowded, 
staircases, landings, and one may see some under a dull drizzling rain shelterless for 
the night in open yards. 

" Every person in Lagny is working — French women, unasked, helping to carry 
German wounded, and unload them from those wretched springless carts. You will 
see men of the German garrison going up to the French prisoners, and giving them 
money and part of their own rations. But the want, the tilth, and the wretchedness 
are unconquerable. 

" On the, 14th instant, Lagny — already crowded — received 1,900 wounded in the 
afternoon ; of these 1,400 were evacuated on the morning of the 15th, leaving 500 



74 

immovable — and 1,670 fresh cases came in in the afternoon. Therefore Lagny had 
2,170 wounded and sick that night, besides the ordinary number in the hospitals. 

" The three French Hospitals — St. Jean, Bonnes Soeurs, Les Freres, besides some 
seven adjoining houses, are, or rather Avould be, quite destitute, had I not sent 
them several cart-loads of stores. They depend now entirely upon us, and you may 
depend on my not forgetting them. 

" 1 have passed through these hospitals, and questioned every man. They are all 
of the 30th ultimo and 2nd instant, and their very severe wounds have been greatly 
aggravated by their lying out, some two, some three nights, before their being 
removed from the field. Seven of them had their feet so badly frozen that they 
were to be amputated on the day following my visit. The thanks of these poor 
fellows quite overcame me. 

" As Meaux can or will do nothing for the French prisoners passing through Lagny, 
at Dr. Baer's most earnest request, I sent Mr. Kennett there this evening with a 
waggon-load of our meat, with orders to remain there and distribute it to these half 
starving wretches, with bread and salt, which he is to get for that purpose at Lagny. 
This may last two or three days. 

" I also yesterday distributed thirty-eight hams, and as much bread as I could get, 
to a train load (1,600 prisoners) who passed through here; so hungry were these 
men, that their very guards came entreating me to give to such and such waggons 
where no food had been had that day nor the night before. 

" I trust that I am not, in this, exceeding my instructions ; — surely hunger is sick- 
ness ? And I have been thanked most warmly by both French and German. 

" Mr. Job and his convoy returned from Noisiel on night of 14th, where he was 
most heartily received — for their wants were great. 

" Mr. Kennett left on the 11th, with two waggons, and returned on 13th, after 
distributing stores at Chelles and Montfermeil. 

" I do not find the hospitals in this neighbourhood, as a rule, greedy. To prove 
this I may say that the ambulance at Pompoune, with 300 wounded and sick, from 
whence they write to us on the 9th most pressingly — would not take any stores 
from Mr. Kennett on the 12th — saying that they had been supplied from Clayes. 

" Mr. Job left this afternoon for Eaubonne (north of St. Denis), with three 
waggons. 

" Captain Norman arrived safely on Thursday night with two railway waggons, 
and returned to Metz this morning. 

" I have not heard from Mr. Jeune since last Sunday, nor have I as yet been able 
to send help in direction of Etampes and Orleans, nor shall I be able to do so until 
Mr. Hutchings and his waggons arrive. Mr. Hinton and Mr. Anderson have just 
come in. 

" You may trust to my conforming to your instructions to the letter. 

" The general want is increasing here daily, and my staff is greatly overworked. 
This, however, will now be changed by the arrival above mentioned. 

" Pardon the length of this report. I assure you though so long, I have not said 
half I wished about Lagny, and indeed the whole evacuation route, from Orleans to 
here. 

" Still I can honestly say that there is no blame to attach to any one. 

" Even this rich country has been drained of all, by two armies marching through 
it. And, as you know, there is only one line on which to bring up provisions, and 
carry sick, wounded, and prisoners back to Germany. 

' ; Sutherland returned here on Thursday night after a most distressing journey 
back from Versailles, part of which he had to perform sitting on a barrel, in a country 
cart. He was so tired out, I quite feared he might be laid up, but the next day 
he was all right. 

<; I have received all your letters, and will answer them to-morrow or next day, 
according to work. 

" 11. NEVILL." 



"Meaux, 2nd February, 1871. 

" A few days after Captain Brackenbury's last visit to Meaux, I sent him a 
detailed ' average estimate ' of the present weekly expenses of Meaux staff. It has 
been considerably increased during the lust month, both in men and horses. I will 
not repeat this estimate, as 1 believe Hie one already sent was intended for you. 

" I have not sent in a report for the last twenty days, as there was nothing ol 
interest to report to you. I have merely continued sending our stores where most 
needed ; a list is enclosed of the convoys that have been sent on from here since my 
last report. The only exception to the general routine of our ways has been a 
repetition ol' French prisoners at Lagny; 26,000 were announced. 

" On receiving Ihis notice, I sent Mr. Sutherland (Dec. 25) with 300 loaves, 
100 sausages, and 50 hams to Lagny, and within the following four days some 8,000 
prisoners passed through that town; a part of these were in great want, and 
amongst them the above-mentioned things were distributed. 

'• 11. NEVILL." 



75 

List of Convoys *<>nt from Meaux, from 1th January to 1st February, 1871. 

Jan. 8tli. Captain Norman with one waggon for Lagny, Malnoue, and Vevt Galant. 
„ Mr. Hinton and Mr. Kennett with two fonr-horse waggons for Lonjumeau, to 
give stores to hospitals at Igny and Sceanx, which were being formed for the 
bombardment. They reached their destination most opportunely, and returned 
on the evening of the eighth day, having to go round by Corbeil on account of 
the bridge at Villeneuve St. George having been destroyed by the ice. This 
lengthened the journey by four days. 

9th. Loaded two W. 0. Ambulance store waggons for Versailles Avith all the eatables we 
had in stores. 

10th. Mr. Lungley with two waggons for Rentilly, Pontault, and Sucy-en-Brie. 

13th. Captain Norman with one waggon (containing three casks of red wine, which 
had been sent from the French International Society at Brussels, to be distri- 
buted to French Ambulances in this neighbourhood) for Hotel Dieu St. Jean of 
Lagny. 

16th. Mr. Chapman with one waggon for French Hospitals at Roissy and Tournon. 

17th. Mr. Kennett with two waggons for Evry and Igny. 

18th. Mr. Hinton with two four-horse waggons to the north of Paris, Ecouen, Piscop, 
Montmorency, Andilly, &c, &c. 

25th. Mr. Sutherland with two waggons to Lagny. 

27th. Mr. Hinton and Mr. Anderson with two four-horse waggons to Cormeil, Mon- 
tigny, St. Leu, and Dormont (north of St. Denis). 

28th. Mr. Kennett with one waggon to Corbeil, Chateau Etiolles and Seinefort. 

29th. Mr. Sutherland with omnibus to Versailles, to get into Paris if possible. . 

Feb. 1st. Mr. Job with one waggon to Pontault, Combault, La Queue, Pont Carre, and 
Roissy. 
,, Mr. Hinton with one four-horse waggon to Chateau Etiolles near Corbeil. 
„ Mr. Anderson with one waggon, to try and enter Paris via, St. Denis. 



" Vesoul, Haute Sadne, March 8, 1871. 

" I enclose you a report of Captain Hinton's, showing what we have done since 
arriving here. I returned myself last night from Besancon, where they still have 
300 sick and wounded, and are in great want of everything. During the winter 
they have had 10,000 men in the hospitals at the same time. Typhoid fever has 
been so virulent that they have lost 100 men a day. The Comite Central has been 
working very hard, under the direction of Mr. Budet, a judge of Besancon, who has 
been devoting himself entirely to the sick and wounded. The Comite Central has 1,000 
beds in four hospitals, where the sick are very well cared for. The military ambulances 
seem not to be so well organised, and great complaints are made on all sides of the 
way the military doctors neglect their sick, and the great percentage of deaths 
amongst the men under their charge. 

" General Werder's army is in full march for Germany, and they have turned us 
out of our stores to make room for their own depot ; this causes us great incon- 
venience, and will delay our work for two days. I can give you as yet no certain 
details of Gray, Dijon, and Dole ; but, from all I hear, the sickness in these three 
places exceeds what I found in Besancon. 

'< R. NEVILL." 



" According to your instructions, I had our six fourgons loaded with goods from 
the stores, so as to be ready to start next morning for their various destinations. 
Mr. Chapman, in charge of two two-horsed waggons, left about 2.30 on the 5th for 
Villersexel and the neighbourhood. On the morning of the 6th Mr. Tyler with 
the two fours started for Baume les Dames and environs ; Mr. Kennett with his two 
pairs for Montbeliard and district. On the 6th and 7th I gave out requisitions to 
the following hospitals in the town : — 

L'Hotel Dieu, 130 sick and wounded French. 
L'Ecole Normale, 48 French. 

L'Ambulance Seminaire, 200 French and Germans. 
L' Ambulance Elysee, 200 French and Germans. 

" The Germans are by far in the minority in the two latter hospitals. As a tram 
started for Belfort on the morning of the 6th, I thought it a good opportunity of 
sending some stores, which I had heard they were in need of, to that town. 
Mr. Rawson went in charge of ;thcm, and found that real want did exist, and that 
what I had sent was most thankfully received ; he brought back a requisition from 
Lure, about halfway to Belfort, which I have complied with, and have this morning 
sent Captain Norman there with Mr. Chapman's two waggons, which returned on 



76 

the evening of the 6th ; yesterday (7th) a French Abbe and the Doctor of one of the 
French hospitals here came to me and informed me that about 150 French sick and 
wounded would arrive here in the morning-, and that, as they would be billeted in 
various parts of the town, the difficulty in feeding- them in the morning before con- 
tinuing their journey would be great, and besought help from us, I took upon 
upon myself to say that I would provide coffee and food for the whole of them at 
the station. This morning, therefore, I had about 200 lbs. of bread and a quantity 
of sausages cut up, also 9 tins of preserved mutton opened and served out to them, 
and with this a good allowance of coffee to each man. They were all most grateful, 
and the doctor in charge thanked the Society most heartily for what had been done. 

" I may also mention that when the train of sick and wounded arrived yesterday 
evening, I ordered the only two fourgons that we had hero down to the station to 
assist in transporting some of the worst cases to their various billets, as no carriage 
of any sort is obtainable in the town. Had it not been for our waggons, several 
bad amputation cases would have had to be carried on men's backs, or have been 
left to sleep in their railwav vans. 

" W. C. H1NTON. 

" 8*/* March, 1871." 



NORTHERN DISTRICT. 
The following is an abridged report of the work of this district : — 

Boulogne-sur-Mer, 31s£ March, 1871. 

Leaving Boulogne on the 16th September, the Committee travelled via Amiens, 
Arras, Douai, Lille, Cambrai, Avesnes, Maubeuge, Hirson, Charleville, and Mezieres, to 
Sedan. 

Up to that period the operations of the British National Society's agents had been 
necessarily confined by the course of events almost wholly to the immediate vicinity of 
the great battle-fields on the Rhenish frontier, especially around Woerth, Wissembourg, 
Saarbruck, and Metz. 

Under the three heads of Boulogne, Amiens, and Douai, where were respectively 
located the chief depot and its two branches, some particulars will be found, showing 
the nature and extent of the work done and the aid given. 

Boulogne. — No sooner was the intention to establish a depot for the British 
National Society's stores made known to the local municipal authorities than excellent 
accommodation was offered and thankfully accepted in the large building known as 
4 'Les Anciennes Casernes," or old barracks, conveniently situated on the quay nearly 
opposite to the railway station. 

For brief periods the duties of secretary were performed by Mr. Theodore Galton 
and by Captaiu Cary Elwes ; but on the departure of both those gentlemen succes- 
sively to England, about the end of September, it was thought desirable to secure the 
services of some more permanent resident, and on the 3rd October M. Vaillant was 
unanimously elected to the post. 

In the store department, Madame Livois (an English lady) presided, assisted by 
two young ladies and by Lady Eyre, with occasional aid from other ladies in times of 
pressure. 

As every day's post brought urgent requisitions and heart-stirring appeals from 
numerous ambulances throughout the north of France, it will readily be understood 
that the labour involved in the daily routine and the mass of correspondence it neces- 
sitated was not slight, and generally occupied the best part of each day. 

The Committee met for business daily without intermission during six months, a 
record of their proceedings being entered in a minute-book by the Secretary. 

At Boulogne itself the preparations made for the sick and wounded were very 
ample and complete, though it is much to be lamented that full advantage was never 
taken of them by those who exercised power in the matter. Not less than 2,000 beds 
were available in the town, while the maximum number of patients under treatment at 
any one time never exceeded 640. The civil hospital of St. Louis continued to be 
overcrowded to the last, while the admirable ambulances, with their full staff of 
surgeons and nurses, and many extra comforts supplied at the expense of the Com- 
mittee at the " Anciennes Casernes" and the Etablissement des Bains, were never more 
than half filled. 

I feel assured that the benevolent labours of the English ladies will be gratefully 
remembered. During the six months of our Society's operations, they have co-operated 
with us as our local almoners in the distribution of stores and of occasional pecuniary 
aid, so that this report would have been incomplete without some special mention 
of their prolonged and gratuitous services. 

As the great majority of French wounded were destitute of suitable clothing to 
withstand the severity of the winter on leaving hospital, it was our custom to bestow 
on each disabled convalescent an outfit of such garments as he most needed, including 



77 

a serviceable pair of walking shoes and a small douceur in pocket money to enable 
him to reach his home in comfort. 

The sum of £100 was sent to the Convent of "Les Dames de Nazareth" at 
Montmirail, to the east of Paris, which had been greatly impoverished by having to 
maintain a large ambulance of wounded, both French and Prussian, and had made an 
earnest appeal for our assistance through then - branch establishment at Boulogne. 

Amiens Branch Depot. — When first visited on the 16th September by the 
Boulogne Commissioners, about 700 wounded were distributed over the various 
hospitals and sedentary ambulances, while beds were available for 2,000 patients. 
Three months later, owing to the progress of the Avar northward, and to two great 
battles in the immediate vicinity, fully double the above number of beds were in demand, 
besides those filled by several hundreds of sufferers in the surrounding villages. On 
the 16th October, a branch depot, supplementary to that of Boulogne, was established 
under the superintendence of Colonel Cox, C.B., aided by Colonel Berington and 
Captain Uniacke. Messrs. Leslie and Goodenough likewise volunteered their services. 

Mrs. Cox gave proof of that aptitude for tending the sick and wounded which 
she had acquired in the Crimean school of Florence Nightingale, and her presence was 
productive of the best effects in securing for patients many bodily comforts and 
nutriments beyond what are usually allowed by the somewhat rigid rules of French 
hospitals. 

The Amiens depot proved, from the very first, a great success. Convoys of valuable 
stores were constantly detached from it to considerable distances, and even up to the 
walls of Paris. Thus Bouen, Soissons, Fismes, Ham, Breteuil, Clermont, St. Just, 
Dammartin, La Fere, Montdidier, St. Quentin, and Peronne, each in turn received its 
full share of attention in its hour of need. 

On the 5th November the first attempt to start a convoy of the National Society's 
stores from Amiens to Dammartin (the Saxon head-quarters near Paris) under charge 
of Colonel Berington and Captain Uniacke was attended by some tumultuous 
demonstrations on the part of the populace, Avho forcibly intercepted its progress on 
pretence that it contained arms and provisions for Prussian combatants, but sub- 
sequently allowed it to proceed. 

In the middle of November Colonel Cox himself conveyed to Tours a large 
quantity of stores which had been forwarded for that purpose from Boulogne, whereby 
the depot under Colonel Elphinstone was enabled to meet the sudden and extensive 
demands made upon its resources after the succession of sanguinary battles near 
Orleans. 

Colonel Elphinstone and Mr. Lee were thus enabled to aid in the rescue of many 
lives after the battle of Baccon, for which they received the thanks of the French 
Government authorities. 

On the 27th November General von Manteuffel's army attacked and defeated 
that of the French before Amiens, and occupied the town in great force. This of 
course caused a great accession of wounded of both nations. Immediately after the 
battle, Colonel Cox and his staff searched all the neighbouring villages and discovered 
in Villers Bretonneux 600 wounded French soldiers lying untended and in want of 
everything. Messrs. Leslie and Goodenough were forthwith sent out thither with 
ample supplies, and for several days they remained in the village to watch over their 
patients. Mrs. Cox also devoted herself specially to these poor sufferers for many 
days. 

After the battle of December 23rd, hundreds of wounded were found and care- 
fully tended. As late as the end of December there remained 3,780 wounded in and 
around Amiens, of whom 2,160 were French and 1,620 Prussians ; but many of the 
latter had been meanwhile removed to Germany. Up to the end of December, 1870, 
Colonel Cox estimated that at least 10,000 wounded underwent treatment in the town 
and vicinity of Amiens. 

Captain Uniacke's period of command at the Amiens Depot extended to the 12th 
February. On the 10th January, hearing that Peronne had capitulated on the previous 
day, he started thither. (The account of this expedition will be found in Captain 
Uniacke's letter of Jan. 13, printed a few pages further on.) 

Colonel Cox, having been sent on a special mission to Paris, returned to his old 
post at Amiens on the 20th February for the purpose of winding up the affairs of the 
depot. 

DOUAI Branch Depot. — When General Faidherbe took command of the " Army 
of the North," and commenced offensive operations against the German forces 
occupying the Department of the Somme, the quiet town of Douai became an im- 
portant base for our Society's field operations. I therefore detached Colonel Berington 
thither to form a depot. 

On the 29th December Colonel Berington tendered his services to General 
Faidherbe and explained the object of his mission. They were thankfully accepted, 
and on the 5th January Dr. Lloyd, whose services had been placed at our disposal by 
the London Committee, was sent to Douai. 

Colonel Berington and his staff sought out the wounded of both nations in and 
around Bapaume. On learning the disaster of St. Quentin, he directed his course 
thither, taking with him Dr. Lloyd and all the stores he could convey across country, 

M 



78 

arriving- on the 23rd January, Fortunately two large convoys of stores had just been 
despatched from Boulogne at brief intervals. 

After distributing what seemed requisite, Colonel Berington returned towards 
Douai via Peronne and Bapaume, leaving Dr. Lloyd to render surgical aid in one of the 
larger ambulances. 

As the war towards the end of February was evidently drawing to a close, I 
determined on making a tour of inspection to those parts of the country coming 
Avithin my own superintendence which had been the theatre of active warfare during 
the first two months, that I might ascertain by personal inquiry and observation how 
far the objects of our Society had been successfully carried out, and what might still 
remain to be accomplished. 

I left Boulogne on 28th February for Amiens, where I found Colonel and Mrs. 
Cox at their post. We visited a large Prussian ambulance occupying the Museum, 
under the guidance of Fraulein Clara Heinritz, of the Central International Society of 
Berlin. There were upwards of 300 patients, who all looked as if they would have 
benefited by some of the port wine and other good things of which the adjoining 
store-rooms were filled to excess, but which were reserved, as in French hospitals, for 
those only who could contrive to struggle into convalescence without such aid. 
Although the rooms were usually lofty, the ventilation was defective and the smell 
sickening, so that this my first visit to a German sedentary ambulance did not 
impress me favourably. 

Not so the " Sanitats-zug," or German railway ambulance, which is a perfect con- 
trivance for removing large numbers of wounded over a long line of country, and is 
well worthy of adoption for the use of our own armies in India. 

On the 2nd March we travelled to St. Quentin. Here we put ourselves in commu- 
nication with Monsieur Lebee, the much-respected President of the " International " 
Relief Committee, to whom belonged the merit of organising all the ambulances in 
the place, the chief one being located in his own factory, and still containing about 
76 wounded. Monsieur Lebee expressed himself in most grateful terms for the 
frequent and liberal aid rendered by our Society to the various ambulances under his 
control. 

VINCENT EYRE, Major-General. 



Colonel Cox, C.B. and Captain Uniacke supply the following details of work per- 
formed by them in this district : — 

" Amiens, 23rd December, 1870. 

" The Prussian troops marched from hence at various hours this morning, 
some as early as 3 a.m., and some not until 11 o'clock. At 11.30 I was looking 
out from the top of the house for signs of the battle which was momentarily 
expected, but could see only a few troops quietly moving about, when Mr. Leslie, who 
had started with the staff early in the morning, returned with a message from 
General von Goeben requesting that our ambulance and as many doctors as possible 
should at once be sent out ; fortunately our fourgons were on the spot, and every- 
thing was prepared. I, therefore, at once ordered them to be loaded, and ran off to 
fetch Captain Uniacke and Mr. Goodenough ; they came as soon as possible, and at 
about half-past twelve we all started for the scene of action. I accompanied the 
waggons until they were clear of the town, and then rode on to see our ground. I was 
met near the field of battle by Mr. Leslie, who showed me where it was proposed to 
place our waggons and stores. I then rode on to see something of the battle and also 
to ascertain whether the waggons, &c, could with safety go any farther, but onnearing 
the village of Querrieux, the nearest houses to that at which I had left Mr. Leslie, I 
found it far too exposed, as some shells burst in a field near me, and the whistling of 
the balls made it evident that it was not the position for non-combatants. I therefore 
returned and gave instructions that our party was not to go farther than the spot 
originally proposed. 

" By this time the view of the battle was very fine. The French line extended for 
about three miles along the heights beyond the village of Querrieux, the left centre 
of the Prussian line. Their principal battery was in that village, and then forces, 
which were rather scattered, faced the French. The Prussian artillery, however, kept 
more together, and the French gnus seemed to be sprinkled about (in some places only 
one or two together) along their Avhole line ; the day was perfectly clear, the sun 
shining brightly, the ground clear and dry from a very intense frost, and altogether 
it was such a picture of a battle as is seldom witnessed. From the time I arrived, 
1.30 p.m., until after dark, the fire of artillery continued on both sides, especially on 
the part of the battery at Querrieux, which never ceased firing; about four p.m., the 
fire of musketry was very heavy, the Prussians appearing to make an ineffectual 
attempt to force part of the French position. Just before dark it almost seemed as if 
the French were going to have the best of it, but night closed leaving both armies 
maintaining the positions they had fought in during the greater part of the day. The 
battle had, however, commenced in the morning about a mile on the Amiens side of 



79 

Querrieux, but after a short resistance the French fell back to the better and really 
formidable position which they held all the afternoon. About half-past 4 p.m., a fresh 
Prussian force, the 16th division, commanded by General Barnakoff, made its ap- 
pearance to the left of the Prussian position, eviidently intending to take the French 
in flank. They, however, must have been delayed, and thus prevented from arriving as 
soon as desired, and when they got within about a mile of the flank of both armies, 
they seem to have met with some serious resistance, as I could see heavy firing going 
on all along their line, while they appeared to make no progress in their advance . 

" Our two fourgons with Captain Uniacke and Messrs. Leslie and Goodenough arrived 
at their position at about 2 p.m. A number of wounded were then being treated at the 
small house where they halted ; Captain Uniacke, therefore, promptly unloaded one 
waggon, filled it with wounded men, and sent them off under Mr. Goodenough's charge 
to Amiens. This was effected within a few minutes of his arrival ; the second waggon 
was then unloaded, and as soon as it was full of wounded I sent it off in the same 
manner, with written instructions to M. Dobelle to send the two waggons, with two 
others, back as quickly as possible. From this time until long after dark, Captain 
Uniacke and Mr. Leslie never ceased work for a moment, being indefatigable in their 
exertions to help the wounded and provide everything needful for then- comfort. 
Professor Busch and the Princess Salms Salms were also on the spot, the former 
directing all medical arrangements, and the latter cooking for the men and assisting 
in every possible Avay. 

" Our ambulance was the only one which had brought out any sort of comfort for 
the wounded, and fortunately Ave were able to supply eA^ery demand made on us by 
the medical men ; Ave had also the great satisfaction that our Avaggons were the first 
in the field, and were the first to remove any Avounded men from it. With the Liebig's 
essence some good beef-tea was made in an extempore cooking place in the field, and 
served out to the Avounded men, and this Avas greatly appreciated and of very much 
use to men exhausted from the shock of their Avounds, and the pain they must have 
felt while they were being dressed ; glasses of beer and port Avine were also given to 
the wounded, also some small lunch biscuits, Avith which they Avere delighted. All 
hands continued hard at Avork until about 5.45 p.m., Avhen the firing had for some time 
ceased. Captain Uniacke and I then returned to Amiens to arrange for to-morrow's 
operations, leaving Mr. Leslie Avith the stores, &c, in company with Professor 
Busch. 

" It is difficult at present to say which side had the advantage in the day's opera- 
tions, although both Avill probably claim it. The French certainly at first fell back for 
about 2 1 miles, but their second position Avas unassailable ; as to the losses, the 
Prussians had about 2000 men Jwrs de combat. I saAv about 250 French prisoners 
marched into Amiens by the main road, and it is impossible at present to say the 
number they lost in killed and Avounded. The strength of the forces respectively 
engaged seems to have been 35,000 French and 25,000 Prussians. 

" Saturday, 2ith December. — I started again for the field between 8 and 9 a.m. ; on 
arrival there I found the tAVO armies in the same positions that I had left them last 
night. My first object was to find Mr. Leslie and our stores ; I could neither see nor 
hear of him at the place we left him at yesterday evening, and therefore pushed on to 
the village of Querrieux, Avhere he had thought it likely that he would have to move 
to. On entering the village I Avas stopped very politely by Prussian officers, and one 
of them Avent with me to the general of division, who Avas a few yards farther on. 
On Hearing the group, however, I saAv the General Count von Goeben, who at once 
recognised me, so that I Avas allowed to go where I pleased Avithout further question. 
I then went all through the village inquiring for Professor Busch and Mr. Leslie Avith 
our stores. A peasant told me that there were many wounded and several doctors near 
the bridge at the end of the village. I therefore Avent there, crossed the bridge, and 
while in the act of inquiring for Avounded, at nearly the last house, I heard a loud 
sound, ' Whish, whish ! ' over my head. This proved to be a French shell, and it struck a 
house and burst Avithout doing any damage that I know of, except to the tiles, at 
about 20 yards from me. I took the hint, and as I had found no Avounded effected a 
strategic movement toAvards my proper base of operations. 

" I then remained standing about at the upper end of the village for a short time, 
Avhen I met Sir R. Roberts, avIio told me Avhere to find Mr. Leslie, he having all the 
time been at the place Avhere I left him last night. Except a few shots fired Avhen I 
first came up, there was nothing going on all day near the village ; the Prussians did 
not fire at all, and the only cannon shot fired at the A T illage was, I believe, the one 
which came so unpleasantly near me. 

" We brought two more fourgons out to-day Avith a further supply of all needful 
stores ;^ they Avere not, however, wanted, so in the evening Ave brought everything 
back Avith us to Amiens. 

" Some fighting seems to have taken place at other points of the line of opera- 
tions, and Ave hear that about 1,000 French Avere taken prisoners in the direction of 
Corbie. At about 3.30 p.m. the French troops began to move off to the right and rear 
of the position they had so well held since noon yesterday, and Avhen evening set in 
they Avere no more to be seen ; during this movement they Avere entirely unmolested 
by the Prussians, although within gunshot range, and it was conducted as quietly and 

M 2 



80 

regularly, so far as we could see, as if the troops were returning from an ordinary 
field-day ; it is supposed that the move was caused by the arrival towards their right 
rear of General Barnakoff, with the 16th Prussian division, who had been instructed to 
manoeuvre in that direction. 

" The frost was to-day, if possible, more intense than ever, and it was by no 
means a pleasant mode of passing a Christmas, we standing about all day, not 
knowing the greater part of the time whether one really possessed such articles as 
fingers and toes. 

" It appears that yesterday evening the French made one or two bayonet charges 
towards the outskirts of the village of Querrieux, and that here the French 33rd 
Regiment encountered the Prussian Regiment bearing the same number ; most of the 
French prisoners I met belonged to the 1st Chasseurs and 33rd Regiment. 

" The French certainly maintained their position well, but if they had either on 
Friday evening or Saturday morning made a well-sustained attack against the 
Prussian centre near Querrieux the latter would certainly have been very hard pressed, 
and most probably would have had to retire. 

"It is a singular fact, showing how history repeats itself, that the battle-field of 
Querrieux was, in the year 1597, the scene of an engagement between Henry IV. of 
France and Spanish troops. 

" Christmas-day fortunately passed off peaceably, the French army of the north 
having fallen back towards Albert." 

" J. W. COX." 



" Amiens, January, 1871. 

" I herewith forward a statement of receipts and expenditure of cash from the 
time of my arrival here on the 16th of October, 1870, up to the 31st ultimo ; also 
a statement showing the goods received here during the same period, with their 
disposal. 

" The parcels marked ' Depot ' are those which were opened and distributed 
here, and I send you memoranda showing how a considerable part of these were 
disposed of. 

" From the manner in which (with your approval) we have carried out the 
distribution of the stores entrusted to my charge, — viz., giving, after personal inspec- 
tion, whatever appeared to be requisite, and, as far as possible, giving to the sick and 
wounded themselves, instead of handing over large quantities wholesale to the 
authorities of hospitals, — it has been utterly impracticable to keep any exact account of 
the distribution of the goods. 

" For instance, it was our habit, until the occupation of Amiens by the Prussians, 
to have soldiers, when discharged from the hospitals in the town, sent to us here ; 
one of us then inquired into their wants, and handed to each individual soldier 
any additional articles of warm clothing of which he was in need ; we also generally 
gave them a small donation in money, usually a franc for each day's journey, to help 
those who were allowed to proceed to their homes on sick furlough. 

" It has also been our custom, when visiting hospitals, to take with us a quantity 
of any articles which were likely to be wanted, and personally to distribute them 
wherever they were required, bringing back the remainder. 

" It will thus be seen that in these cases, and in many others where necessary 
articles were demanded in a hurry, it has been quite impracticable, with our limited 
staff, to do more than follow your instructions, viz., to distribute the stores liberally, 
according to the best of my judgment. 

" I also forward a list of the stock remaining in hand at the end of the year. We 
have of some articles, such as chloroform, cotton and flannel bandages, &c, more than 
seems likely to be required here ; but are short of blankets and under-clothing, Avhich 
are, in this unusually severe winter, in very great demand. 

" Flannel shirts are more asked for than any other article ; our supply of them 
has been rather limited considering the great demand. I have also, as approved by 
you, expended the sum of 1,650 francs in the purchase of woollen socks, vests, and 
drawers at Villers Bretonneux, where these articles are manufactured. 

" In the cash account you •will perceive that 8,000 francs have been handed over 
to the branch of the Society at Tours and to ambulances in that direction. The 
expedition -sent from hence under Lieut.-Col. Berington to Dammartin cost about 
1,890 francs, and one to Soissons under Mr. Streatfeild 550, including, in each case, 
cartage and cash given in aid of French and German hospitals. 

" I forwarded to you on the 6th November last a Memo, of our operations from 
the first starting of the Amiens Depot until that time. 

" From that date until the occupation of Amiens by the Prussians on the 28th 
November our work here was of the same nature as therein detailed. During this period, 
however, Lieut.-Col. Berington and Mr. Uniacke, after much difficulty as regards their 
passage through the French outposts (at the onset of which they were brought back 
as prisoners througli the streets of the town), proceeded with four large waggons laden 
with supplies of every description to Dammartin and safely delivered over tin- convoy 
to the authorities deputed to receive it by the Crown Prince of Saxony. Lieut-Col. 
JVrington's report on this expedition has already been transmitted to you. 



81 

" Immediately after his. return I proceeded from hence to Tours with upwards of 
100 packages of stores for that branch of the National Society. I also took them 
7,000 francs in money. This supply arrived very opportunely, soon after the French 
re-occupation of Orleans, as the engagements which led to this had produced a great 
number of wounded, and the stores at Tours were almost entirely exhausted. 

" Towards the end of November, I arranged at the railway station here a room 
for the gratuitous supply of refreshments to all sick and wounded soldiers arriving at, 
departing from, or passing through Amiens ; beds were also fitted up at the same 
place, on which such soldiers might rest Avhile waiting for trains, and if necessary 
have their wounds dressed. This establishment was managed, under our superin- 
tendence, by a Miss Sullivan, a resident of the town, and for the short time it was in 
work was found a great benefit to the men. Unfortunately, on the occupation of 
Amiens by the Prussians, all railway traffic was suspended, and the station completely 
closed, so that our refreshment room there was necessarily abandoned. 

" On every occasion when a combat tool: place, or seemed likely to take place in 
the neighbourhood of Amiens, Ave made preparations for aiding in the succour to the 
wounded ; thus we sent stores to Formerie, where there was a slight action, prepared 
a supply for La Fere after the bombardment, and had a plentiful supply ready packed 
for the engagements near Amiens on the 27th November and Querrieux on the 23rd 
December. 

" The fighting on the 27th November, which led to the Prussian occupation of 
this town, Avas so close at hand, that we did not send any Avaggons away during the 
engagement. On the folloAving days, hoAvever, we supplied the hospitals and 
ambulances established in the neighbouring villages Avith every comfort in our 
power. 

" Having heard that skirmishing took place at Villers Bretonneux, on the same 
day as the battle before Amiens, and thinking there might be a feAv Avounded there, I 
on the 29th November sent Mr. Leslie to make inquiries on the spot. 

" He returned late on the same evening, Avith the intelligence, Avhich Avas as com- 
pletely unexpected throughout the toAvn as by us, that the village contained about 
600 recently Avounded men, avIio had very scanty attendance of any sort, and Avho 
Avere wanting every description of comfort. 

" Early next morning Ave prepared a Avaggon-load of essentials, and sent it off 
Avith Messrs. Leslie and Goodenough, to whom I gave instructions, after distributing 
the stores, to remain in the village, and help the Avounded in every possible Avay. 

" I Avent out there myself the same day to see Avhat was required, and found 
men Avho (the third day after the battle) had not their Avounds dressed, none had other 
clothing than their uniforms, and almost all Avere lying in a miserable state on the 
floors of houses and stables, Avith nothing under them but a little straAv. 

" Mrs. Cox also made two visits to Villers Bretonneux and remained there for 
some days on each occasion, exerting herself to assist in every way, and to provide the 
wounded men with proper nourishment ; so by degrees matters gradually improved, 
until at last every man Avas properly placed, attended to, and his Avants supplied. 

" Mr. Leslie was obliged to return to Amiens after a feAv days in consequence of 
over-exertion, and an injury be sustained while assisting at an amputation ; but 
Mr. Goodenough remained there for nearly a month, distributing our stores and 
making himself useful in every possible Avay. 

" We also, after the battle of Amiens, Avere constantly employed in visiting and 
attending to the wants of the various hospitals established in the neighbouring villages 
into Avhich Avounded men had been taken. The names of these villages, and the 
approximate numbers of wounded they have contained, are given in an accompanying 
list. The increased number of wounded also, of course, occasioned additional calls on 
us from the hospitals in Amiens. 

" The French Army of the North having been for some days in the vicinity of 
this town, the Prussian forces under General Manteuffel marched out to meet them on 
Friday the 23rd December. We had been expecting an encounter for some days, and 
consequently had everything in readiness, so that Avhen the engagement which 
occurred near the village of Querrieux took place we were speedily on the ground 
with tAvo Avaggons laden with everything necessary to assist the Avounded. 

" I have already transmitted to you a report of our Avork during this engagement, 
Avhich lasted from the morning of the 23rd to the afternoon of the 24th December. 
Suffice it here to say that the waggons employed by the Society were the first on the 
field, Avere the first to carry any Avounded men aAvay from it, Avere the only ones Avhich 
brought anything to the ground on the first day, except actual medical requisites, and 
that there was nothing which the medical officers asked for which avo were not able at 
once to supply. The medical authorities, especially Professor Busch, the Consulting 
Surgeon of the 1st Prussian Army, Avere profuse in their expressions of gratitude to 
the Society for the aid thus opportunely rendered. 

" During the last days of December Ave were again busily occupied in searching 
out and assisting, to the best of our ability, the many sick and Avounded of both 
nations at Amiens and the vicinity to a considerable distance round, the number oi 
Avounded had of course greatly increased, and the Prussians in the toAvn haA T e a large 
number of sick as well as wounded, — one hospital, the Museum, containing about 



82 

GOO beds. We have, however, done our best to supply the demands made on our 
stores, and have, I trust, been enabled materially to alleviate suffering, and to add to 
the comfort of these victims of the war, 

" J. W. COX, Colonel" 



JAst of Hospitals and Ambulances in and about Amiens, with the approximate numbers of 

Sick and Wounded they have contained. 



Hotel Dieu, Amiens . . 


.. 500 French 


Villers Bretonneux 




.. 550 French 


Rivery „ 


.. 40 


5) 


Corbie . . 


. . 


m ^ 


.. 150 


Moutieres „ 


.. 50 


3 J 


Albert .. 


# B 




.. 150 


St. Acheul „ 


.. 80 


3> 


Heuencourt 


# # 




. . 40 


Grand Seminaire, Amiens 


.. 100 


5> 


Sains 


, , 


m m 


. ■ 110 Prussian 


St. Anne's „ 


.. 30 


J) 


Hebecourt 


m g 




. . 80 


Maison Thuillier Joli „ 


.. 12 


J) 


Dury 




# # 


. . 30 


La Visitation . . „ 


6 


)) 


Boves 


g 


, m 


.. 170 French 


L'Esperance . . „ 


7 


)) 


JMoreuil . . 


m % 


m # 


• . 70 Prussian 


Musee . . „ 


. . GOO Prussian 


Roye 






. . 68 


La Providence . . „ 


.. 450 


)) 


Cachy . . 


m . 


„ t 


. 35 French 


Bibliotheque . . „ 


..' 100 


)) 


Gentelles 


# # 


# # 


. . 15 


Lycee . . „ 


.. 120 French 


Caigny .. 


. , 


# . 


. . 15 „ 


Petit Lycee . . „ 


. . 18 1 


Prussian 
Officers 


Paraclet . . 
Marcelcave 


•• 




40 Prussian 


Prefecture . . „ 


.. 30 French 


Pont de Metz 


m m 




q 


Eue Rabuissons „ 


•• H 


Prussian 
Officers 


Salouel 
Frauvillers 


•• 


•• 


••2 „ 
. . 40 French 


Madame de Bourbon „ 


8 French 


La Houssoye 


. . 


. , 


..12 „ 








Bertangle 


. . 


, 


.. 10 „ 








Cercamp 




•• 


• • 20 „ 


Total in Amiens 


. . 2,160 




Total in 


21 villages 


..1620 








Grand total 


. . 3780 






1 


Number of French 




.. 2194 


Abstract of tbe above 


• •• 


„ Prussian 


•• 


.. 1586 



Total 



.. 3780 



" The Rookery, Stevenage, Herts, Dec. 28th, 1870. 

" In accordance with Sir Vincent Eyre's desire, I reported my arrival in England 
this morning at your office in London, and I was sorry to find that Colonel Cox's 
reports of Friday, Saturday, and Sunday last had not reached your office, and that the 
details of the number of sick and wounded in the hospitals and ambulances in and 
around Amiens were wanting. To the best of my ability I will endeavour to supply 
the deficiency which has been caused by irregularity in the postal arrangements. 
No letters can now by any possibility reach Amiens or depart from that town, except 
by the feld-post or by a private hand passing through the different lines. By the 
latter means Colonel Cox's reports are sent. Enclosed you will find a list of the 
different villages and towns where hospitals and ambulances have been established, 
but as I am writing from memory there may be some slight mistake in the numbers 
given of sick and wounded, a correct account of which will be found in the reports. 
The Prussians reported their loss in the battle to the north of Amiens on 
Friday to be 2,000, all the wounded of which are in Amiens or in its immediate 
neighbourhood. On Monday evening one of the French Staff informed me that 
the French had 1,400 wounded, all of which, excepting the worst cases, had 
been transported to Arras, Lille, and Calais, the bad cases being left at Corbie 
and at Albert, both of which towns are now occupied by the Prussians. Mr. Leslie 
on Saturday evening last met the 4th International Ambulance at the village of 
Francvillers. He was informed by the officers connected with that ambulance 
that during the two days 600 wounded French soldiers had been attended to by 
them. You are aware of the large number of wounded men both French and 
Prussians had in the previous engagements at Amiens of the 25th, 26th, and 27th 
November, and of the large demands that were being daily made upon our depot. In 
every instance actual necessities were granted by Colonel Cox. On Friday last we 
were the only ambulance in the field on the Amiens side with real comforts and 
necessities for the wounded, and therefore the drain upon our stores to us has been 
and is very severe, and in eonscquence of this I was ordered by Colonel Cox to 
report to Gen. Sir V. Eyre our wants and necessities. I left Amiens at 6 a.m. on 
Monday the 26th. Drove to Abbeville, thence by train to Boulogne. I experienced 
some .slight difficulty at the village of Longpre, which was occupied by Gardes 
Mobiles, but nothing of any consequence. I was accompanied by Mr. Dobelle, the 



83 

large carrier of Amiens, and I left him at Boulogne to arrange with Sir Vincent Eyre 
a means of transport, and I do not anticipate any difficulty will now arise in the expe- 
dition of stores between Boulogne and Amiens. The Prussian advance guard were at 
Longpre on Monday, but as they consisted but of 10 lancers, they were driven 
back by the Gardes Mobiles. I consider it right to send this letter direct to the office, 
as there would not be time to forward it to my own head-quarters, and I trust you 
will in your next letter kindly explain to Gen. Eyre that I have done so in consequence 
of the non-arrival of Col. Cox's reports. I am not in a position to give you the 
numbers of different articles of clothing, medicines, and other stores which have been 
served out to the different hospitals and ambulances, the different details being entered 
in my book which I have left at Amiens with Col. Cox. I have left in your office a 
map of Amiens and its environs, and from that the Committee will be better able to 
judge of what their representatives at Amiens have had to perforin. I happened to 
have found with me a request that was sent in to our Society, and perhaps that will 
give you an idea of how large are the demands, many of which we were unable to 
comply with ; but in all cases proper inquiries were made, and in no instance that 
I am aware of have stores passed through my hands without Col. Cox, Col. Berington, 
or myself previously ascertaining the necessity for the supply. My present orders are 
to return by the 2nd or 3rd of January, unless the Committee have other views, in 
which case [ should be glad of an early line from you. If I can furnish any further 
information I shall be happy to do so, either by letter or in person. 

" NORMAN V. UN1ACKE." 



Towns in which Prussian Ambulances have been placed for their wounded in the 
engagements of the 25th, 26th, and 27th November, to the south of Amiens, with the 
probable numbers of sick and wounded in each ambulance at the date of last engage- 
ment of the 23rd December, called that of Querrieux : — 



Names of Places. 






Wounded, &c 


Amiens 


« • i 


m . 


. 700 


Marcelcave . . 


. 9 


9 


49 


Quesnel 




, , 


50 


Montdidier . . 


, . 


, , 


. 200 


Moreuil 


. . 


# , 


78 


Sains 


. , 


, . 


..' 113 


Dury 


• . 


• • 


64 


Hebecourt 


• • 


, „ 


15 


Pont de Metz 


. . 


, t 


6 


Saleux 




« • 


2 



1277 

All these Ambulances have been supplied largely by the English Society at Amiens. 

French Ambulances in Amiens and its vicinity, with the probable amounts of sick 
and wounded on the 23rd December, 1870 : — 



Karnes of Places. 




Wounded, &c 


St. Acheul 


• • < 




97 


Grand Seminaire 


, , 




42 


St. Anne 


. . 




33 


Hotel Dieu 


• • 




300 


Lycee . . 


• • i 




93 


Riverz 


• • 1 




22 


Moutier 


# i 




19 


Mme. de Bourbon . . 


• • • 




8 


Baroness de Ratisbonne 


• • « 




25 


Hebencourt 


• • i 




13 


Marquis Clermont Tonnerre 




8 


Baron de Froument. . 


• • 




14 


Madame Cossuret . . 


• • • 




6 


Petit St. Jean 


« • ■ 




18 


Pont de Metz 


• • * 




10 


Hospice de St. Charles and Private 
Houses 


} 


30 


Villers Bretonneux . . 


t ■ 1 




340 


Cagny 






7 


Cachy 


• • « 




13 


Sentelles 


• e 4 




33 








131 



1262 



All tliese Ambulances have been largely supplied by the English National Society* 



84 

" Amiens, 13th January, 1871. 

" On Tuesday, the 10th, I received notice at one o'clock that Peronne had 
capitulated. I immediately gave orders to Mr. Goodenough to pack up and load 
two fourgons with material for the sick and wounded. At four o'clock the fourgons 
were packed, but the roads being covered with ice, a hard frost having set in after 
the thaw, it was not till five o'clock that Mr. Leslie, who was in charge, cleared the 
town. Mr. Leslie's orders were to march to Villers Bretonneux (16 kilometres), 
sleep there, and proceed at the earliest hour possible the next morning to Foucan- 
court (18 kilometres), and to remain at this latter place for further orders from me. 
General Barnikow, Avho commands the 8th Army Corps, vice General von Goeben 
promoted to the command of the two Corps, 1st and 8th, having reported that the 
French were advancing in force on Peronne, received orders in such case not to 
throw his force into Peronne, and allow himself to be shut up, but to retreat across 
the Somme, blowing up all the bridges behind him. General Barnikow's head- 
quarters were at Dompierre, six kilometres from Foucancourt. My intention was to 
ride to Dompierre, for intelligence of the movements of the army. At five o'clock, 
the 10th, I was received by General von Goeben, and I had a most satisfactory 
interview with him. He appeared pleased when I informed him that I had sent off 
to Peronne materials for the sick and wounded, and that it was my intention to 
proceed to General Barnikow's head-quarters the next morning at five o'clock. 

" At 4.30 on Wednesday, the 11th, I breakfasted, but there was again a delay in 
finding a blacksmith to rough the horse belonging to the General, and which was to 
take me, with one of his staff, to Foucancourt. The roads were all ice and the day 
bitterly cold, the country bleak, nothing but a mill here and there to relieve the eye. 
At La Motte, a village seven kilometres beyond Villers Bretonneux, and which was 
not occupied by the Germans, we found the principal street crowded with people in 
groups of ten, twenty, and sometimes more, all gesticulating, and by their manner 
showing that something unusual was about to take place. About two kilometres 
beyond the village we stopped a Prussian patrol, and asked what was going on 
unusual, when we were informed that they were waiting to see the French prisoners 
from Peronne, who were being marched to Amiens ; and where the road to Raine- 
court cuts the road Ave were travelling we met a large number of them ; the 
remainder we encountered at Foucancourt, where they had slept the night before in 
the church. We also met cannon, howitzers, &c. The prisoners numbered 3,000, 
sailors, chasseurs, soldiers of the line, and gardes mobiles. They were marched to 
Chantries, where they would meet the railway, in which they would proceed direct 
to Germany via Ham and Rheims. There was no harshness shown to them, and 
each of them had with him his bread and pork, while carts conveyed those who were 
unable to inarch. Most of them had blankets with them, and their kit. At Foucan- 
court, with some difficulty, we found a house which had a roof on it and a fire in it ; 
it was a sort of kennel, but better than nothing. We set to Avork and made some 
warm soup. With that and a piece of cold pie four of us made our meal. Here avc 
received intelligence that General Faidherbe had retired : and that General BarnikoAV 
Avas about to occupy Peronne, so, leaving Dompierre on my left, I started for Peronne 
(16 kilometres). Mr. Leslie had made a forced march. He only fed his horses at 
Villers Bretonneux, started off afterwards, and arrived at Foucancourt betAveen four 
and five in the morning. Foucancourt is a complete ruin, the church, the house 
of the Mayor, the chateau of Madame Leger, and one or tAvo small cottages alone 
remaining, and those not intact. The road to Peronne Avas guarded by Prussian 
sentinels, but it Avas not until one approached Peronne that signs of fighting became 
evident. My horse Avas so badly roughed that I Avas obliged to walk nearly the 
Avhole distance. Dead horses lay here and there, skinned, and in every state of 
decomposition. The whole southern, Avestern, and eastern part of the toAvn is a 
complete ruin. The hospital, cathedral, and barracks burnt doAvn. It is almost 
impossible to describe it, it must be seen. 

" At three o'clock we reached the Grande Place, and opposite the destroyed cathe- 
dral our carts Avere drawn up with the British flag flying in the midst of all this 
desolation. It Avas at this moment that the head-quarter staff entered the town. 
From the adjutant of the 40th Prussian Regiment I obtained billets for 
Mr. Leslie, myself, and men and horses ; from the doctor of the same regiment a 
room to place my stores, and then I Avent doAvn to the remains of the barracks, 
to see what the sick and Avounded Avanted. The French had 12 killed and 
32 Avounded, but there Avere betAveen 500 and (500 ill with small-pox, typhus 
fever, &c. ; of these 120 only soldiers. In the hospital sheds, which we iioav 
found empty, our horses were stabled. The Germans had but one Avounded in the 
town, all the others having been transported to Amiens. Considering the state of 
the roads f think our horses did good work, the distance from Amiens to Peronne 
being 50 kilometres. The distress among the inhabitants is A r ery great. In conse- 
quence of information I received, at eight o'clock I determined to leave Mr. Leslie 
to distribute the material that I considered necessary, and return as soon as possible 
to Amiens. As soon as I had my horse roughed I started. The road Avas lined Avith 
Prussian sentries, and every five minutes I Avas challenged, but without experiencing 
any great difficulty I reached Foucancourt at eight o'clock. I should have gone 



85 

straight into Amiens, but there was not a horse in the village to be had, of which I 
really was glad, for I was very tired, and pleased to turn in at 10.30 p.m. At 7 o'clock 
the next morning I resumed my journey on the slippery roads, and nearly all the way 
I was obliged to walk, as we could get on faster that Avay by leading the horse. 
I stopped at Villers Bretonneux to feed my horse and to see how the wounded were 
getting on. There are still 130 wounded Frenchmen in the town, and they appear 
to want nothing. The people of Villers Bretonneux have shown forth nobly, 
and have afforded example to other cities in the way that they have taken care of 
the sick and wounded, and distinguished among them all is Monsieur Patrice 
Bouchez. 

" I reached Amiens at 5 o'clock. Mr. Leslie returned at 3 o'clock this morn- 
ing, when he reported his arrival ; but though ho was wanted to-day at Boves, 
I would not send him, as I considered he required rest. To him I am indebted that 
my fourgons arrived so quickly at Peronne, and that we were enabled to afford 
instant relief. To Mr. Goodcnough's prompt execution of his orders in arranging 
and packing the fourgons I am also indebted. 

" I was pleased to find on arrival at Peronne that there were so few wounded, for 
the population is 4,437, which, of course, was increased by the garrison. 

" My horses are quite unfit to work to-day, but to-morrow 1 start off again for the 
front. 

NORMAN V. UNIACKE." 



WESTERN DISTRICT. 

The following letter with reference to the work at Tours will be read with 
interest : — 

November 18, 1870. 

I have just returned from a visit to Orleans and the front, and hope that some of 
the information I gathered there may prove interesting to you. 

First, as regards the wounded of the last battle ; I found that all those who had 
only flesh wounds, or were not considered in positive danger, had been evacuated to 
the south. This was especially the case as regards the Germans, who are sent to the 
south of France as quickly as possible, in order to prevent the chance of a possible re- 
capture by the German armies. I left Orleans at six in the evening yesterday, and 
up to that hour there were about 160 Germans left in the town, viz. : — 45 in the Great 
Civil hospital, about 80 in the Anglo-American Ambulance, and the few remaining 
in the houses in the town. Those of the Civil hospital were all very grave cases, 
few of which will, I fear, recover. At the Anglo-American Ambulance, also, several 
were dying, but about 60 per cent, have a fair chance of recovery. I have made 
careful inquiries as to the number of wounded Germans who have been left in the 
hands of the French during the battle of the 9th, and find that they do not exceed 
about 500, upwards of 300 of whom have been sent to the south. I am assured, 
however, that the loss of the Germans was very heavy, and that they carried away 
most of their wounded as they retreated from the field. The French wounded 
amounted to about 2,000. A great many of these still remained at Orleans, at the 
General-hospital (516), and in various private establishments. Blois, Tours, and 
several other towns have also received a large number. 

The General Hospital at Orleans is one of the largest and best conducted in 
France ; but no arrangements had been made in it specially for the wounded. Con- 
sequently their supply of lint had become exhausted, and I was informed that the only 
charpie they had was made by those of the wounded who could use their hands. 
Immediately on my return I despatched to them a large supply of lint and bandages ; 
also of quinine and morphine. 

The Anglo-American Ambulance seemed to be admirably managed by Dr. Tilghman, 
who was acting as chief during the absence of Dr. Pratt, and it was with great 
pleasure I was able to make over to him a complete case of instruments, discovering 
that the Ambulance had lost most of its instruments at Sedan, and that those still 
in its possession had become blunt and useless. None of the wounded had either 
sheets, pillow-cases, or flannel shirts ; they were covered with very rough blankets, 
which looked more like horse-cloths ; and the usual rations given to soldiers were 
alone distributed to them by the military authorities. The Sisters of Charity here, as 
everywhere else in France, were attending on the wounded with that devotion and 
tenderness which make them the most admirable of all nurses. They all begged me, 
however, to try and get German sisters for the German wounded, as their inability 
to understand what the poor sufferers were saying rendered their services less efficient 
than they would otherwise be. To hope for such a thing in France is, of course, out 
of the question, but I had an opportunity of satisfying myself that the complain I of 
the sisters was not unfounded. Whilst visiting one of the wards, I noticed two 

N 



86 

Sisters and a hospital attendant hopelessly trying to understand the wants of a 
young Bavarian dragoon who had lost both his legs, and was lying in a very helpless 
state. My knowledge of German enabled me to rectify this at once, and several 
other soldiers when they discovered I could speak their language begged me to 
explain about the particular pains they were suffering, and what they wished done for 
them. A young Bavarian lieutenant, shot through the chest, seemed delighted to see 
some one who could talk to him in German ; he knew his hours were numbered, as 
the ball had passed through his lungs, but he seemed cheerful and quite prepared to 
die for the Fatherland. He was lying, on a good bed, in a bright sunny room, had a 
French soldier to attend on him, and expressed himself deeply grateful for the kindness 
and attention of the doctors. The only thing he appeared to fancy was fruit, and the 
ladies of the Committee have just despatched to him a box of the finest fruit 
procurable in Tours. 

I must not forget to mention to you a most admirable old Irish lady who has 
devoted herself to the wounded at Orleans. Mrs. O'Hanlon has lived there thirty 
years, but since the war has put the Red Cross on her arm, and acts as hospital nurse 
wherever there are wounded. I saw her actively at work at the Anglo-American 
Ambulance, dressing their wounds, washing their faces, and performing all the terrible 
duties of these wards with an intelligence and tenderness which I had never seen 
before except in the Sisters of Charity. She strongly inveighed against ration food, 
and begged for essences of beef, jelly, and good wine, which I have sent off to her. 
She also brought to my notice that a number of wounded were to be sent off next 
morning to the South without stockings, or anything warmer than the uniforms, 
covered with blood, which had been taken off them when they came into the hospital. 
The doctor admitted that this was true, and assured me he had done his best to 
prevent these hasty removals, and, in fact, had already obtained respite for some of 
them, but that stringent orders had been again issued about the Germans, and that 
they would have to be obeyed. I have taken, of course, immediate steps to send 
clothing, shoes, &c, and only trust they will have arrived in time for the exodus of 
the first batch. 

On the whole, the management of this Anglo-American Ambulance seemed to me 
superior to anything I have seen in France. The surgeons never left the patients 
night or day, and the medical attention paid to the wounded was infinitely greater 
than could be hoped for in public hospitals, where the surgeons have civil out-door 
practice, and only see their patients at stated hours. 

We expect almost hourly to hear of a great battle before Orleans, and of twenty 
or thirty thousand wounded being directed to Blois, Tours, Poitiers, Angers, &c. 
Orders have been given here to prepare about 5,000 beds, and the mayor of the town 
has implored us to give aid, which we shall of course be only too delighted to do, as 
far as we are able. Probably ere this reaches you the great fight will have come off, 
and whether the French gain a victory or suffer defeat the wounded must be 
provided for in the region between this and Orleans. That the battle will be a very 
sanguinary one I am quite convinced, for, from all we learn, the Germans are under- 
rating and despising their enemy, whilst the French are not only very strong, but 
seem confident of victory — a confidence which, I assure you, appears to be shared by 
several foreign officers who have joined the head-quarters. 

Whilst visiting the French wounded, I was very much struck with the alteration 
in their general spirits and appearance which appears to have lately come over them. 
The men that came back from Sedan, and those wounded in reconnaissances, generally 
looked very depressed and forlorn. Since the battle of the 9th, however, a wonderful 
change seems to have come over them. Even men with bad wounds were talking 
cheerfully, and the wards resounded with laughter. The doctors assured me also 
that the men were most anxious to rejoin, even before they were fit to go. They 
believe in victory, and I think the Prussian Army will be astonished when it meets 
the Armee de la Loire. I went carefully into all the details of the last battle, and am 
now satisfied that General Von der Tann escaped from Orleans just in time to pre- 
vent the destruction of his whole force. 

Captain Knowles and Mr. Jarvis have just arrived ; the latter I have sent to 
Orleans with lint, &c, from the admirable supplies you have forwarded by them. Captain 
Knowles will stay here till Monday, and then either return to you for more supplies or 
take a consignment on to the field. 

I have been very much struck by the gratitude evinced not only by the wounded 
of both nations, for the help given by the National Society, but also by the local autho- 
rities, the clergy, the convents, and the French Societies for Aid to the Sick and 
Wounded. Their thankfulness and admiration for the generosity of the National 
Society of England are quite unbounded. 

N. ELPHINSTONE. 



87 

Several Agents of the Society undertook detached missions, and no work was 
more useful than that of Captain Harvey, who made prolonged journeys in the north- 
west of France, accounts of which will be found in the following letters : — 

" Avranches, March 1, 1871. 

'• I now send you a report of my proceedings. from the date on which I last wrote. 
On the 18th February, I proceeded with the Secretary of the Nantes Ambulance 
Society to see several Ambulances in the town which I had not before seen. 

" There are now 2,200 beds established in private houses, mills, and factories, sup- 
ported by the voluntary contributions of the inhabitants. The cases are wounds, typhoid 
fever, bronchitis, frozen feet, and diseases arising from over exertion and extreme 
fatigue with exposure. The Ambulances were clean and orderly, the rooms well 
aired and dry, and the patients were not overcrowded, but carefully nursed and 
amply nourished. From my visit, and from what I have since seen, I judge that 
Nantes has made more efforts than any other town to relieve the sick and wounded, 
and has taken a larger share of this patriotic devotion than other towns, and it is 
well deserving of the help the National Society sends to it. For some long time to 
come there will be demands on the charities of Nantes ; for the sick and wounded 
from Le Mans and from other towns now in the possession of the Prussians are 
being evacuated on Nantes on account of the better air, greater wealth and accom- 
modation of that city. All cases of small-pox and contagious diseases are sent to 
the government hospital, l'Hotel Dieu. 

" The 40 bales and cases which the Society sent to Madame de la Barre, the Lady 
Directress of the Nantes Ambulances, arrived on the 17th ult. I am still asked to 
obtain if possible about 200 flannel vests, 250 night caps, 300 comforters, quinquinat, 
and bismuth. If the Society has these goods in store they would be well disposed of 
at Nantes, but if not I think it would be best for me to make a second inquiry on 
my return to Nantes, about 6th or 7th inst., of the requirements, and to give a 
certain sum of money in lieu of goods, A subscription has been raised in the city 
of Nantes, to relieve the urgent wants of widows and fatherless children, who, 
through the war, have been deprived of their support, and must, for a time, at least, 
depend on charity for existence. The amount raised will suffice until about the 
20th March. I am told by the President of this Society that about 1,500 families, 
averaging three persons each, are relieved weekly at the following rate : — 

4^ lbs. of bread per person, per week. 
5 lbs. of meat „ „ 

100 mottes or peat cakes for fuel. 

" On the 18th February, after visiting the Ambulances, I left Nantes and proceeded 
by rail to Rennes. The town was crowded with Pontifical Zouaves, eclaireurs, 
sailors, mobiles, and mobilises, so that I had to sleep on the ground in a room with 
three other men, a drawback I have since experienced a few times. 

" On the 19th February I found my railway waggon, containing 34 bales and pack- 
ages, had not arrived, having been detained at Reddon junction. I occupied the 
morning in visiting some wholesale druggists, and inquiring the prices of medicines, 
to purchase them at the most moderate price, if required. Sulphate of quinine and 
bismuth are the dearest medicines, and are difficult to obtain ; other medicines can be 
purchased at Nantes and Rennes. 

" On the 20^A February I proceeded by rail to Laval ; the Ambulances in this 
town are rather crowded, being used more as temporary hospitals, where the 
wounded and sick soldiers are nursed out of danger, and evacuated to the Ambu- 
lances of Rennes to be healed and recovered. The Ambulances at Laval contained 
450 sick and wounded, and required flannel shirts, sheets, socks, nightcaps, slippers, 
&c, these I send to them from the 34 packages, but I will send you later a further 
report on Laval, and the exact number of things I have given. As I arrived in the 
afternoon and was anxious to proceed to Le Mans, my visit was hurried, and the 
information I obtained not full enough. Mons. Lefizelier is the President. 

" On the 21st February I went on by rail to Le Mans — the neutral territory lay 
between Sille le Guillaume and Conlie — but arrived too late to see the Ambulances. 
The next day, 22nd inst., I visited the Ambulances of the town accompanied by 
Mons. Boulanger, President of the Committee ; Mons. Pinaud, Secretary ; and Madame 
Mayard, Lady Directress. I found the patients rather crowded, the Ambulances not 
so clean or well cared for as at Nantes, but they were kept as well as the great 
number of cases and the dangerous nature of their wounds and diseases will allow. 
There are 500 sick and wounded in Le Mans itself, but the surrounding villages 
where battles of the 10th, 11th, and 12th January took place are full. The patients 
in these villages are nursed through the Ambulance Committees of other towns, 
such as Rennes, Caen, &c, which have sent a staff of doctors, with comforts and 
Ambulance equipment, and are supported by the town funds. 

At Ivry l'Eveque village there are 170 wounded. 
At Change „ „ 220 „ 

N 2 



88 

" Small-pox has been raging in Le Mans, and has made many victims ; typhus 
and typhoid fevers have carried off numbers. I saw many men frightfully wounded, 
others dead and dying from disease and amputations. Every ease of amputation 
succumbs in a few days after the operation, on account of infected air, la poivrriture 
(Vhopltul which reigns in the town. I had several interviews with M. Boulanger, 
and was informed that Col. E'phinstone had sent help from Tours at different times, 
and that Mr. DowKng with Mbs Frost had been there some days before. 

" I met Mons. de Bammeville, r<f Versailles, who had just arrived at Le Mans with 
packages containing various articles for the Ambulances, especially wine, coffee, 
sugar, &c, from the French International Ambulance Committee. This gentleman, 
of good family and very wealthy, but devoted to this charity, visited the Ambu- 
lances and the inhabitants of all the villages in the neighbourhood in which there 
had been fighting, or through which the French and Prussian troops had passed. 
The object of this tour of inspection was to estimate the losses of the inhabitants of 
farms, villages, &c, with a view to some system of relief being equitably distributed 
among the sufferers, and to arrange as much as possible that this help should be in 
kind (cattle, sheep, carts, seed, forage, &c.) rather than money. A subscription for 
this relief will be raised in Paris. This subject does not affect the sick and wounded 
soldiers, but I mention it to show the many channels through which charitable aid 
may continue to flow. Change, Ivry l'Eveque, Champigne, Sille le Philippe, Lombron, 
Connerre, Ardenay, Le Grand Luce, Sceaux, are villages that have much suffered. 

" Seeing the help brought by Mons. de Bammeville, and being told of the aid 
Colonel Elphinstone had sent, I did not offer to send more articles, as Le Mans is 
sufficiently provided, but as Mme. Mayard, who is occupied all day with the 
management of the Ambulances, begged me to send some clothes and boots for the 
men to take convalescent exercise in, or to leave hospital, their own clothes being so 
dirty and ragged, I gave the Le Mans Committee 500 francs. I wrote to acquaint 
Colonel Elphinstone of what I had done, as Le Mans was in his district. I asked the 
principal medical officer of the Prussian forces if I could give the Prussians help ; 
he informed me that their sick and wounded had all been evacuated on Germany, 
excepting 40 who did not require help. 

" There were some 6,000 or 8,000 Prussians occupying Le Mans ; I met the 
greatest courtesy from them, and was treated with kindness and hospitality by all 
the Prussian officers. A squadron leader of the 3rd Cuirassiers lent me his first 
charger, and on two successive days we rode out for several hours to examine the 
fields of battle and the positions occupied by Chanzy's army. The country and the 
villages have suffered very much — houses and farms demolished by shells or 
destroyed by fire — fields trampled upon and lying uncultivated for want of cattle, of 
agricultural implements, of seed, oats, barley, &c. The passage of such numbers of 
men, French and Prussian, and consequent requisitions, have entirely denuded the 
country and have left country people in misery and want, having no means in kind 
wherewith to re-establish themselves. Helmets, knapsacks, dead horses, canteens, 
&c, were still lying on the ground. I am told the same condition exists in the 
country about Orleans, and between it and Le Mans, and between Chartres and Le 
Mans. 

" The inhabitants of Le Mans, though hating the Prussians as a nation, are quite 
reconciled to the individual Prussian officer and soldier. No barbarities or plunder 
were committed, some doors were burst open, panes of glass smashed, and sundry 
thefts took place on the first night of entry after four days' fighting, but after that 
all was orderly again. During the time I remained in Le Mans, from 20th to 23rd 
February inclusive, I did not see a drunken soldier about. On the last day as I went 
to the railway station I met the whole body of German prisoners of war, who had 
just arrived from Belle Isle, Auray, Port Louis, having been exchanged; they all 
recognised, surrounded, and greeted me ; they carried their bundles containing part 
of their clothing, &c, sent by the National Society and Prussian Embassy. 

" On the 24th I returned to Rennes. 

" On the 25th I went to the station and got my waggon, containing 34 bales, and 
gave to the Rennes Ambulance Committee the following : — 

9007 Bale 50 blankets. 
9388 " } HO sheets. 
9118 Bag, 2 cwts. sugar. 
9080 Bale, 13 doz. pants. 
9091 Bag, 2 cwt. of rice. 
9015 Case of carbolic acid. 
8457 Box of head nets. 

9075 100 (part of contents) slippers taken out. 
'9082 15(5 (part of contents) Jerseys taken out. 

" I ought to have mentioned before that I have entered into an agreement with 
M. de Bammeville to correspond with him and report the general state of the 
Ambulances in the towns I visit, and to acquaint him of any want of wine or coffee, 
which he will send from Versailles ii wanted: he in return will acquaint me with 
wants about Paris, or where he may visit. 



8.9 

" At Le Mans, I met Drs. Ball and Jameson, who had come in for the evening 
from Connerre ; they were both well. Leaving the railway waggon at Rennes, 
I thought it best to travel to Granville, St. Malo, St. Brieuc to find out the wants of 
these three towns, and return to Rennes to expedite by requisition the succour in 
goods which they required, rather than hampering movements and causing expense 
by conveying all the bales with me from town to town. On the 26th February I 
started by the 5 a.m. train and diligence for Granville, via Dol and Avranches, which 
I reached at night and found full of soldiers. 

" 21th February. In the morning I went to the Hospice, where I found nothing 
was wanted : thence I went to the Caserne du Roc, two large barracks in the upper 
town, where tiOO sick and wounded soldiers have been placed. The rooms very dirty, 
atmosphere close, men crowded, and there were no ' Infirmiers,' or hospital 
orderlies. The linen room was nearly empty, and contained but few sheets, and the 
patients were consequently suffering from want of clean sheets. Some Sisters of 
Mercy, quite fearless of contagious disease, were busy, doing then* utmost to alleviate 
the suffering and to remove the disorder and dirt. The diseases, principally, were 
small-pox, dysentery, and typhoid fever ; from these and from wounds the mortality 
is great, but I can never arrive at a percentage, as the number of patients fluctuates 
daily from new arrivals and from evacuations. 

" There is no Ambulance in Granville, and therefore perhaps I went beyond the 
intentions of the Society in helping this Military Hospital, but the number of 
patients is so great, and the wants so numerous, that I gave the Dame Superieure 
500 francs to buy the most urgent wants, such as linen, charpie, nightcaps (indis- 
pensable, it seems, to Frenchmen), handkerchiefs, and shoes, and I told the Intendant 
Militaire that if I could spare from my stock at Rennes, I would send him some 
jerseys, sheets, blankets, pants, handkerchiefs, and slippers, the fulfilment of which 
will depend upon the requirements of the Ambulances at St. Malo and St. Brieuc, 
where I hear there is an immense number of sick and wounded in the large Govern- 
ment barracks and buildings, and also whether more goods are sent to me from 
England. Immediately after visiting Caserne du Roc, I went by diligence to St. Lo, 
which I reached 7 p.m., but could not go further by rail, as Faidherbe's army had 
landed at Cherbourg and was being conveyed to Caen and South to front the 
Prussians. Having heard at Granville that there were Ambulances at Caen, I 
started from St. Lo, on 28th February, at 6 a.m., for that town, which I reached at 12. 
I at once called upon the Mayor, also upon Mons. Roulland and Mons. Melon, the 
Protestant Minister, who are Directors of the Hospitals and Ambulances. 

" I visited an Ambulance established in the Lycee where 150 sick and wounded 
lay. The men were very crowded, but they were well cared for by a good staff of 
infirmiers, and the rooms were clean. Dysentery, bronchitis, fever, tumours, and 
wounds were the chief cases, as all the small-pox patients were sent to the Hotel Dieu. 
I visited the linen store and found they wanted charpie, slippers, nightcaps, and 
sheets, &c. 

" There is also an Ambulance of from 40 to 50 beds kept by Freres, this I did not 
visit, but as I could not conveniently send stores to Caen unless via Havre, I gave 
the Econome 500 francs to buy the immediate requisites with, for which they were 
most grateful. I told the Mayor of Caen, as indeed I have told all those to whom I 
have given help, that should more sick be thrown on his hands, and any great 
wants arise, he must at once communicate with me. Many sick soldiers are nursed 
in the Departmental Hospitals in the town, but as I was told that everything was 
provided as the endowments were rich, I did not visit them, but hurried back to St. 
Malo. 

" On 1st March, at 5 a.m., I started by diligence for Avranches, which I reached at 
8 p.m. Next day, the 2nd inst., I had a long conversation with Mr. Bell, who 
showed me his Ambulance, which is very well kept, but not very full of sick at the 
time I saw it. 

" The subscriptions at Avranches have been liberal, and the town has sent help to 
Granville. 

" Mr. Bell gave me a description of the Hospitals and Ambulances established 
about Cherbourg, Bricquebec, and Carenton (department La Manche), where he 
says there are between (5,000 and 8,000 wounded and sick men, principally suffering 
from small-pox. There is also raging in those districts a black pox, which carries 
off its victims in 24 hours. Mr. Bell urged the necessity of sending aid at once to 
Cherbourg, as he had heard from M. La Fosse, the President of the Ambulances at 
Cherbourg, of their destitution and utter want, especially of medicines. I therefore 
telegraphed to you this morning from here, to send supplies to Granville, as I can 
take them thence to Cherbourg by rail, there being no direct rail thither from St. 
Malo. I will proceed with the goods from Granville as soon as you notify their 
despatch, meanwhile I have written to M. La Fosse for full particulars. 

" A very' large number (some 2,000 or 3,000) of sick and wounded have been 
evacuated on Brest, where they occupy the spacious Marine Barracks. I shall proceed 
there with what help I can in kind and money. If I may suggest it, I think goods 
are better than money, because when the latter is given a little always sticks to 



90 

the hands through which it passes. In future I will, as far as possible, buy myself 
the articles most wanted. 

" The itinerary I propose to follow is : — 

4th March, Rennes, Grand Hotel Julien. 
5th inst., Laval, with goods. 
6th „ Mayenne, with goods. 
7th „ Rennes. 

" From Rennes I shall proceed on the 8th, according to the instructions I may 
receive from you. 

" List of places where there are sick and wounded requiring succour. 

Camps about Cherbourg and La Manche 5000 
Laval, Mons. do la Grange, President . . 700 

Mayenne . . 500 

St. Brieuc 300 

Brest .. .. .. .. 3000 

L'Orient 500 

" 3rd March. This day at St. Malo, where I received your two telegrams and 
letters. Letter of 28th February, stating that you had sent letter to Nantes, with 
particulars of cases for Madlle. de la Barre. Letter of 22nd February, enclosing 
invoice of 32 packages. Letter of 22nd February, giving summary of succour sent 
to Nantes, 83 packages. 
" I found on the quay 

Bale 4187, 150 shirts 
„ 9444, 30 woollen shirts 
„ 5446, 150 shirts 

B ° X n^n T^ 6 V T 1 'I 1 Ml ^e Whole to 

„ 9449, drainage tubing and oiled silk ( N . ' „ ri:1 ^ ;10 . PK = ai 



As some of these are addressed to Madame 



Nantes, viz., 32 + 9 packages = 41 
packages. 



„ 9451, medicine 

„ 518, 

„ 9204, 

„ 9042, cocoa 

" Captain Gaudin has just notified to me the arrival of 32 packages for Col. 
Elphinstone, Tours. 

" I start for Rennes this afternoon. 

« CHAS. LACON HARVEY, 71** Highland Lt. Infantry. 



" Grand Hotel Jvlien, Rennes, 1th March, 1871. 

" On my return to this place on Qth March, I received the following letters : — 
" Letter 27/A February, giving invoice of 32 packages, destined for Madame de la 
Barre. Letter of 28th ult., giving invoice of 9 packages, destined for Madame de la 
Barre. Letter brd March, directing my attention to 5 packages for Bishop of Orleans, 
and advising despatch of 2 cases of medicines to Granville. I have despatched the 
32 + 9 = 41 packages by petite vitesse to Nantes, and shall proceed thither on the 
morning of 8th March, to deliver over these packages. I wrote on receipt of your 
letter yesterday, to Capt. Gaudin, to send the 5 packages on to Orleans by petite 
vitesse. I enclose a list showing how I have disposed thus far of all the packages 
and of certain sums of money. To return to my diary— -3rd March, I visited the 
Ambulances at St. Malo, which, excepting wine, coffee, and sugar, arc well provided 
with everything. I left in the afternoon and proceeded to Rennes. On the 4th inst. 
I left at 6 a.m. for Laval. I there saw Mons. De la Grange, the President of the 
Committee, and with him I visited several Ambulances. 

" The Committee of the Laval Ambulances has exerted itself, so far as I could 
judge, more than any other town, not even excepting Nantes and Rennes, which 
latter, however, must be classed with Laval, as being one of the best managed and 
best supported Ambulance Committees of the West of France. There are 14 different 
Ambulances established in private houses and in religious houses, with accommoda- 
tion varying From 15 to 150 beds, in all 1,250 beds, but at present 700 only are 
occupied. The ambulances I visited were all in religious houses: Sisters of Mercy, 
75 ' Trappistes,' or Cloistered Sisters, 84 ; Freres, 120. These patients were suffering 
ehietly from typhus fever, inflammation of the lungs, acute rheumatism, dysentery, and 
small-pox — the latter were not nursed with the other patients. The Ambulances I 
saw were all in, the, most /"■/•feet state of cleanliness and order. The religious houses and 
monasteries are very strict about cleanliness — the patients were very comfortable, and 
Sisters of ( Hiarity were in continual attendance upon them. Sisters of Charity go and 
tend the sick in private houses where there are 15 or more patients. These sisters 
fear no disease, and are the most devoted and self-sacrificing persons I ever saw. The 
mortality of these Ambulances is about 10 per cent. 



91 

" Great demands have been made upon Laval, and it is estimated that some 
25,000 sick and wounded have passed through their Ambulances, and been forwarded 
to others further removed from the enemy. 

" The population of Laval is from 20,000 to 25,000, but it has some wealthy 
proprietors and merchants, who have given most liberally, and have deprived them- 
selves of luxuries to meet the requirements of the town and commune Ambulances. 
There are Ambulances at Chateau Goutier (180 sick), and at Craon (70 sick), which 
depend on the Laval Committee for aid. 

" I also saw at Laval the working of the soup relief system by tickets for the 
poor people who have lost their support through the war. Mons. De la Grange is 
President of this Society also. Five cauldrons, holding 200 quarts of soup, are daily 
made. A pint of soup costs three sous ; the soup is made thick with so many beans 
that persons are able to exist on one pint a day. On five days of the week 
50 grammes of meat and one pint of potatoes are given for three sous. The more 
wealthy people buy a number of the 3-sous tickets, and give them to the needy, 
while the poor are glad to pay three sous for so good a meal. The loss of selling 
at so low a price, as well as the support of two cooks and fuel, is paid by a 
subscription. 

" A subscription has also been raised to help young children who have lost their 
fathers, and old people who lost their sons by the war. 

" On the 5th March I went to Mayenne, a town of 20,000, where there are only 
two Ambulances, containing 300 sick and wounded. I visited the one established 
in a part of the Madhouse. I was taken round by Dr. Bonnet, who appears to be a 
very good and kind man. The patients, 120 in number, were very comfortable, in 
very clean and spacious halls, quite separate from the maniacs. Dr. Bonnet offered 
to take in the sick and wounded, and maintain them as well as he can from the funds 
of the Institution (they must manage funds differently in France to what is the case 
in England). Beds, | linen, and medicines he had, but the cost of maintaining the 
soldiers in food (all in anticipation of being repaid by Government) had drained 
the Madhouse funds, and he was getting alarmed how he could proceed. I 
gave him a portion of 12 packages I sent to Mayenne, and also a portion of coffee, 
chocolate, tapioca, which I bought cheaply at a wholesale grocer's at Rennes. I also 
gave 400 francs to buy wine, coffee, &c. I was somewhat astonished to see men in 
bad stages of small-pox mixed with other cases and convalescents, but the Doctor 
told me that he always let in plenty of air, and that there was no harm. Certainly 
the rooms were well ventilated, and there was not the slightest bad smell per- 
ceptible. He also informed me that he only lost 4 per cent, of his patients. There 
were, however, some very bad and hopeless cases of typhus and dysentery. 

" I next went to the Hospice, which has accommodated 250, but has now only 
70 patients ; 50 of these were bar] cases of small-pox, the remainder were typhus. 
I visited the rooms, they were not so clean and well aired as the others — the small- 
pox wards were offensive. The mortality here is greater, for nearly all the small- 
pox cases are sent here. The hospice was not very clean, and wanted everything, 
particularly sheets and clothes, to replace those used by small-pox patients. I 
returned to Rennes the same night. 

" I gave 12 packages, and 350 francs to purchase wine and other requisites. I 
have also sent from Rennes coffee, chocolate, tapioca, and sugar, bought at the 
wholesale grocer's. 

" On 6th instant, I was busy unloading waggon, dividing the contents of bales, 
and expediting the goods by petite vitesse to Laval and to Mayenne. I also saw 
Madame Carron, the Directress of the Ambulances at Mayenne ; her wants are wine 
and coffee, she has been supplied by the Society with everything else. 

" To-day, 7th instant, 1 proceed to Combourg, to visit an Ambulance of 100 sick 
and wounded, which I have only just heard about from Madame Carron, and which 
is maintained by a doctor with the help of some country folk. Combourg is a village 
some 30 miles north of Rennes. I hear that the doctor's means are becoming 
exhausted, and that he deserves support, having done all himself hitherto. I will 
take four packages with me, also some tapioca, coffee, chocolate, and money, if I 
find it is required. I have yet to take succour to St. Brieuc, to Brest, and to 
Cherbourg. 

" All transport has now to be paid, therefore all goods must be sent by petite vitesse 
or luggage train, instead of by <jrande vitesse or passenger train, for the latter costs 
double the former. 

" The tone of the French papers is becoming very friendly towards England, 
and the gifts sent out by the Society are received everywhere with gratitude, and 
convince the people of the real sympathies of the British nation for the sufferings of 
of the French nation. 

" CHAS. LACON HARVEY, Capt. list HighlandLU Infantry." 



92 

"Disposal of 32 packages sent out to Captain Harvey by the National Society on 
the 11th February, 1871 :— 

" For Rennes and Department) 12 Ambulances. 

He et Vilaine . . . . ) 350 sick and wounded. 

Madame de Carron, Directress du Comitc. 
Monsieur Guerault, President du Comite. 
Bale 9067, blankets, 50 pairs. 
„ 9073, sheets 60 „ 
„ 9088 „ 60 „ 

„ 9080, pants 13 doz. 
„ 9081, rice 2 cwt. 

„ 9118, sugar 2 cwt. 

Case 9017, carbolic acid. 

„ 8437, head nets. 
Bale 9082 (part of), jerseys, flannel, 152. 
Box 9075, „ slippers, 100. 

" For Laval and Department) 14 Ambulances, 

de Mayenne : . . . J 700 sick and wounded. 

Monsieur de la Grange, President du Comitc Central. 
Bale 9062, blankets, 50 pairs. 

,, 9063, „ 50 „ 

» 9066, „ 50 „ 

„ 9070, sheets, 60 „ 

» 9072, _ „ 60 „ 

„ 9082, jerseys, blue flannel, 100. 

„ 9090, rice, 2 cwt. 

„ 9119, sugar, 2 „ 

„ 9076, pants, 4£ doz. ; half-hose, 42 doz. 

„ 9077, „ 7 doz. 
Case 9016, carbolic acid. 
Bale 9075 (part oi), 100 slippers. 
And 50 francs for tobacco, chocolate, and tapioca. 

a i? Mr /j. i \ f 2 Ambulances. 

Jf or Mayenne (town only) ^ nr: „ • , -, -, , 

J v J/ (2o0 sick and wounded. 

Le Docteur Bonnet, Maison des Alienes. 

Madame la Superieure, Hotel Dieu Hospice. 

Bale 9064, blankets, 50 pairs \ ^ , r j , ,. <■ 

orwpc ^o ( n accuU11 ^ °* destruction ol 

" (tors' '^0 " ( blankets by small and black 

» 9069 ; » 50 » ) pox patients. 

., 9060, sheets, 60 pairs. 

» 9071, „ 60 „ 

„ 9079, pants, 9^ doz. 

Sack 9092, rice, 2 cwt. 

„ 9120, sugar, 2 cwt. 
Case 9015, carbolic acid. 
Bale 9083 (part of), 150 flannel jerseys. 
Case 9075, „ 60 pairs slippers. 

20 lbs. chocolate, 20 lbs. coffee,"^ bought at Rennes and sent 
30 lbs. sugar, 6 lbs. tapioca ^ to Mayenne. 

Also to Maison des Alienes, 400 francs) for wine, coffee, 
,, Hotel Dieu, 350 „ ) tobacco. 

" For Combourg village and 1 1 Ambulance, 

neighbourhood. J 70 sick and wounded. 

Docteur Doyot — his own private Ambulance. 
Bale 9061, blankets, 50 pairs. 
„ 9074, sheets 60 „ 

9078, pants 8£ doz. 
„ 9083, (part of) 102 flannel jerseys. 
20 lbs. chocolate, 20 lbs. coffee, \ bought at Rennes and 

50 lbs. sugar, 6 lbs. tapioca, J taken by me. 

Caen 500 francs, Granville 500 francs, Le Mans 500 francs. 

" Articles required. — Sheets, and particularly wine, sugar, coffee, tapioca, hand- 
kerchiefs, night caps. Blankets are not required in large quantities. 

" 1 have seen many sick and wounded lying perfectly prostrated after amputation, 
small-pox, typhus, arid dysentery. A small quantity of port wine or Malaga would 
keep them in life, whereas they succumb when they have nothing but the weak wine 
of the country. Please send in 1 doz. cases to make distribution easy." 



93 

Mr. Swaine undertook to ascertain the state of the French prisoners in Germany, 
and reports as follows in one of several letters he addressed to the Committee : — 

" Hotel du Nord, Cologne, January 2nd, 1871. 

" We completed our work in the hospitals on Saturday evening, having given 
nearly 1,500 patients one shirt, one pair of drawers, and one pair of socks each 
personally. At first I intended not to give in every case a shirt when I gave 
a pair of drawers, and vice versa, but I found that the garments the men had in wear 
were of such thin cotton that I determined to fit each man out completely. 

" On Friday evening, about six o'clock, we had the best distribution of all. It 
took place at the Victoria Theatre, about a mile outside the town. "When so many 
prisoners came into Germany, and so many of them were sick, all kinds of establish- 
ments had to be metamorphosed into temporary hospitals, and amongst others this 
theatre. It contains about 150 to 180 patients, is a good large and lofty room, 
and has only one gallery, running nearly all round, excepting that portion of it 
taken up by the stage. The sick had been already prepared for our coming; and 
when we entered the room, with bundles of shirts, &c, on our arms, it did not 
require any word of command to bring them, as nimbly as circumstances would 
allow, to their beds, and await with eager look what was to follow. Several of 
the sick had dozed away, probably giving up our coming as hopeless, as we were 
considerably behind time, having been disappointed about our cart ; but after 
we once began, and as we worked on, the whole place gradually brightened up. 
The men sat up in their beds, and crept into their frocks or jerseys ; and those that 
were too weak to manage it alone got a friend to help them. But everybody was 
busy, and everybody was delighted, and none more than the Sisters of Mercy, who 
looked upon such a rich donation as the most healing and curing physic of any that 
could be given. When all was over, and we were preparing to go, they struck up 
a song in our honour, and as thanks. A harmonium, that had been borrowed for 
Christmas, was placed in the middle of the room, played on by one of them, and all 
who could sing sang. First they struck up some pretty French air, and then they 
finished with ' Partant pour la Syrie.' Then we left. If the many ladies in England 
who have taken so much interest in the sick and wounded of this war could but 
have had one look into this hospital at that moment, the smile of gratitude of those 
sick men would have amply repaid them for all their trouble, and redoubled their 
energies for further work. 

" The following morning we went out to Kalk, on the other side of the river, 
about a mile beyond Deutz. There are upwards of 500 patients in that hospital, but 
owing to its having only been built as a temporary measure it is not quite as com- 
plete as the rest. However, by the end of the week they expect all the patients 
will have bedsteads, and the greater part proper mattresses. Very few deaths have 
taken place here, thanks principally to the healthy locality. Saturday, later in the 
afternoon, we went to another hospital, containing about 150 patients, and that 
finished all distributions here. And all have been very satisfactory and gratifying. 
But, before I conclude with Cologne, I wish to make one remark. I had heard and 
read also that the prisoners, both in the barracks and in the hospitals, were worse 
off here than in any other town in Germany. This, at present, is certainly not the 
case. Thanks to the kind permission of the Commandant, 1 have been in the 
barracks in and out of the town, and in all the hospitals, and am glad to be able to 
bear testimony to the comparative comfort with which the men are put up every- 
where. Of course they are not in palaces, nor do they sleep upon feather beds, but 
each man has his paillasse, his two blankets, a warm room to live in, and ample 
food. Unfortunately, there is not much work, and it is therefore terribly dull for 
them; but that can't be helped. In one barrack, as I wrote to you, the men have 
knocked up a stage, write their own plays, and then act them afterwards ; and thus 
some of them manage to pass the time. Everywhere I mid the Prussian officers 
most kind to them; in fact, after what I have seen at Magdeburg, Stettin, 
and now here, I can't conceive from what these reports of dissatisfaction arise that 
so frequently appear in the papers. 

" I have just heard from Magdeburg on the 28th, 29th, and 30th instant, that 
41 deaths have been registered amongst the prisoners. It appears to be terribly on 
the increase. 

L. V. SWAINE." 



Mr. Clarke visited Bordeaux, Pau, St. Jean de Luz, and places in their neighbour- 
hoods, and, besides other good service, rendered assistance to the German prisoners in 
France. He writes : — 

" Pau, Basses Pyrenees, 29th Jan., 1871. 
" The consignment of stores was delivered to Captain Story on the 27th inst. 
The bale 8575 (Manchester Committee) only contained 52 instead of 70 blankets, as 

O ' 



94 

mentioned in the invoice. There was no appearance' of the bale having been tampered 
with en route. I proceed to-day to St. Jean de Luz. 

" I have the honour to make the following report with regard to the ambulances 
established in Pau : 





No. of 
Ambulances. 


No. of Beds. 


No. of Sick. 


Eemarks. 


Ambulances 

(Exclusive of public 
hospital) 


7 


300 


286 


The number of sick, 
&c, is variable. 



" The whole of the ambulances seemed to be well managed : among others I 
would cite the French Ambulance at the Palais de Justice, managed by Madame 
d'Aigillon, and the English Ambulances of Mrs. Harcourt Griffin and Mrs. Story, as 
being particularly good. 

" Administration and Resources. — There is no central Committee as at Bordeaux 
(where it seems to work very smoothly), but one is in process of formation. None of 
the ambulances have received the Government Grant of If. 25c. per bed occupied, 
although the money has been applied for. They are, consequently, entirely supported 
by voluntary contributions. The aid from the National Society of London in money, 
otores, &c, has been gratefully acknowledged. 

" Treatment of Inmates. — The appearance of the sick and wounded (French and 
German) testifies to the care and treatment which they receive. The men are warmly 
clad, look cheerful, especially the German prisoners, and express themselves thankful 
for the kindness they meet with at the hands of the generous residents who minister 
to their wants. The ambulances are well ventilated, the food of excellent quality and 
sufficient in quantity. Quinine, cod-liver oil, and extra wine are given when medically 
ordered. 

" German Prisoners. — A great deal has been said on the subject of the treatment 
of the German prisoners in Pau. There is no doubt that, in consequence of the 
collapse in French organisation, the French authorities were totally unprepared for the 
reception of the first batches of prisoners which arrived on the 18th November, and 
that the men endured great hardships and sufferings. I made careful inquiries from a 
Bavarian prisoner, an intelligent man and son of a physician, and elicited that about 
180 sick and wounded men arrived in Pau on the 18th and 19th November, and that they 
were huddled into the prison, where the first attempt to relieve their wants was made 
by English ladies and a Dutch doctor (Voogt) on the 19th, but their efforts fell far 
short of the requirements. The prison was bare, filthy from dirt, with straw to lie on. 
Order was not established until the 21st. The English ladies ceased to minister to 
the wants of the prisoners after the 23rd, in consequence of the Director informing 
them that he intended to undertake the supply of food, &c, on the following day. 
His arrangements must have been faulty, for the prisoners remained without food for 
36 hours — that is until noon on the 25th. 

" State of the Prison. — The prison, as I found it on the 29th January, presents, 
I am informed, a very different appearance to what it did at first, although the floors 
(boarded) are not clean, in spite of the statement made to me that they are cleaned 
daily. There was plenty of ventilation, and attempts had been made to improve 
the general condition of the prison. The men are distributed in the rooms and 
corridors. The small-pox patients are separated from the others. The food was of 
good quality, meat and wine being given daily. 

" Although by no means to be compared with the private ambulances for comfort 
and for general appearance of the inmates, the statistics of the prison ambulance are 
not unfavourable. Out of 125 cases of small-pox since the ambulance was formed, 
nine have been fatal, and the general death rate is 4 per cent., and this with such 
diseases as typhus, dysentery, and small-pox. Upwards of 600 prisoners have been 
received into this ambulance since it was first formed. 

" General Eemarks. — Sick and wounded French and Germans arrive frequently in 
Pau. There have been two detachments, the last of 380 men, during the past week. 
The ambulances are in consequence nearly full, and the Doctor Director of the prison 
ambulance has applied for more rooms. The men arrive in Pau in the bitter cold 
weather, suffering from want of sufficient nourishment, and from all the diseases 
incidental to exposure. They are squalid, often without stockings, their bare feet 
being visible through the holes in their boots, and their clothes torn. On arrival, 
those, suffering from itch, vermin, &c, are eliminated and sent to the hospital, the 
remainder are distributed among the private ambulances. They are then bathed, 
dressed, led, and attended to medically. On the 29th instant, after the arrival of the 
train at 2 a.m., the ladies who so nobly perform this charitable duty were up the 
whole night, and did not leave the new arrivals until their wants had been satisfied. 
Such unremitting eare and attention are beyond the power of my pen to describe. The 
above is not a single instance, it is a constant occurrence. 



9b 



" State of Prussians in. Barracks. — -In consequence of the absolute want of clothing 
to cover them, the absence of money to purchase for themselves, and the state of the 
French administration, the Prussian prisoners in barracks (about 730 men) would 
remain for an indefinite time in their present state, were it not for the kindness of 
Mr. Harcourt Griffin. Seeing the urgency of the case, and that there was no time for 
delay, that gentleman has ordered 443 shirts, 183 pairs of socks, 45 pails, cans, 
scrubbing brushes, soap, &c, so as to supply their immediate wants. 

"Irregularities in Ambulances. — I regret to say that some irregularities have been 
committed in one of the ambulances, which led to an order being issued by the 
General Commanding Division at Bayonne to the effect ' that the Prussian prisoners 
at Pau were to be removed sans retard from the ambulances to the prison.' This order 
was carried out in one of the ambulances, whether by mistake or not is not quite 
apparent, but I may add that some of the patients were subsequently returned to the 
same ambulance. The irregularities complained of were, (1) receiving letters for 
prisoners under cover, and not through the prescribed channel ; (2) a prisoner being- 
found in the streets at night. 

" I was also informed by the Doctor Director of the prison ambulance that out of 
seventeen prisoners evacuated from the 'Kriiger' Ambulance on the occasion in 
question, eight were at once sent to the barracks as being perfectly well, which, if 
incapable of explanation, is another charge against the authorities. I may mention 
that the feeling existing between the director of the prison and the other ambulances 
is not cordial, and that therefore this statement must be taken ' cum grano,' but I hope 
to be able to verify it through an English physician at Pau. It seems to me an 
important point that the present relations between the private ambulances in Pau and 
the French authorities should not be endangered by any breach of the regulations. 

" New Ambulance. — A new ambulance is about to be formed at the railway station, 
to give temporary assistance such as soup, &c, on the arrival of the trains. 

" Wants. — Money is much required for the maintenance of the ambulances and 
towards the supply of the necessaries for the German prisoners in barracks. 
A supply of bedding would be acceptable, if the prison ambulance is enlarged. 
Shirts, socks, warm suits, and Liebig's extract (for the station ambulance) would be 
also acceptable. 

" I heard, before leaving Pau, that a Central Committee has been formed, but I 
doubt whether all the private ambulances will join it. 

" F. C. H. CLARKE, Lieutenant, R.A? 



" St. Jean de Luz, 1st February, 1871. 

" I left Pau on the 29th January, and reached Biarritz the same night, beyond 
which place I could not proceed. 

" Ambulances at Biarritz. 



Ambulance. 


Beds. 


Sick. 


Beds for 
Officers. 


Remarks. 


Casino 

Villa Eugenie 

Barracks 


50 
184 


48 

160 

60 


35 


Supported by voluntary subscriptions 
of Residents. 

1 Supplied from hospital at Bayonne 
( (Intendance). 



" All these ambulances are well situated and thoroughly adapted for the purpose 
of recruiting the health. The inmates expressed themselves thoroughly satisfied with 
the treatment they receive. 

" Resources. — The resources of Biarritz are not great, the war having prevented a 
great many visitors from wintering there. The expenses of keeping up an ambulance 
in this part of France seem to be from about 2 francs to 2 francs 25 centimes per bed 
(per day), so that the monthly expense of an ambulance of 50 beds would be about 
3,000 francs. None of the ambulances have as yet received the Government grant 
(of 1 franc 25 centimes or 1 franc according to circumstances), which, if paid, would be 



a great assistance. 



" Wants. — In consequence of representations made tome by Mademoiselle de Bury 
and Madame de Montfort, who, with other ladies, manage the Biarritz Casino 
Ambulance, and in consequence of Mr. Menteath, of St. Jean de Luz Ambulance, 
considering that his wants were more than sufficiently provided for, I have asked 
Mr. Menteath to make a small gift of those things most urgently required to Biarritz, 
viz., 15 warm suits complete, 40 shirts, and an assortment of bandages, &c, and I 
believe he will do so. 

02 



96 



" On the 30th I left Biarritz for St. Jean de Luz. The stores had arrived on 
the 28th. 

" Ambulances at St. Jean de Luz. 



Ambulance. 


Beds. 


Sick. 


Remarks. 


St. Jean de Luz 

Cibourre 

Hospital 


25 
20 
40 


25 
20 
40 


) Supported by voluntary subscriptions 
> (International). 

Supplied from Bayonne (Intendance). 



" Resources. — These ambulances are only recently established, the first draft of sick 
having arrived at the end of January. Two old tumble-down houses have been lent 
for the purpose, together with the beds, bedding, &c. The Cibourre Ambulance had 
been previously used as a granary, and swarms with rats. The St. Jean de Luz 
Ambulance is established in perhaps a rather better house, but there are great holes in 
the floor, through which you can see into the room below. I put my stick through 
one as big as a five-shilling piece ; and on pointing it out, I heard the order given to 
have it stopped up with a cork! I also remarked to one of the members of the Com- 
mittee that the floors were dirty, and in a sanitary point of view they should be 
washed. He replied with a shrug of the shoulders, that ' if they were washed, the 
dust would only be converted into mud.' This will no doubt be rectified when the 
ambulances have been well started. I have remarked in the French military hospitals 
and ambulances more particularly that they are not nearly so clean nor so well aired 
and cared for as our English hospitals. The private ambulances at Pau and Bordeaux 
are much cleaner and better in every way than those managed by the Intendance. 

" Nature of Disease for which Patients are sent. — At St. Jean de Luz, as in the other 
depots for the sick in the south of France, the men under treatment are those 
suffering from chest affections, consumption, bronchitis, &c, from rheumatism, 
neuralgia, frost bite, &c, and in the convalescent stage of those illnesses. The mild 
air of those localities is therefore well suited for their speedy recovery. 

" I believe the ambulance from Yrun is also going to be established at Cibourre. 
The ambulances at St. Jean de Luz are capable of great extension. 

" Orthez Ambulance. — I also heard from an officer of Mobiles who travelled in the 
train from Orthez, that in the Orthez Ambulances in that town there are— 



Ambulance. 


Sick. 


1 hospital 
1 ambulance 


?■ 120 to 130 sick and wounded. 



" Bayonne. — There are also some sick and wounded at Bayonne, where there is a 
large military hospital. Time would not permit of my staying here en route. 

« F. C. H. CLARKE, Lieut. R.A." 



After the closing of the hospital at Epernay, Dr. Frank returned to England, but 
at the Committee's request undertook a journey to Switzerland, accompanied by 
Mr. Blewitt, -in order to relieve the distress of the army under General Bourbaki, 
who had been driven across the frontier. Dr. Frank reports : — 

Hotel Bellevue, Neufchdtel, February 1G, 1871. 

On arriving at Basle on the 11th I at once had an interview with M. Visscher- 
Sarasin, the President of the National Society. This Society was not in need of any 
further assistance. It has been largely supported by contributions in money and 
materiel from Switzerland and Italy, and has been able to forward no less than 6,500 
packages, of an average value of lOOf. each, to various hospitals in France and 
Germany. Forty ladies are at work making up and arranging materials in the store 
department. As you are aware, this Society both devotes itself to the relief of non- 



97 

combatant victims of war, and also to that of the French prisoners in Germany, to 
whom it serves as a medium for despatching presents from their friends in France. 
M. Visscher was, however, of opinion that your help would be gratefully accepted at 
Neufchatel, where all the sick and wounded of Bourbaki's army, who could not be 
forwarded under the provisions of the Geneva Convention to Lyons, had to be 
provided for. The Neufchatel section of the Swiss Societe de Secours has also pursued 
various objects of beneficence. It has received for the wounded 35,386f. ; for non- 
combatant victims, 36,405f. ; for French prisoners, 10,309f. ; for destitute Swiss in 
Paris, 2,8 67f. ; and 800 parcels of lint, dressings, warm clothing, &c. We saw 
M. Schweigger-Petitperrin, the vice-president, on the 13th, and learnt from him that 
800 sick and wounded Frenchmen were under treatment in the canton of Neufchatel. 
Of these 420 were quartered in hospitals established in the town ; the remainder wore 
scattered over the canton, the inhabitants having come forward in a most charitable 
spirit, with offers to accommodate the sick according to the means at their disposal. 
Indeed, the sick and wounded refugees have been the object of most tender and 
solicitous care from the very moment of their arrival, when even young girls were to 
be seen washing the feet of every sufferer in the churches, where they were first 
congregated. The task of providing for such a large and sudden influx of invalids 
was greatly facilitated by the ready aid afforded by the Federal Government, who at 
once despatched the snrgeon-in-chief of the Swiss Army, and two complete ambulances 
of the 7th and 13th Brigade to Neufchatel. The college, a large building admirably 
adapted for hospital purposes, was quickly arranged for the reception of 280 patients, 
and on the 13th they had been nearly all transferred from the straw litters they had 
occupied on first admission to comfortable beds supplied from the Federal stores. The 
general arrangements of the hospital appeared to be excellent ; the ventilation, in 
particular, was perfect, and the disinfection of excreta most carefully and successfully 
carried out. We found forty patients in an ambulance entirely organised and 
supported by the funds of the Neufchatel Society in the Chapelles-aux-Bercles, and the 
remaining 200 in the Municipal, Pourtalis, and Providence Hospitals. Thirty-three 
cases of small-pox are under treatment in a separate establishment. The ventilation 
leaves much to be desired in all these hospitals, but in other respects the patients are 
admirably cared for. They are mostly cases of typhoid fever, dysenteric diarrhoea, 
and pneumonia ; there are but few wounded, the majority of these (about 1,000) having 
been sent via Geneva to Lyons. 

The depot of the Society had been quite drained of its supplies of shirts and warm 
underclothing, and, as its funds were well-nigh exhausted, I thought it right to make 
a grant of £250 to enable a fresh stock of these indispensable articles to be at once- 
procured in the Swiss markets. There was also a great want of generous wines, so 
much needed for the class of cases under treatment. I therefore handed over the 
twelve dozen port we had brought with us for distribution. On the 14th we went by 
train to Verrieres-Suisses, where we found the Franco-Swiss Ambulance in charge of 
thirty-five severely wounded (thirty-four French and one Prussian). This ambulance, 
with a staff of four Swiss surgeons and sixteen French students of theology, who acted 
as infirmiers, had left Geneva three weeks ago, and tried in vain to push on to Mont- 
beliard, and then to Besancon. Ultimately, they became involved in the retreat of 
Bourbaki's army, and established themselves on the 29th at Verrieres. On the 1st 
they proceeded to the scene of the hotly-contested action of La Cluse, about six 
kilometres from Verrieres, and rendered most valuable services there. On that and 
the following day the church and parsonage at Verrieres, the only localities at their 
disposal, were filled with wounded. Many died, and as many as possible were 
evacuated to Neufchatel by train. This ambulance, the only one established in the 
Val de Travers on the line of retreat of 50,000 French, had ministered to at least 400 
sick and wounded. There were only two cases in the church when wo paid our visit 
there — a man dying of gangrene from a wound in the abdomen, and a case of gunshot 
fracture of the thigh. The atmosphere, however, was horrible beyond description, the 
building having been densely packed with sick and wounded for some days after the 
battle. The remaining thirty-three were in the parsonage — in small, low, unventilated 
rooms ; but, strange to say, nine cases of amputation were doing well, although placed 
in conditions apparently the most unfavourable for recovery. The patients were 
mostly well bedded ; the staff had only a scanty supply of straw for their couch. The 
patients will be removed as soon as possible to Neufchatel. The ambulance was quite 
without generous wines. We therefore requested the Neufchatel depot to forward 
one of the cases we had handed over to them to Verrieres. They were also in want 
of lint, bismuth, quinine, hypodermic syringes, and several surgical instruments, two of 
their cases having been lost or stolen. All these articles we were fortunately able to 
supply from your stores. 

In a rickety carriage, secured with great difficulty, we crossed the frontier, and 
after passing La Cluse, the scene of the action of the 1st of February, and the narrow 
gorge commanded by forts still held by French garrisons, along a road strewed on 
both sides with broken waggons, caissons, and dead horses, we arrived in the cvcnin<>- 
at Pontarlier. The Prussians had evacuated this town a few days before, leaving a 
complete field-hospital, with staff, in charge of 150 wounded and 20 sick (cases of 
pneumonia) behind. Besides the German staff, Ave found a part of the fourth ambulance 



98 

of Paris, under its chief, Dr. Pamard, and the second ambulance of Lyons, under Dr. 
Drom. These gentlemen had between 700 and 800 French patients closely packed in the 
town hospital, college, Ecole Chretienne, and private houses, under their care. Every 
available space in these buildings was crowded; in many wards two patients to a bed, 
two sharing a mattress on the floor, others huddled together on straw litters, conva- 
lescents squatting round the stoves. Still, thanks to the hand of woman, represented 
by an indefatigable band of Sisters, cleanliness and order reigned throughout, and by 
utilisation of the means for ventilation which, in the hospital at least, were excellent, 
comparative purity of the air was secured. 

The French had but few wounded, but there were numerous cases of frost-bites, 
many of these with the whole anterior segment of the feet in course of detachment by 
mortification. It is worthy of remark that not a single case of frost-bite had come 
under the notice of the Prussian surgeons. Typhoid fever, dysentery, pneumonic 
affections, and small-pox were the prevalent diseases. Strange to say, there were 
hardly any cases of rheumatism, and only one case of general dropsy from inflam- 
mation of the kidneys. Evacuation of half of the patients and of the convalescents is 
the main thing needful, and as communication with the interior of France will, no 
doubt, be quickly restored, this most desirable measure, it is to be hoped, will be 
carried out before long. 

We were glad to be able to divide 50 lb. of extract of meat between the ambu- 
lances of both nations, and to supply lint, oil-silk, quinine, ipecacuanha, bismuth, 
morphia solution, laudanum, and various surgical instruments of which they were in 
need. 

Generous wines were again the main thing in request, nothing better than a very 
poor country wine being procurable in the town. I have, therefore, this morning sent 
the last case of port to the German wounded, and have despatched by express 1,200 
bottles of Pyrenean wine, the nearest approach to port I could find here, to Dr. Parnard, 
of the 4th Paris Ambulance, for distribution. Condensed milk and other provisions 
were sent to-day by the Neufchatel Society, who, at my request, are also despatching 
all the warm clothing they can spare. The greater part of the supplies I telegraphed 
for to-day will also be sent to Pontarlier. The Swiss markets are entirely drained of 
the articles required. Much, however, remains to be done to supj)ly even ordinary 
comforts to the inmates of the Pontarlier hospitals. It must be borne in mind that 
this small frontier town has been successively occupied during a period of fourteen 
days by two large armies, that it has suffered large requisitions in kind, and been 
placed under a money contribution of 90,000 francs, the situation being further aggra- 
vated by suspended communication, both with the interior of France and Switzerland. 
The local supplies are entirely exhausted, and the rinderpest is raging in the town and 
its neighbourhood. 

The need of quick help on your part being thus obvious, we have placed 4,000f. 
at the disposal of the Neufchatel Committee for the purchase of further quantities of 
wine, chocolate, sugar, coffee, various articles of food, and tobacco. These supplies 
will be immediately despatched in charge of one of the members of the Society and 
handed over to M. Pernot, the Society's agent at Pontarlier, who may be perfectly relied 
upon for effecting a careful distribution of these gifts to the various ambulances in 
your name. Communication with Besancon is still interrupted, and we have, there- 
fore, not extended our explorations in that direction. Besancon being, moreover, a 
rich town, with large resources, it is hardly probable that any assistance will be needed 
there. Our mission being thus at an end, Mr. Blewitt and Commissionaire Willis 
will start for London to-morrow. 

PHILIP FRANK, M.D. 



Mr. Bell, an influential resident at Avranches, though not an Agent of the Society, 
visited England to obtain assistance from the Committee, and thus records the results 
of the distribution of the supplies he received : — 

In the month of January, after the battles of Le Mars and when the Prussians 
were in Normandy, we began to have ocular demonstration cf the horrors of war. 
Daily there arrived, and after a night's billet passed on, large bodies of men. To 
call them soldiers would be an abuse of the term, as of the fact. They were in some 
instances totally unarmed, mostly armed with useless arms for modern warfare, all 
miserably clothed ; and, in short, a more ragged, unkempt mob you could hardly see. 
These were the incumbrances of General Chanzy's army, who, unfit to fight, clogged 
Ins action, and were then being sent out of danger to the different camps formed in 
the Cantentin; nevertheless these men had been called out, and for months had 
undergone, at the Camp of Conlie, all the sufferings and exposure to the rigour of 
tin late terrific wilder which have done much 1<> undermine the health of thousands 
of them. They gave you the appearance of being half-starved, and, with the 
except inn of bread, had had very little sustenance. They were sick and foot- 
sore, half-clothed and ill-shod, and I can only say that in a long life I have never seen 
anything like the suffering I witnessed m the month of January. 



,99 

At this period the authorities at Avranches made an appeal to all inhabitants 
for help in the difficulties before them. It had been notified that a very large number 
of wounded men were on their way hither, and orders were given for their reception. 
As the oldest English resident, and one to whom such an appeal was specially made 
as the churchwarden, I felt at once that any means that were likely to be placed in 
my hands by the few English residents then remaining would fall immeasurably short, 
of what it was my duty to do in such distress. I determined to go to London, and 
after an interview with the Sous-Prefet I started for England at once. I reached 
London late on Saturday night, the 28th of January. On the following day I spoke 
to several friends of the object of my journey, and on Monday I went to my bankers, 
Messrs. Herries, Farquhar, and. Co., and requested an introduction to Colonel Loyd- 
Lindsay, the chairman of the National Society in Aid of the Sick and Wounded in 
War. I at once presented my letter of introduction at the office in St. Martin's Place, 
and had an interview with Colonel Loyd-Lindsay, and after listening to my appeal he 
promised without hesitation a supply of necessaries to be sent to Granville in a week. 
The appeal made to friends and relations, and in short to all those who have received 
the printed circular I uublished, has been met by a fund of over £200. 

On Monday, the 6th February, I left London, and early on Wednesday morning 
reached Granville. The Sous-Prefet, to whom I had written, had made all the 
necessary arrangements for the passing of everything free of customs duties or 
examination, had sent a cart to convey my bales of goods to Avranches, and had 
given a room at the Sous-Prefecture as a depot for them. The supply given by the 
National Society included blankets, clothing, linen, coffee, sugar, Liebig's extract of 
meat, and an infinity of articles, the utility, the excellent quality, and the profusion 
of which I do not know how sufficiently to extol. When I reached Avranches on 
Wednesday evening, and learnt that no wounded had arrived (and as time has proved 
never did arrive in large numbers), I assure you I felt I had not only been myself 
deceived, but that 1 had been lending myself to practise an imposition on the good 
and charitable persons who I knew were at that moment interesting themselves for 
the Relief Fund; and, had I acted on first impressions, I should have returned the 
gifts of the National Society and the sums subscribed; but a very few hours showed 
me that these were erroneous, and that, if there were not wounded, there was no want 
of sick men from the army to take all my supplies and means. On the following day 
I found an ambulance full of them, huddled together, lying on the floors of a wretched 
house (the only one then procurable), and there daily they were dying of all sorts of 
diseases. I immediately gave liberally of all I had in my store, but my mind was 
occupied with the thought of how I could get a better, larger, and healthier house for 
an ambulance. 

In a day or two afterwards an appeal was made to me from Granville, and I went 
there directly and found the barracks were converted into a hospital, and that there 
were over four hundred sick and wounded in it at that time, the small-pox being very 
prevalent. Their needs were great, and I immediately sent off a large portion of my 
supplies to the Intendant Militaire, whose grateful acknowledgment has been forwarded 
to the National Society in proof of the utility of their gifts to me. From this period 
to the closing of the Ambulance du Rue, on the 18th March, I visited Granville 
weekly, and supplied all their necessities, and I owe my thanks to the National Society 
for their liberality and promptitude in answering my request for a large supply of 
medicines for their dispensary, which donation has also been gratefully acknowledged 
by letters forwarded to them. . Over twelve hundred sick were treated in this 
Ambulance. 

I had also an appeal for aid from Dr. Lafosse, the chief doctor of ambulances at 
Cherbourg, and I sent off a considerable supply to his address, but as the sickness 
there was much greater than my means could possibly meet, I informed Capt. Harvey, 
the appointed agent of the National Society, who at once made it his business to 
supply their wants and went himself to Cherbourg. 

The sickness at Avranches seemed to increase, and small-pox showing itself in 
several cases of men arriving, it became a necessity to find a fitting j)lace for them, 
and the Maison Poulard at Mont Jary, about a kilometre from the town, was hired by 
the Maire, and all cases of an infectious nature at once were sent there. By a little 
pressure, a large and very commodious house in the Rue de Gaole, belonging to the 
late Mons. Carbonnet, was lent, and we transferred our sick to it on the 23rd 
February. 

About the 10th of March, as soon as the peace was assured, a sudden rush of 
troops took place all over the country. The Mobiles and the Mobilises were disarmed 
and disbanded, and they arrived here from 3,000 to 4,000 men (or I believe even more) 
daily, and were billeted for a night. At this date I opened a soup kitchen, and in the 
six days from the 11th to the 17th of March I fed on soup and beef, bread and cyder, a 
discretion, 530 men. With very few exceptions they were all convalescents coming 
out of ambulances and hospitals ; hundreds arrived so fatigued as hardly to care for 
food, and terribly footsore. From this date our sick have gradually diminished until 
the ambulances are finally closed — that at the Maison Poulard on the 8th of April, 
and the one in the Rue de Gaole at the end of the month. 

My stores all being well exhausted, excepting a few articles which I have made 



100 

over to the hospitals and charitable institutions of the place, I feel my work is well- 
nigh ended, thanks to your generous contributions. It now only remains for me to 
give help, from the funds which still rest in hand, to all the sick and wounded (many 
of whom daily come to me), and to relieve the misery and distress which this dreadful 
war has entailed on many a hearth, wherever I can hear it exists and by personal visit 
see that it is needed. 

CHARLES BELL. 



" Avranches, le 24 Avril, 1871. 
" Monsieur, 

" Au moment ou nos ambulances vont ctre fermees, je tiens a vous adresser 
" Fexpression de ma profonde reconnaisance. Depuis deux mois vous avez mis a la 
" disposition de nos pauvres soldats les ressources considerables en argent, linge, et 
" medicaments que vous avez sollicite et obtenu de la Societe Nationale de Londres 
" pour le secours aux malades et blesses des armees ; depuis deux mois vous avez 
" prodigue aux malheureux enfants de la France des soins et devouement que descoeurs 
" Frar^ais ont pu egaler, mais n'ont pu surpasser. 

" Je vous remercie, Monsieur, de tout ce que vous avez fait, je vous remercie au 
" nom de nos chers malades, je vous remercie au nom de la ville entiere dont je me 
" rendrais le fidele interprete. 

" Veuillez aussi, Monsieur, reporter aux membres de la Societe qui a repondu avec 
" tant de generosite a votre appel, aux amis qui vous ont seconde de leur appui et de 
" leur argent, les sentiments de vive gratitude dont nous sommes penetres pour le 
" temoignage de sympathie qu'elle a bien voulu nous donner. 

" Recevez, Monsieur, l'assurance de mes sentiments de haute consideration. 

" V. SANSON, Maire de la Ville d Avranches? 



101 



THE ANGLO-AMERICAN AMBULANCE. 

The Anglo-American Ambulance is referred to at length on pp. 8 and 11 to 14 
of the Report of the Executive Committee. It is only necessary here to append the 
following reports from the successive surgeons-in-chief. With the exception of the 
short letter from Dr. Pratt, no details of the work during his management were 
received in time for press. 

Dr. Marion Sims's Report. 

Sedan, September 25th, 1870. 

Wishing to return to New York early in October, I have resigned my 
position as Surge on-in-Chief of the Anglo-American Ambulance into the hands of 
Dr. MacCormac. I therefore feel it to be my duty to make you a statement of our 
doings at Sedan and its neighbourhood. I shall confine myself to our internal 
organisation and general hygienic condition, leaving the special surgical report to our 
principal surgeon, Dr. MacCormac, who performed most of the operations. He will, in 
due time, furnish such a report as will, I am sure, do credit to himself, to the profession, 
and to the Anglo-American Ambulance. 

The Anglo-American Ambulance has a little history of its own. The Americans in 
Paris appointed a Committee at the beginning of the war to organise an ambulance. 
This Committee invited me to select a staff of American surgeons for this purpose. I 
accepted the invitation and organised the staff. When we reported ourselves ready 
to go forward to the seat of war, the Committee suggested that we should set up our 
tents in Paris and await the coming of the Prussians. The surgeons unanimously 
opposed this proposition, insisting that our organisation was for the purpose of giving 
aid and succour to the sick and wounded on or near the field of battle. The Committee 
was obstinate — the surgeons no less determined, hence a split — and the American 
surgeons dissolved their relations with the American Committee and formed a union 
with Dr. MacCormac, Dr. Frank, Dr. Webb, and other English friends, under the title 
of the Anglo-American Ambulance. We then went to the French Societe de Secours 
aux Blesses, in the Champs Elysees, where our services were at once accepted. The 
English surgeons had £200 sterling and a lot of stores. The French gave us 
15,000 francs, horses, waggons, tents, and indeed everything we asked for. Both 
parties promised us all the money and all the stores we might need for the future. 
The French gave us 7,000 francs more at Sedan, and they have furnished us with rations 
ever since we entered the service, and will continue to give us money and rations. 
You know how generous and opportune has been the assistance from your side. 

Our organisation was completely French, but composed only of English and 
Americans. We studiously, and I can now say wisely, excluded all other nationalities ; 
we were half-and-half, eight Englishmen and eight Americans. 

The English are — 

Dr. Wm. MacCormac, Dr. Frank, Dr. Webb, Dr. Blewitt, Dr. Wyman, Mr. Hewett, 
Mr. Scott, Mr. Ryan. 

The Americans are — 

Dr. Marion Sims, Dr. Pratt, Dr. May, Dr. Tilghman, Dr. Nicoll, Mr. Hayden, 
Mr. Wallis, Mr. Harry Sims. 

The English receive their pay from the English Society ; the Americans are paid 
by the French Societe de Secours aux Blesses. I was made Surgeon-in-Chief, and 
Dr. MacCormac was placed next in command. Dr. Webb was Comptable, which 
includes the functions of Commissary and Paymaster. Thus organised we left Paris 
on Sunday night, the 28th August, with orders to report at Mezieres. We arrived 
there on Monday night, and on Tuesday, the 30th, we came to Sedan, where we 
found the Caserne d'Asfeld already converted into a hospital, which the Mayor 
gladly turned over to our use, and we took possession of it on the 31st. We had 
hardly entered its grounds when the roar of cannon announced the battle of that 
date. At night most of us repaired to the battle-field ; many of the wounded were 
transported to our hospital at Sedan, but many more, too severely wounded to be 
transported, were housed in the village of Balan. Several urgent operations were 
performed that night by MacCormac and Frank. 

Besides those sent to the hospital at Sedan, and those attended by MacCormac 
and Frank, our staff saw and ministered to the wants of more than a hundred others. 
Drs. Frank and Blewitt remained all night at Balan, the others returning at midnight 
to Sedan. Early next morning (the 1st. Sept.) began the great battle of Sedan. 
Dr. Frank's hospital was in the midst of it at Balan, and he was busy all day receiving 
and dressing the wounded that fell in sight of his door. The house that he occupied 
(the Maine) bears the marks of many bullets, and he was at one time for self- 
preservation compelled to lie down by the side of his wounded and dying. Dr. Frank 
being thus accidentally, or I should rather say providentially, separated from us, 
established a branch of the Anglo-American Ambulance at Balan, while wt remained 

P 



102 

at Sedan. On the night of the 31st August, we received at Sedan thirty-six wounded, 
and on the 1st and 2nd Sept. every bed (366) was occupied. During the whole day 
of the 1st the seriously wounded were brought on brancards or stretchers to the 
hospital in a continuous stream. Dr. Webb, Dr. Wyman. Mr. Ryan, Mr. Hayden, 
Mr. Wallis, and Harry Sims were busily occupied at the door dressing the slightly 
wounded and such as could walk. Dr. May, Mr. Hewett, and Mr. Scott were sent to 
the Mairie (bursting bombs falling on all sides) to attend the wounded there and in 
the adjacent houses, Dr. MacCorinac, Dr. Pratt, Dr. Tilghman, and Dr. Nicoll, others 
assisting as they could, devoted themselves to the operating-room. They stood 
nearly all day and a good part of the night at the operating-table, and MacCormac 
performed a great number and variety of operations. 

Without invading the province of Dr. MacCormac's Report, I may mention the 
fact that we never used the tourniquet at all ; hence our patients lost but little blood 
during operations, and we never had a case of secondary hemorrhage, which is 
remarkable, considering the number of operations, and the seeming haste with which 
they were sometimes done. 

The moment we took possession of this hospital it was evident that we had to 
dread hospitalism, for it contained at least twice as many beds as it should have had. 
The building is about 300 ft. long, by 66 ft. wide, two stories high, and contains 16 
wards, 9 on the lower floor and 7 on the upper. The wards are 66 by 24 ft., and 
scarcely 10 ft. high. They run transversely, have a large window at each end, and 
communicate with each other by large doors along the centre of the building. Each 
ward, except the third and seventh, contained 24 beds. These had but 10 each, 
because the half on the north-east, side was occupied by broad flights of stairs. There 
were broad stairs also at each extremity of the building. The building is bomb-proof, 
of which we had ocular demonstration, for we were in the line of the Prussian 
batteries. Two of our injirmiers and a soldier were killed in the grounds near the 
building, and it was struck several times by the Prussian bombs. It stands on the 
highest ground within the fortifications, and near their northern boundary, overlooking 
the town below- and the country beyond for miles. It is probably elevated 60 or 
70 ft. above the level of the Meuse. 

The diagram gives the relative size, &c, of the wards ; a, b, c, d, stairs ; e, f, g, It, 
rooms for officials. The wide windows on the sides of the building afforded ample 
ventilation. They were never closed, and the wind swept through the wards all the 
time from left to right, or rather from S.W to N.E. Carbolic acid was freely used. 
Carbolic lotions constituted the dressings in all cases. Free ventilation and carbolic 
acid kept the wards sweet, notwithstanding the immense crowd of seriously wounded. 
The old English plan of dosing patients with pills and draughts was entirely ignored. 
The opposite condition was, as a rule, encouraged. Good nourishment was ordered, 
but not often to be had. No one was allowed to suffer pain if morphine (hypoder- 
mically), or chlorodyne, or other form of opium could control it. No one was allowed 
to pass a sleepless night if chloral could procure rest. It was a gratifying thing to 
pass through the wards at 10 or 1 1 o'clock at night, and find 350 poor sufferers all quiet 
and sleeping soundly. What precious boons to humanity are morphine and chloral ! 



■<-, 



1 I i I I i I 1 I 



J hh 



1 I i 11 i I I i I I 1 i 1 I i 1 1 



' I I ' 1 I ' I I 



I I ' I I ' I I ' I I 



++^H- 



Free ventilation by open windows is not the plan in general use in French 
hospitals. About ten days after the battle of the 1st, all the ambulances and hospitals 
in Sedan and its neighbourhood were visited and inspected by a Committee of French 
surgeons. As they entered Ward No. 1, in our hospital, they saw twenty-four poor 
wounded soldiers, twelve on each side, the windows at each end of the ward widely 
open, with the wind blowing freshly through. They stopped a moment, looked a 
little surprised, shuddered, but said nothing. On entering Ward No. 2 they found the 
same state of things, and immediately called out, "Fermez lcs lenetres.'' It was 
explained to them that our only hope of preventing purulent infection was free venti- 
lation. They declared that we would endanger the lives of our patients by the 
courants d'air, which would produce pneumonia and local congestions. As each of us 
held such opposite views on the subject of ventilation under existing circumstances, 
the inspection here ended, and the high officials turned and retraced their steps. 

We have had several eases of tetanus (six or seven), ami it at one time occurred 
to me that our free ventilation might have predisposed to it. But on inquiry I find 
that it was relatively more frequent in other ambulances, both French and German, 
than it was in ours, and I am now satisfied that our open windows had no special 
influence in producing it. 



103 

The amount of work done by the Anglo-American Ambulance may be summed up 
thus : — 

At the Caserne d'Asfeld at Sedan. 

Registered patients . . . . . . . . 575 ~\ 

Non-registered 150 [ 1070 

Externe . . . . 345 ) 



The last-named includes those dressed but not admitted. Dr. Frank has 
kept you informed of his portion of the ambulance at Balan. Frank and Blewitt 
being separated from us left but 14 surgeons and dressers to do the great amount of 
work at Sedan. We had surgeons enough, but we needed dressers, and above all 
good nurses. Each surgeon took an infirmier and became his own dresser. Every 
man worked well and faithfully. We had no loafers amongst us. Some of our 
surgeons had 48, some 58, and some 72 beds. This is no great number for one man if 
the cases are ordinary or mixed. But when each patient is seriously wounded, 
requiring a special care, then the labour of dressing becomes immense. Our men 
were so overworked, being also under-fed for several days, that every one of the 
fourteen, except myself, was at one time or another out of sorts. We had all the 
same diet. 

During our great tribulation about dressers, Captain Brackenbury called to see us, 
and subsequently sent to our assistance the following gentlemen, viz., Dr. Beck, 
Dr. Clarke, Dr. Duncan, Dr. Markheim, Dr. McKellar, Mr. Parker, Dr. Warren, 
Dr. Attwood, and Mr. Mathews, who gave us timely and most valuable assistance, 
greatly relieving the small corps who had done the heavy work for the fifteen days 
previously. This was about the 15th September. At this date, Captain Brackenbury 
furnished us with the greatest, abundance of supplies of all sorts. He also sent to our 
assistance Mr. Sartoris, as comptable and storekeeper, in the place of Dr. Webb, who 
was transferred to Dr. Frank, for the purpose of organising his enlarged premises. 
Hon. Mr. Wood assisted Mr. Sartoris, and was Very efficient in organising a new set of 
infirmiers for us. 

Notwithstanding the crowded state of our wards and the extent and nature of 
the wounds, the hygienic condition of our hospital was perfect till about the 14th 
September. For this we may thank ventilation and carbolic acid. MacCormac and 
myself were beginning to congratulate ourselves on our good fortune, and to boast a 
little of the results of our labours, when all at once a most unlucky turn was taken, 
and, I regret to say, our promised beautiful statistical tables are spoiled. 

On the 12th September, I requested the authorities to put up in our grounds half 
a dozen tents — merely to have them ready for any emergency, such as erysipelas, 
gangrene, &c. I was amazed to see with what alacrity it was done. But they did 
not stop with the six. They went on and covered our two or three acres with tents 
to the number of thirty-six, in spite of our remonstrances, and they then gave us 
notice to evacuate every patient that we could from our hospital. We obeyed the 
notice and sent out 69. And now we saw why the tents were so hurriedly put up, for 
we immediately received notice that we must take 156 more patients. We protested 
against it, and I had 40 vacant beds pulled down and put away to remedy, in some 
degree, our overcrowded state. The Prussians wanted the College ambulance in the 
town, and so they sent its 156 sick and wounded up to our hospital, putting some of 
them in the hospital, but most of them in the tents. One man died just as he was 
carried into the hospital, and others died soon afterwards. This was the most 
wretched agglomeration of sick and wounded that could be imagined. One had 
small-pox, about 40 had wounds of the most dreadful nature with profuse and exhaust- 
ing discharges ; some of them in a state, of mortification, and the remainder were cases 
of fever, diarrhoea, and dysentery. Add to all this that we did not have doctors and 
nurses enough to minister to their wants, and you will readily see how unfortunate 
this inundation of sick and wounded was for the hygienic state of our hospital. The 
tents were erected under protest from rrs, and they were filled in an hour or two with 
these poor creatures in spite of our protestations. But the authorities in power 
(Prussian) were inexorable ! 

After three days they agreed to remove the fever and dysentery cases, if we 
would agree to take charge of the seriously wounded. To this proposition we unfor- 
tunately assented, and 36 men with awful wounds and with diarrhoea were removed 
from the tents and distributed through our wards. Almost every one of these new- 
comers died, and, in spite of free ventilation and disinfectants, our- old patients 
contracted diarrhoea, and many of them have died of purulent infection. From the 
day that these typhoid cases were introduced, the health of our Hospital began to 
fail, and it was necessary to hurry out many of our wounded who, under other circum- 
stances, ought to have remained longer. Dr. MacCormac will give you a more detailed 
account of this disaster, which has been a source of such unhappiness to both of us. 
I should have mentioned the fact that the tents were not suited for the reception of 
the sick. The ground was wet and not covered by either boards or straw. 

We have had many disadvantages and annoyances to encounter, amongst which 
the water supply was not the least. The water was cut off from the caserne by the 
French when the dykes around the fortifications were flooded. On the evening of 

P2 



104 

the 1st and on the 2nd the grounds around the hospital were densely covered with 
camping, cooking soldiers, amounting to several thousands, and all of them used 
water from our fountain, which was rendered muddy. The mud could be filtered out, 
but there was one element added to the water that we could not get clear of by any 
sort of filter, physical or mental. It was said that we found three dead Zouaves in 
the cistern ; two were gotten out very soon, but the third remained for some time. 
The young gentlemen than called the water "Eau de Zouaves," not a very appetising- 
name when associated with tea, coffee, chocolate, or soup. I cannut vouch for the 
above, but I assure you it is positively asserted and really believed at Sedan. For 
some days we were compelled to haul water from the town. The Prussian Com- 
mandant eventually had the water turned on, and this source of annoyance and 
anxiety was removed. When the French soldiers left our grounds on the 3rd the 
place was stacked with arms and other accoutrements of war, and literally covered 
with the offal of slaughtered beeves and dead horses, and all sorts of filth and 
garbage. It was several days before it was cleared up, and during this period our 
neighbourhood was anything but agreeable. 

You can hardly imagine the trouble we had with our infirmiers. The large 
number (17) that we brought from Paris were, with two or three exceptions, utterly 
worthless. They were ignorant, dirty, negligent, disobedient, and insolent ; and we 
were obliged to send them away. The French authorities then supplied us with 
military infirmiers. These were a little better. But, as soon as we got a set of them 
at work, the Prussian authorities would send up a file of soldiers and march them off 
as prisoners of war. This happened several times. On one occasion they marched off 
47 of our infirmiers in spite of the entreaties of Dr. Webb, and that too on the day 
after they had sent the large number of sick into the tents. We were then forced to 
try a new plan ; so we sen t into the town and hired men and women to come and 
help us, who could not be taken as prisoners of war. These were mostly people 
wholly unused to nursing, and were of course poor makeshifts. Although ignorant, 
they were obedient, and in this respect they were an improvement on the military 
infirmiers. 

While in the midst of this perplexity about nursing, I had the good fortune to 
meet Mr. Landle, of the " Illustrated London News," who told me that Mr. Parker 
was at Donchery (about three miles off) with some English ladies, who had come 
from London to nurse wounded soldiers. I lost no time in searching them out. 
I offered Mr. Parker a ward in the hospital, and I implored the ladies to give up their 
labours in Donchery and join us. I found four of them diligently attending sixteen 
wounded Germans, when we had more than 400 in the greatest need of their kind 
care. I am truly thankful to say that Mr. Parker and the ladies came at once. They 
are Miss Pearson, Mrs. Mason, Miss McLaughlin, Miss Neligan, Miss Barclay, and 
Mrs. Holternaim. About this time four sisters of charity from the town volunteered to 
help us, two of them during the day, the other two at night. From the moment that 
women were introduced as nurses the whole aspect of our establishment was changed. 
The French expressly prohibited women from going to the seat of war as nurses, and 
I hear that in England public opinion is divided on this subject. At this I confess I 
am a little surprised. Who nurse the sick in the family ? Not men. Who are the 
nurses in our civil hospitals ? Women, of course. And why should not women nurse 
in military hospitals ? And above all why should they be excluded from volunteer 
ambulances? If our children, and if we ourselves need and claim in our afflictions 
the kind care of woman, why should we prevent her from ministering to our poor sick 
and often home-sick wounded soldiers ? How often in the last ten days have I passed 
through our wards at midnight, and found the man nurse asleep, absolutely snoring, 
beside his brother man who was in the last agony of death. But the woman slept 
not; there she stood with cordials and kind words, and while she gently smoothed his 
pillow listened to his last words of love, sent in broken whispers to a doating mother, 
a loving sister, or perhaps to a heart-broken wife. This is no fancy picture; it's a sad 
reality that I have witnessed over and over again in our hospital. 

Only last night a poor wounded soldier's life was saved by one of our lady nurses 
in a most remarkable manner. It is well known that gun-shot wounds are often 
followed by secondary haemorrhage from ten to twenty days after the wound is 
received. I have seen it several times here. We had great trouble in arresting 
a bleeding of this sort in Dr. Tilghman's ward, No. 14. It took us quite two hours to 
do it. One of our lady nurses (Miss Neligan) stood by aiding us all the time, and 
was greatly interested in what she saw. It was midnight. I was tired, and went to 
bed, and so did the other surgeons and the men nurses, all well satisfied with what 
we had done. But the woman ! did she heedlessly give herself up to drowsy sleep 
and self-indulgence? No, she remembered three or four badly wounded men in her 
ward, nearly a hundred paces from the scene of our tiresome two hours' work, and 
fearing that some such accident as she had just witnessed might occur to them, she 
stole quietly down, gently uncovering the shoulder of one, the arm of another, and 
the chest of a third, when to her great horror she found one of her patients lying in a 
pool of blood still gushing forth in a great stream. Instinctively she grasped the 
wound and stanched the blood by compression, called up a sleeping dolt of an infirmier, 
sent for the doctor in charge (Dr. Duncan), who came at once and permanently 



105 

arrested the flow of blood. Five minutes — two — and the man would have been dead, 
the male nurse sleeping soundly by his side. The quiet manner, the gentle touch, the 
kind word, the thoughtful care, and the sweet sympathetic voice of woman are just as 
much appreciated by the poor sick soldier as by a poor sick child. In sickness we are but 
great children. Men have physical courage in an eminent degree. They march 
steadily, bravely up to the cannon's mouth and get their heads blown off. But if by 
chance they are not killed outright — if they only get a shattered wrist or a wounded 
knee, they absolutely howl with the pain. Why, then, when they are so miserable 
should they be rendered more so by shutting them up with a parcel of brutish, un- 
sympathetic injirmiers ? 

As nurses, I would not exchange one woman for a dozen men. 

In regard to the organisation of ambulances let me say a word. The personnel 
of the French ambulances was too numerous. They had an expensive retinue of 
injirmiers, which might be dispensed with in a great degree. I would organise an 
ambulance as follows : — One surgeon-in-cliief, two or three surgeons, dressers in 
proportion, three or four women nurses. I would pick up injirmiers whenever and 
wherever they were needed. In time of war there are idle men enough out of 
employment who are glad of occupation. We had no trouble in Sedan in finding such 
when we made inquiries for them. It would be better to send out several small 
ambulances thus organised than one too large and unwieldy. 

The International Volunteer Ambulance is now a fixed institution. The red 
cross of Geneva must hereafter float over every battle-field of Europe. In any future 
wars you may admit foreigners to serve in your ambulances. But I pray you not to 
send out Englishmen to take a secondary position in foreign ambulances. I have 
seen several Englishmen and Americans who have been tacked on to German ambu- 
lances, and some who had gone out with the French, but they experienced none of 
that cordiality that we see between English and Americans, and they were glad to 
escape from their false position to us, who were ready to accept their services on 
equal terms. An Englishman or an American did not feel at home in a German or a 
French ambulance. The Belgian, the Dutch, and the Swiss ambulances, working as 
units, all did well. 

Now, Sir, in taking leave, allow me to thank you for the promptitude and 
liberality with which you have supplied all our wants, and to tell you that I have 
only words of praise for every member, male and female, of the Anglo-American 
Ambulance. To Dr. MacCormac, as co-surgeon-in-chief with me at the Caserne 
d'Asfeld ; to Dr. Frank, as chief at Balan ; to Dr. Webb, as comptable for both 
establishments ; to Father Bayonne, the Catholic Priest ; and to the Rev. Mr. Monod, 
the Protestant Minister, I am under the greatest obligations. And to each and every 
member of the Anglo-American Ambulance I beg leave to tender my most grateful 
acknowledgments. We have worked together cheerfully, heroically, each vying with 
the other in doing his duty. 

The English and Americans affiliate naturally. Of the same origin, with the same 
language, having a common literature, the same laws and religion, even the same 
liberty under Government, how could it be otherwise ? In truth, the English and 
Americans are full of human nature. When a common cause unites them they are as 
a band of brothers. But when political views differ and selfish interests clash, they 
hate as only brothers can under opposing circumstances. If the two peoples could 
always be as kindly united in sentiment and action as are their representatives in the 
Anglo-American Ambulance, there would be no more Alabama claims to settle. 

J. MARION SIMS, Surgeon-in-chief of the Anglo-American Ambulance. 



Dr. MacCormac's Report. 



London, October 21st, 1870. 

I have just returned to England, and purpose making a brief report to you as to 
how our work at Sedan concluded. 

You have already heard from Dr. Sims the early part of the history of the Anglo- 
American Ambulance, how it started from Paris under the auspices of the French 
Society, and how it worked at Sedan. I would wish to add my testimony, in con- 
firmation of what Dr. Sims says in his report, of the perfect harmony which existed 
amongst the members of the Ambulance Corps. Between Dr. Sims and myself as 
chief surgeons, and between us and every other member of the staff in the Caserne 
d'Asfeld, nothing but the kindliest feelings prevailed, and we each and all endeavoured, 
under what proved at first to be very trying circumstances, to do our duty to the 
utmost. 

In accordance with our instructions on leaving Paris, we tried, after arriving at 
Sedan, to reach MacMahon's head-quarters and the front. The Vicomte de Chezelles, 
Courrier des Ambulances, acted as our guide. Through a combination of circumstances 
we were delayed that evening, the 30th August, at the railway station near Sedan, 
and we saw the Emperor, MacMahon, and the whole Etat Major, arriving during the 



106 

night. In place, therefore, of our going to the front, the front came to us. Then 
were the negotiations completed with Dr. Duplessy, Medecin en Chef des Hdpitaux de 
Sedan, which placed us in possession of a large hospital of 384 beds on the battle-field 
of Sedan. This piece of exceptional good fortune, the getting into a first-rate posi- 
tion, and into working order, jiist on the eve of a great battle, has enabled the Anglo- 
American Ambulance to render services such as no other Ambulance in either army 
has been as yet in a position to perform during this war. 

Of course, during the first ten days or a fortnight we were short-handed and 
over-worked. Such a result is inevitable after all great battles, taking place, as they 
do, at uncertain times and places. I find in the diary I kept that we have been 
sometimes working for twenty hours at a time, performing operations, noting cases, 
and making dressings. I have hoard of surgeons working for much longer spells after 
battles. But it is questionable if work done under like circumstances is of advantage 
to the wounded. Not only does one suffer from physical fatigue, but one must lose 
more or less that clear intelligence so urgently demanded by the difficulty and 
severity of the cases. 

Captain Brack enbury, whose valuable aid I have already had occasion to acknow- 
ledge as it deserves, visited us on the 11th September, and shortly after his visit there 
flowed in upon us stores of all kinds, and surgical assistance in the persons of members 
of the English Society. What we had been up till then relying upon were the stores 
we had brought with us from Paris, partly supplied there by the French Society, and 
in part too by the English. During all the time we were at Sedan the French Military 
Intendance supplied us with rations and with wine, and with a staff of hospital 
servants. Dr. Sims has already awarded a just tribute of praise to the lady nurses, 
who arrived also about this time. I cordially endorse what he has said. I only wish 
we had had them from the outset. In that case, lives which were sacrificed through 
want of adequate nursing, or rather through the absence of any nursing at all, might 
have been saved. I suppose that it is unavoidable that much that might have been 
done was, through the force of circumstances, left undone, but it is not the less 
distressing to reflect upon afterwards. 

Dr. Sims in his letter to you speaks flatteringly of the surgical report I will be 
able to furnish. I fear he will be much disappointed. I know I am so myself. In 
fact, the keeping of an accurate medical and surgical record was, from the circum- 
stances, simply impossible. 1 alone attempted it, and the result is necessarily very 
imperfect. At one time we had 400 cases under treatment, the majority in the hos- 
pital itself, a building of two floors, upwards of 400 feet long, but a large number also 
in tents, stretching over some acres of ground. There was continual changing of the 
patients from one part of the house to another, many were discharged after a day or 
two's treatment, and many died within a few hours of their admission, or within a day or 
two days of their entrance into the hospital. When all this is considered, the difficulties 
of investigating the nature of the patients' injuries, and otherwise attending to them, 
much less keeping an accurate register of their cases, will be acknowledged. What 
harassed exceedingly our already overworked staff were the " evacuations " made upon 
us of fresh patients. For example, on the 9th September we received into our 
hospital 65 seriously wounded men from various ambulances. On the 12th September 
130 new cases were sent to us, 105 being wounded, and 25 being cases of fever. 
On the 14th and on the 15th were sent 50 fresh cases, 25 each day. 

During the first fortnight I performed, with one or two exceptions, all the opera- 
tions, and attended to numberless demands upon my time and attention, which the 
needs of so large an establishment entail. I cannot sufficiently express my recognition 
of the active invaluable assistance rendered by Dr. Sims. He was little short of 
omnipresent, and his thoughtful, kindly counsel was appreciated as it ought to be by 
everyone. I trust, however, I have urged something in extenuation of the many 
deficiencies which must exist in a medical history of our work, and which none can 
deplore more than myself. 

In the meantime, subject to such emendations as may afterwards prove needful, I 
present for the information of the Society a resume of our work at Asfeld. I trust 
that shortly I may receive from Dr. Frank the account of the not less important and 
interesting work in our division at Balan, where we had no less than 400 cases and 
many operations, i will then add together all the results achieved by the Anglo- 
American Ambulance at and near Sedan : 

CASERNE D'ASFELD, SEDAN. 

Wounded, inscribed and registered, including a few sick . . 593 

Sick and wounded, not registered, but treated in hospital _. . 200 
Wounded, dressed and attended to as extern patients, during 

the battles of the 31st August and 1st September . . . . 400 

Total 1,193 



107 



TABLE OF INJURIES. 



Gunshot wounds of the head, face, and neck 
Gunshot wounds, without penetration, of the trunk 
Penetrating wounds of the chest 

„ ,, abdomen 

pelvis 

„ m joints 

Gunshot wounds around joints, close to, but not penetrating, chiefly the 

knee 
Gunshot wounds, causing fracture of the bones of the extremities 
Gunshot wounds of the extremities without fracture 
Gunshot wounds of the hand and foot 
Sprains, burns, contusions, &c. 



Deaths. 




TABLE OF OPERATIONS. 



Disarticulation of joints, including 2 hip joint and 3 knee-joint ampu 

rations 
Amputations of limbs, including 14 thigh, 19 leg, and 2 double amputations 
Resections of joints, including 1 knee, 2 shoulder, and 9 elbow cases, and 

a double resection of shoulder and elbow, as well as resections of 

the long bones 
Ligature of the subclavian artery 
Ligature of the common carotid artery 
Ligature of the common femoral artery 
Ligature of the dorsalis pedis artery 

(All for secondary haemorrhage.) 




The total number of our deaths was 117, 30 at least being from pyaemia, and 
many of the patients died within 48 hours of their arrival in the hospital. Exag- 
gerated statements of our rate of mortality, as all ill-natured rumours do, found 
found ready currency. These statistics disprove them. We have not had, by any 
means, an excessive mortality. Considering the grave nature of the cases, considering 
how the dying, and the deadly sick and wounded, and often neglected patients were 
crowded in upon us, I contend our death rate has been comparatively small, and this 
I attribute in the main to open windows and plenty of carbolic acid. Our deaths were 
caused chiefly by exhaustion, by diarrhoea, by dysentery, and mainly after operation 
by that hideous scourge pyaemia, which, however, was quite as common, if not more 
so, in the small houses and chateaux, with only few patients, as it was in our larger 
establishment. We had six deaths from tetanus. Without any doubt the primary 
amputations did much better than the secondary. When it was possible to investigate 
the nature of the injury within the first 24 or 48 hours, and then operate if needful, 
our results were infinitely better than they were when amputation proved necessary 
in ten days or a fortnight after the injury. With but few exceptions, we found that 
both the Prussian and Chassepot balls produced most extensive fracturing of bone, 
and the cases of bone injury in which the practice of conservative surgery was 
expedient were but few. I think the Prussian bullet, which is much the heavier of the 
two. caused the greatest amount of damage. 

I have only one complaint to make, and that is, that I did not get an opportunity 
of giving Professor Lister's plan of treating wounds a full and fair trial. Through 
some confusion my repeated messages for "Lister's carbolic dressings" were not 
attended to. In my hospital at home I had given this method a trial such as induced 
me to repose great confidence in it as a means of averting many evil consequences 
following operations and injuries, which hitherto seemed inevitable, and the 
opportunity now lost of giving it a sort of crucial trial does not frequently recur. 
One thing is certain, however, our rate of mortality began to increase directly after 
the "evacuations" made upon us of the 9th and 12th, and this as well owing to the 
deaths amongst those sent in, as from those occurring amongst our original patients, 
previously in most excellent hygienic conditions. 



108 

Amongst the wounded sent to us by "evacuations" from elsewhere, were many 
who had received inadequate surgical care, and many whose injuries demanded 
operative interference, but who were not then in a condition to admit of its being 
afforded. These were subsidiary causes inducing a large death rate. 

I would wish to record the gratitude of both officers and men for what we had 
done for them, often expressed with tears in their eyes. It is something never to be 
forgotten. 

1 should like also to mention a visit I received from General Stabs-Arzt Stromeyer, 
Surgeon-General of the Prussian Army. He expressed himself as being exceedingly 
pleased with our arrangements and the way we managed our cases. He afterwards 
asked me to visit him at his ambulance at Floing, near Sedan, and I hope I do not 
entertain an unreasonable feeling of pride in consequence of what occurred there, and 
which he was good enough to embody in the following letter : — 

Dr. SB til tarn 3Wac Gonna c gehort ju ben intcrcffantcften 33erfonItd;fettcn 
luelc&e i$ in bicfem Jlricgc fennen gelernt fyabc. (Seine geioimtenbc greunbltd;feit gegen 
bic SScnmtnbeten nnb gegen Sebermatm tft §undcf>ft febr an§icf)cnb. Seine £ufmf)ctt 
aig D^cratcur nnb fctne @efcbicflid;feit in bet 33etyanblnng ber fcfituierigften gaffe 
ocrbicnt bte grb§ie Qtncrfenmtng. 

@r §at in <5eban, too er fd;on oor bet <5ct)Iacl)t am 1 September cintraf, etne 
grofjartige (Megcnfjeit gcf)abt, bte betodfjrtcn $runbfdfce ber cnglifcf)en 9Mitar;($fn'rurgie 
in ga^lretd;en ^rtmarcn D^crationcn au^uuben. (Soflte er ba$n berufen fein, afg 
offcntlic^cr Scorer ber (S^trurgtc anf^ttrctcn, fo loerben [cine fneftgen (Srfafjrungen, 
ocrbnnben mit bencn cincr tanajaf/rigen (SioifyrariS, [einen ©djulern oon bent gro§ten 
9^it|en fein, nnb [einem SSatcrlanbe gur (Sine gcreictyett, benen gegenitber, ioclcf>c in ber 
neueren 3ett btc ^rimdrcn D^erationcn ocrnacpjngt fyaben. 

Dr. ©trometyer. 
floing, bet ©eban, 

2 October 1870. 



Postscriptum.— £ente fjattc icf> bte ©clcgenfjeit £errn Dr. 9)?ac Gormac o^eriren 
§u fcr)en r aU er nad? floing Jam, too icf) ifm hat eine gerabe crforbcrltdjc Dberfcfjenfel* 
limitation oor$unef)men. 2lfte anmefenben 2fer§tc loaren mit mir ber 2lnfict;t, ba$ 
feinc (Slegan^unb ©ictyerfjeit im o^crircn, fcinc ©orgfalt im untcrbinben ber @efd§e nicf)t 
§u ufecrtveffen fei. 3d) mup geftefjen, ba§ tcr,, ndcf)ft Siftott, nicf)t3 21ef)nlic|e3 
acfe^en r)abe f nnb bafj, aufjer ^rofeffor (SSmarcf;, £>entfrf)Ianb feinen D^eratenr feincS 
(Mkicf)en aufjurocifen fjat. 

Dr. (Stromeyer. 
floing, bci Scban, 
3 October 1870. 



On Sunday, October 9th, there were but 15 patients remaining in the Caserne 
(VAsfeld, and these I transferred to the care of a Dutch Ambulance, just arrived at 
Sedan, with plenty of both money and materiel, but with nothing to do. I am sure 
they will be well cared for. 

Of the departure of Dr. Pratt with the Ambulance for Paris, and of Dr. Frank 
with an Ambulance Corps organised by himself, I need not trouble you, who are 
already conversant with the circumstances. 

Coming home through Brussels, I called with the representatives of the French 
Society for Aid to the Wounded, and received their very hearty thanks for the work we 
had done. I think the English Society cannot fail to be gratified with the letter the 
President of the French Society, Colonel Count Hiiber-Saladin, gave me, with which 
I conclude this hurried and imperfect sketch of the work done by the Anglo-American 
Ambulance at Sedan : — 

" Bruxelles, le 13 Octobre, 1870. 

" J® me &is un devoir, comme President de la Delegation du Conseil Central de 
' la Societe Franchise de Secours aux Blesses Militaires, dVxprimer a M. le Doctcur 
|| Sims et a M. le Docteur MacCormac, Chirurgicn de l'llopital de Belfast, les remerci- 
ments de la Societe" Francaise pour leurs excellent^ services comme chefs de 
^ I Ambulance Anglo-Anierieainc qui a fait partie de notre Societe depuis son organization 
" a Pans. Messieurs lea Docteurs Sims et MacCormac, ainsi que leurs collogues, out 
" donne I exemple d'une ambulance aussi remarqualble par la science de scs medecins 
•' que par son excellente administration. Les eminents services que ces Messieurs out 
" rendus, particulierement a la Caserne d'Asfeld a Sedan, transformed par leurs soins en 



109 

" hopital, out fait l'admiration des deux armees. Je suis heureux de donner a M. le 
" Docteur Mac Cormac le temoignage d'estime et de gratitude pour lui personnelle- 
" ment et pour ses honorables compatriotes. 

" Pour le Comite, 

" Le President de la Delegation, 

« Col. HUBER-SALADIN. 
" A Monsieur le Docteur Mac Cormac, a Bruxelles." 

WILLIAM MAC CORMAC, M.D., F.R.C.S., 
Surgeon-in- Chief Anglo-American Ambulance at Sedan. 



Dr. Frank's Report. 
Summary of "Work performed at Balan and Bazeilles. 

Reserving all points connected with surgical practice for discussion on a future 
occasion, I propose to give a summary of the work performed in the hospitals supported 
by the English Society at Balan and Bazeilles. 

In the reports of Dr. Marion Sims and Mr. W. MacCormac, on the work done^ by the 
Anglo-American Ambulance at Sedan, the circumstances which led to the establishment 
of the suburban division under my direction have already been alluded to. 

When the other members of the staff returned at midnight on the 31st August, alter 
a very trying day's work, to the fortress, Mr. Blewitt and myself remained in charge of 
about one hundred wounded in the village of Balan, as no other assistance was at hand : 
wounded continued to arrive during the night, so that we only had a few hours of broken 
sleep, from which we were finally aroused before daylight by the artillery fire announcing 
the commencement of the Battle of Sedan. 

As it was natural to anticipate that many wounded would find their way to Balan, it 
was our wish to evacuate as far as possible the most convenient of the houses at our dis- 
posal in order to make room for fresh arrivals. Four country carts with about forty wounded 
were, after much trouble, finally started for Sedan, in charge of Mr. Blewitt, who was to 
return with additional help, instruments, chloroform, and other requisites for the work 
before us. He was, however, unfortunately detained on the way by a call to a number of 
wounded located in a carpenter's shed, which we had not been able to visit during the 
night ; and by the time he had procured the necessary supplies from the Asfeld Hospital 
and was ready to return to Balan, the state of affairs was such as to render communication 
with the suburbs impossible. 

It must be stated that Mr. Blewitt exposed himself to great personal danger in pro- 
ceeding from the Asfeld to the Balan gate of the fortress, with the view of rejoining me. 
Being obliged to desist from further attempts in that direction, by finding the gates closed 
against him, he spent the greater part of the day in attending to the wounded brought to 
the Convent Ambulance close to the ramparts, and returned to Asfeld in the evening, 
after the firing had ceased. It thus came to pass that I was the sole representative of 
the Ambulance at Balan during the battle. This was greatly to be deplored, as a number 
of cases in which primary amputation was urgently indicated were thus deprived of the 
inestimable advantage incidental to early operative interference. 

Working unremittingly till 3 o'clock in the morning of the 2nd, I attended, as well as 
I could, to the first requirements of about two hundred wounded, my surgical ministrations 
being, of course, mainly limited to the extraction of bullets, pieces of shell, and other 
foreign bodies, to the stanching of haemorrhage, to the dressing of wounds, and the appli- 
cation of temporary splints in cases of fracture. 

I successfully tied the common carotid artery to arrest profuse bleeding in a case of 
deep shell-gash in the submaxillary region, amputated shattered fingers, and performed 
other minor operations. 

To those who were in a dying state when brought into the hospital, I gave such com- 
fort and support as were in my power. Words of sympathy and encouragement had, 
alas ! in many cases to make up for the deficient help I was able to afford. 

I fortunately had a hypodermic syringe and a large bottle of morphia solution, which 
proved a source of untold comfort to many sufferers. Bread, soup, coffee, and wine were 
at my disposal in sufficient quantities to supply the majority of the wounded, who stood 
greatly in need of such support. 

I was assisted by Mesdames Godefrin and Marquez, and the daughters of the School- 
master of Balan, and by M. Sauvage, a dyer of Balan, who, though all inexperienced in the 
work they were called upon to aid in performing, rendered most important services, display- 
ing under truly trying circumstances most admirable coolness, energy, and devotion. To 
complete the already bewildering difficulties of the situation, we were called upon in the 
evening to be prepared to evacuate the Mairie and adjacent buildings, as it was feared that 
the flames would extend to them from burning houses in the immediate neighbourhood, 

Q 



110 

and a number of carts were collected, by order of the Bavarian Commandant, to remove 
the wounded to places promising greater safety. Happily this apprehension proved to 
be unfounded, and much additional distress was thus averted from the wretched sufferers 
under our care. 

The last six wounded came in at 1 a.m. on the 2nd. 

Every available space in the houses at my disposal was now occupied, the floors 
being covered with wounded men, so that it was hardly possible to pick one's way among 
them. I therefore attended to the last arrivals in the carts, gave them soup and wine, and 
left them until the next morning on their straw litters in the open air. Thankful for 
having escaped the dangers of the day, wondering how my comrades in the Asfeld might 
have fared and what events the morrow might bring forth, I lay down, half dead with 
fatigue, on a mattress, after assuring myself that my wounded were all in peace, those 
in whom pain and distress had successfully struggled with exhaustion in preventing sleep 
having been quieted with injections of morphia. A Bavarian with a shattered hip, who 
lay on a stretcher in the lobby of the Mairie, and raised his hands imploringly, crying 
" Help ! help !" whenever I passed, required no less than two grains of morphia, subcu- 
taneously injected, before obtaining rest. Amputation at the hip-joint was performed in 
this case on the following day, by Professor Nussbaum, at Bazeilles, but the patient died 
of tetanus on the 1 8th, three days after we had taken over the hospital in which he was 
located. He had dictated his last wishes to a comrade shortly after receiving his 
wound. 

I was at my post again at six o'clock in the morning of the 2nd, and did my best to 
respond to the calls which were made upon me on every side, the state of things being such 
as can only be fully realised by those who have been placed in a similar position. 

A Bavarian surgeon came to the Mairie about 8 a.m., and assisted me in attending 
to the needs of some of his wounded countrymen. 

At noon, several Bavarian surgeons visited the Ambulance, and gave directions 
for a number of their wounded to be transferred to the field hospital established at 
Bazeilles. In the course of the afternoon I was rejoined by Mr. Blewitt, and, with his 
energetic assistance, was able to complete the dressing of the 130 wounded still remaining 
under our care, and to perform two urgent amputations. 

We considered ourselves very fortunate in finding two old men and their wives, who 
were willing to take the night-watch when we retired after midnight, the staff already 
alluded to being absolutely exhausted by the labours of the last forty-eight hours. 

In course of the next three days many of the French soldiers to whom I had attended 
on the 1st and 2nd found their way to other Ambulances, which had in the meantime 
established themselves in the village and its outskirts. 

In addition to several cases which terminated fatally within the first twenty-four 
hours after the battle, and of which I have no record, eight deaths occurred during the 
first week in cases complicated with serious internal injury. 

With the exception of much invaluable assistance and encouragement derived from 
occasional consultations with Dr. Sims and Mr. MacCormac, Mr. Blewitt and myself 
had to do all the work of the Ambulance, during the first week, unaided. This 
involved unremitting application from early morning till midnight. The fatigue was 
very great, on account of our having to work in the stooping and kneeling position, 
nearly all our wounded being bedded on mattresses or straw on the ground, and the 
difficulty of nursing and supervision was greatly increased by their being located in no 
less than eight different houses. The inefficiency of our nursing staff also threw a great 
deal of additional work on our hands. With the exception of the ladies above mentioned, the 
attendants we had engaged were helpless and panic-struck, and we had to take our full 
share in the performance of menial duties ; in order to rouse the energy and make up for 
the negligence of our servants. The absence of trustworthy nurses for night duty was in 
one case attended with fatal consequences, one of the Bavarians succumbing to extreme 
ansemia following an attack of secondary haemorrhage from a wound in the popliteal 
space. 

There devolved also on us the duty of providing food and wine for the wounded, a 
duty the performance of which would have been impossible without the energetic assist- 
ance of M. Sauvage. Early on the morning of the 1st September, before the tide of 
battle advanced to the village, we succeeded in storing a large quantity of bread and meat, 
several sacks of flour, two bags of coffee, some loaves of sugar, and one hundred and fifty 
bottles of wine in the Mairie. These articles were taken from deserted houses in the 
village, the full value being subsequently refunded to their former owners. This proved to 
have been a very wise proceeding, as everything discoverable in tfie way of food and 
wine was appropriated by Bavarian foraging parties on the day after the battle. Finding 
that everything supplied to the Ambulance was paid for, stores were produced from their 
hiding places on the following days by the inhabitants who then commenced to return 
from the fortress, so that we had no difficulty in supplying our patients with ordinary 
requisites. 

On the 10th we had a visit from the French Intendant, and were informed that nations 
of bread and meat would be served out on our requisitions from the stores of the Intendance 
in Sedan ; having, however, no regular conveyance at our disposal, we found many diffi- 
culties in availing ourselves of the government supplies, and our patients would have fared 
badly without the supplementary aid afforded from the stores and funds of the English 



Ill 

Society. Ultimately arrangements were made enabling us to draw our rations from the 
baker and butcher at Balan ; but additional purchases were throughout required, partly to 
meet the requirements of the wounded, and partly to give food to the numerous starving 
applicants from Balan, Bazeilleo, and other villages, where great distress prevailed. 

The cooking department was throughout under the management of the two daughters 
of the Schoolmaster, who worked with brisk and unflagging industry from morning till 
nio;ht. 

It may not be out of place to remark that the wounded of both armies were in a state of 
great constitutional depression and enfeeblement from the combined effects of over fatigue 
and starvation. I was informed on credible authority that the French army received nothing 
but biscuit rations from the 25th to the 28th August ; on the 29th no food of any kind 
was issued ; and on the morning of the 30th only six loaves per company were served out, 
allowing " une bouchee de pain par homme" ; after this no further issue took place until 
the evening of the 31st, Avhen bread was again supplied. 

On the 8th we were greatly rejoiced by the appearance of Captain H. Brackenbury, 
R.A., the chief representative ; Mr. Furley and Captain de Kantzow, delegates of the 
English National Society, whose warm and appreciative interest in our work could only be 
justly responded to on our part by increased efforts. 

On the 8th Mr. Frederick Aubrey Thomas, a surgeon of Plymouth, detached by 
Captain Brackenbury from the Douzy Ambulance, joined our staff, and afforded most able 
and assiduous help. On the 10th Mr. Kane, a medical student from Dublin, who had 
been sent by the Societe de Secours in Paris to join one of the French Ambulances, 
after a very adventurous journey, succeeded in finding our locality. We were fortunate 
in securing his services at Balan, as nothing could exceed the zeal and conscientiousness 
he throughout displayed : even while suffering from a crop of boils, so that every movement 
was painful, he continued unremittingly at his work. This additional help was most 
timely in its advent, as Mr. Blewitt was sickening with phlegmonous erysipelas of the right 
hand and most unwillingly obliged to desist for some days from the over active part he 
had till then taken in the work of the Ambulance. On the same day Dr. Hermann Weber, 
of London, made his most welcome appearance, gave us much valuable advice and assist- 
ance, and supplied us with many most useful articles from his stores. He was accompanied 
by Staff-Surgeon Becher, of Her Majesty's Service, who subsequently paid us numerous 
visits, and aided us on many occasions by his matured experience and insight. 

Two French army surgeons visited our Ambulance on the 11th and asked if we were 
in want of assistance ; this we thankfully declined, as we now felt quite equal to the work 
before us. Some supplies were forw T arded to us from Douzy the day after Captain 
Brackenbury's visit, and between the 12th and 15th stores of every description began to 
arrive from the Society's depot at Arlon. Up to this date the majority of our wounded 
had been lying in their blood-stiffened dirty uniforms on straw, as we had only managed 
to collect a few mattresses in the village, and with great difficulty had been able to find 
sheets, blankets, and shirts for the severer cases ; but we now had a good supply of bed 
and body linen, so that comfort and cleanliness were attainable. The large supply of dis- 
infectants was most welcome, for only a few ounces of carbolic acid and a few pints of 
MacDougall's solution of the carbolates had been at my disposal at Balan, and even this I 
had felt bound to share with the surgeons of a German Ambulance, who were absolutely 
without these agents. 

Under these circumstances a truly Listerian treatment of wounds was obviously im- 
possible. Whether Lister's method rigorously carried out, prior to the commencement of 
the reactive and suppurative stages, may be able to prevent the supervention of pyaemia 
in cases of gunshot fractuie placed under the unfavourable conditions so generally pre- 
vailing in field hospitals after a great battle, and thus realise the hopes founded upon the 
recorded experience of civil practice, is a question which, as far as I am aware, has not yet 
been practically tested ; and it is much to be regretted that neither Lister himself nor one 
of his pupils should have found the opportunity for giving their aid towards its solution. 
All we could do during the first ten days was to irrigate and syringe out our wounds care- 
fully with carbolic lotion, and to dress them with lint soaked in MacDougalPs solution of 
the carbolates. Dr. Weber gave us some packages of marine lint on the 12th. On the 
15th we received a large supply of carbolic acid in crystals, and then commenced to dress 
the wounds with lint steeped in strongly carbolised oil ; this was covered with gutta-percha 
tissue and the whole surrounded by a cuirass of marine lint. With the exception of a few 
cases where the suppuration was most profuse, these dressings were changed only once in 
the twenty-four hours, the wounds being thoroughly washed out with carbolic lotion by 
means of the irrigator before the dressings were applied. 

We were fortunate in escaping erysipelas and everything approaching to hospital 
phagedena. On the 12th, however, the first pyasmic rigors occurred in a case of gunshot 
fracture of the left arm ; other cases followed both in the Mairie and the Cafe de 
l'Harmonie, the two houses in which most of our wounded were located. All these cases 
terminated fatally, death occurring with one exception between the 20th and 27th 
day after receipt of injury. Ten deaths thus occurred from pyaemia among 123 cases 
registered as admitted on the 31st August and 1st of September into the Balan Ambu- 
lances. The total cases of deaths among these original cases was 29, so that 34 per cent, 
were due to pysemia. The disease occurred only in cases in which the bones had been 
injured, or when amputation had been performed. It must be borne in mind that the 

Q 2 



112 

rooms in which these cases occurred had been greatly overcrowded ; that notwithstanding 
our keeping doors and windows widely open, thoroughly adequate ventilation was not 
attainable ; that it was impossible to change our straw as often as it would have been 
desirable, and that from the want of clean linen and of a sufficiency of trustworthy 
attendants, all our efforts in that direction did not suffice to secure ideal cleanliness either 
of the patients or their surroundings. It is worthy of note that no case of pysemia 
occurred among 15 cases treated in two private houses, where the kind lady proprietors 
kept everything scrupulously clean from the very commencement, and attended with the 
utmost care and tenderness to the requirements of the wounded entrusted to them. 

Among these cases were two primary amputations of the leg ; one intermediary 
amputation of the arm (3rd day) ; one secondary resection of shoulder joint ; a case of 
comminuted fracture of the fibula, with extensive infiltration of the limb, and three cases 
of perforating chest wounds. 

Carbolic acid, Mudie's disinfectant, &c, were also largely used in washing the floors and 
deodorising the privies and heaps of refuse abounding in the neighbourhood. Under 
Mr. Blewitt's energetic supervision all dung heaps were ultimately removed from our part 
of the village. 

Generous wines, brandy (as a rule the latter was steadily and even obstinately 
objected to by the Bavarians!), extract of meat, and other requisites for the diet of 
invalids were now at our disposal. A good supply of well-selected drugs proved also 
most acceptable, a solution of morphia for subcutaneous injection, and some bottles of 
effervescing saline mixture having constituted our whole pharmacy during the first 
12 days. The morphia syringe rendered invaluable services. I shall never forget the 
impression produced on the first occasion it was used : on our arrival at Balan the school- 
rooms resounded with the screams of a Frenchman, a part of whose lower jaw had been 
carried away by a piece of shell ; a few minutes after the hypodermic injection, he was 
calmly slumbering, to the astonishment of the villagers, whose confidence in our powers 
was at once fully established. Purgatives were much needed during the first week, as 
nearly all the wounded suffered from constipation, which, in some instances, it was difficult 
to overcome ; subsequently chloral, opium, quinine, perchloride of iron, ipecacuanha, and 
bismuth were the only medicines of real importance. A supply of elastic or styptic 
collodion for protecting cuts and sores on the fingers of the surgeons and nurses should 
invariably be added to ambulance medical stores. 

Of the 98 French wounded registered in my note-book as regularly admitted on the 
1st of September (these notes are very imperfect), 34 were evacuated by the 14th, 
9 had died ; of the 25 Bavarians registered, 8 were evacuated on the 2nd September, 
5 died by the 14th ditto ; so that on the 15th 55 French and 12 Bavarians were under 
treatment at Balan. 

With the view of fully utilising the forces of the Ambulance and of extending the 
sphere of our operations, I volunteered with Dr. Sims' approval to take charge of the 
Chateaux Le Gardeur and Mont Villet at Bazeilles, which were then occupied as 
Bavarian field hospitals ; this offer was readily accepted by the Bavarian surgeons, who 
were under orders to follow the division of the army to which they belonged to Paris, and 
were on the eve of distributing the remaining sick and wounded amongst the already over- 
crowded hospitals of Pont-Mougy and Remilly. I looked forward to being able ultimately 
to make Mont Villet into a convalescent depot for Asfeld and Balan, but as I was not in a 
position to remove the patients located in that chateau as soon as I expected, this scheme 
fell to the ground. 

Without imputing any blame to the Bavarian staff, which had all but succumbed to 
the work thrown upon its members, I must remark that the Chateau Le Gardeur and its 
surroundings were in a very unsatisfactory state when handed over to us, and that 
the condition of the sick and wounded, especially the latter, who represented the residual 
misery of the 3,000 originally received into this hospital, was most pitiable. Only 8 
surgeons had been available to minister to the first requirements of these 3,000 wounded, 
the^ majority of whom had been placed, on the day of the battle, under trees and sheds 
constructed of boughs in the garden of the chateau. The severe nature of the cases 
still remaining there when we took charge will be best evident from the statement that, 
notwithstanding the efforts of a most efficient surgical and nursing staff, supplied with 
every requisite from the Society's stores, 16 of the 19 wounded died before the end of the 

month. t , 

Taking charge of these two hospitals on two successive days, in addition to the Balan 
work involved considerable exertion and anxiety. Mr. Horner, a student of Saint 
Bartholomew's, who was attached to a French ambulance and spent, his spare time in 
helping us at Balan, rendered great assistance in this emergency. 

On the 16th, Dr. Woodham Webb, of the Anglo-American Staff, assumed the 
direction of the hospital at my request, and assisted by Dr. Junker, of London, and 
Mr. Scott, a student of the Belfast School, also by three most efficient lady nurses— Miss 
Goiilden, Miss Barclay, and Miss Neligan— succeeded in the course of a few days in 
establishing a reign of cleanliness and comfort, strongly contrasting with the previous state 
of things :°19 wounded and 15 sick (cases of dysentery) were taken over in this hospital. 

The Honourable Mrs. Capel, who had joined us at Balan on the evening of the 
14th, took charge of the nursing and culinary department at Mont Villet on the following 
day.' There were 51 patients in this chateau when handed over to our care — 29 wounded, 



113 

22 sick, the latter suffering from typhoid and dysentery. I made this chateau my head- 
quarters, and attended to the patients on that day, assisted by the indefatigable Mrs. Capel 
and three German students, who had been left behind to act as dressers. 

On the following morning Mr. Watson and Mr. Hewett reported themselves for duty. 
Mr. James, of Ashford, took charge of the stores on the 16th, and rendered most valuable 
assistance, in every way, in the management of the hospital ; on the 19th the Mother 
Superior, Sister Cecilia of All Saints, and Miss Veitch, were added to the staff. 

Thanks to the combined energies of these excellent workers, the hospital at 
Mont Villet became a model in all the details of its arrangements, and nothing was left 
undone to secure the comfort and well-being of its inmates. 

It is just to remark, that the condition of this hospital was comparatively satisfactory 
when handed over to us, but thorough disinfection, cleansing, and change of bedding were 
required to raise it to the standard which at this period could be fairly exacted. There 
was no pyaemia in this chateau, and the only deaths that occurred among the wounded 
took place in three all but hopeless cases, transferred from the Chateau Le Gardeur, which 
will be subsequently alluded to. 

Five deaths occurred from typhoid fever; three of these patients were in a dying state 
when handed over to our care. These cases were watched over day and night with most 
tender solicitude, but all our efforts proved unavailing to avert a fatal issue. 

Previous to assuming charge of the two chateaux at Bazeilles, I had already expressed 
to Oberstabsarzt Dr. Winzer, the surgeon-in-chief of the field hospital established at 
the Chateau Poupart in Balan, my willingness to take over such of his wounded as might 
be unfit for evacuation when the order for his departure should arrive. This latter con- 
tingency occurred on the 17th, and after receiving satisfactory assurance that the staff and 
stores at my disposal would suffice to meet the requirements of the situation, the Director 
of Field Hospitals, Dr. Baerwindt, gave his sanction to the Chateau Poupard and its 
inmates being handed over to my cure on the 19th September. This hospital was placed 
by me in joint medical charge of Mr. Chater, who had already rendered valuable services as 
chief of the Society's ambulance at Douzy, and Mr. Aubrey Thomas, a member of the 
Balan staff; Mr. Crookshank, student of University College, giving his valuable and 
most assiduous aid as dresser to these surgeons. The Reverend Reginald Porter, who 
had escorted the Sisters of All Saints 1 to Sedan, volunteered to act as general superintend- 
ent and storekeeper, and not only rendered great services in this capacity, but won the 
hearts of all the patients by innumerable acts of most kind and benevolent attention. 
Sister Eliza, the Assistant- Superior of Ail Saints, Sisters Ellen, Catherine, and Mary 
Ann of the same Order, and Mrs. Chater, gave their skilled and devoted energies to 
nursing the forty-two severely wounded German soldiers still remaining for treatment. 

With a view of affording a measure for the amount of work required in attending 
to these patients, it may suffice to state that the majority were cases of compound 
fracture of the bones and joints of the lower extremities, that many were suffering from 
bed sores and dysentery, and finally that surgical fever of a virulent type had broken 
out amongst them. 

Considering the nature of the cases, accumulated to overcrowding for a period of 
three weeks in a building by no means truly adapted to hospital purposes, the sur- 
rounding air being moreover strongly tainted with cadaveric miasm, it will not be a 
matter of surprise that pyaemia should have found the conditions favouring its develop- 
ment ; indeed several patients were dying from pyaamia when the chateau was handed 
over to us, and no less than sixteen deaths, attributable to that disease, occurred from 
the 20th September to the 27th October — the period of our occupation — notwithstanding 
all our efforts to arrest its fatal progression. The most thorough disinfection was carried 
out, the utmost cleanliness maintained, and all available means for securing efficient 
ventilation were brought into play. The patients affected with pyaemia were removed 
to a lai'ge well-ventilated shed in the garden, treated with large doses of quinine and 
perchloride of iron, supported by a liberal diet, and freely stimulated — all in vain ! 

In the midst of the gloom resulting from this distressing mortality, we were cheered 
by the favourable progress of four of the five major amputations (one shoulder-joint, 
three thighs) which had been confided to us as a precious legacy by the German 
surgeons, and by the equally fortunate issue of three of the four amputations 

(One disarticulation at the knee-joint, 

One amputation of thigh, middle third, 

One amputation of leg), 
performed by Mr. Thomas and myself. 

These latter cases had been transferred, after operation, to tents pitched in the garden, 
and spent the greater part of the day in the open air. 

On the 21st, four severely wounded Bavarians, the last remaining inmates of the 
field hospital at Remilly, were received at Balan, viz. : — 

1. A case of compound comminuted fracture of humerus, complicated with tetanus. 

2. A case of compound comminuted fracture of scapula, with extensive burrowing of 
matter along ai'm and back, extensive bed sores, ultimately exposing sacrum, complicated 
further with chronic dysentery. 

3. A case of gun-shot fracture of left parietal bone, with hemiplegia and aphasia. 

4. A case of amputation of the thigh, upper third. 

I enumerate these cases thus specially to afford an idea of the time and trouble 



114 

required to attend to the kind of cases under treatment at this period. These patients 
were accommodated in a dancing saloon at the Cafe Alexandre, which recent evacuations 
had left quite unoccupied. On the same day we also made arrangements to receive three 
Bavarian officers ; two of these, however, died before they could be removed from Bemilly ; 
the third, belonaine: to the Guards, was received at Mont Villet, in a state of extreme 
exhaustion from pyaemia following primary amputation of the thigh. This officer died on 
the 25th instant. 

On the 22nd September the distribution of the patients remaining under treatment 
in our hospitals was as follows : — 



French. Gorman 



BALAN. 

Maine 

Cafe de l'Harmonie 
Cafe Alexandre 
Two cottages 



Total Patients 

Surgeons : Mr. Blewitt. 
Mr. Lloyd. 
* Dresser: Mr. Kane. 

Chateau Poupard 

Surgeons : Mr. Chater. 

Mr. Thomas. 
Dresser: Mr. Crooksha.uk. 

BAZEILLES. 

Chateau Montvillet (Head Quarters) 
Surgeon : Mr. Watson. 
Dresser : Mr. Hewett. 

Chateau Le Gardeur 

Surgeons : Dr. W. W. Webb. 

Dr. Junker. 
Dresser: Mr. Scott. 

Total 



Total 




55 



41 



50 



21 



122 



163 



Four cases were transferred from Chateau Le Gardeur to Mont Villet on the 
26th instant : a case of penetrating chest wound, with injury of the shoulder-joint in the 
same, and smash of the elbow-joint on the opposite, side ; a case of amputation of the 
thigh, and one of compound comminuted fracture of the leg, for which disarticulation 
at the knee-joint was performed by Dr. Junker. These cases were placed in the most 
favourable conditions for recovery, but the issue was fatal in all. 

The fourth was a case of perforation of the bladder with fracture of symphysis pubis, 
which eventually made an excellent recovery, after passing through many phases of 
danger. 

On the 30th, the sixteen remaining patients were removed to Sedan, the Chateau 
Le Gardeur ceasing to be a hospital on that day. Dr. Junker left for Saarbruck on the 
29th; and Dr. Webb, Mr. Scott, Miss Goulden, transferred their quarters to Balan on 
the 8th October. 

On the 29th September, Dr. Duplessis, the Surgeon-in-Chicf at Sedan, requested us 
to take charge of twenty French wounded, whom he was desirous of removing from 
other Ambulances. No less than seven of these patients proved on admission to be 
suffering from pyaemia. They were comfortably accommodated in the Mairie and the 
Cafe Doneux. 

On the 1st October, 98 patients (66 German, 32 French) were under treatment 
in our hospitals, — 68 being located at Balan and 30 at Bazeilles. 



* Dr. Stephen Duke did duty at Balan for a period of ten days. 



115 

By the 10th October their number was reduced to 7b, the distribution on that day 
being as follows : — 





French. 


Germans. 


Balan, Mairie, &c. 
Chateau Poupard 
Bazeilles 
Chateau Montvillet 


13 


4 
25 

28 




13 


57 




• v ; 


Total Patients 


y 

70 



On the 12th October 25 patients were evacuated from Mont Villet and 15 from 
Poupard. These patients proceeded in charge of Mr. Wyman, of the Anglo-American 
Staff, to Boulzicourt, and thence by rail to Nancy. The number of our patients was thus 
reduced on the 1 3th to 32. 

On the 8th of October I was asked by Captain Brackenbury, the chief representative 
of the Society, whether I should be able to leave the Sedan district and proceed in charge 
of an Ambulance intended to operate in the neighbourhood of Paris. 

Dr. Baerwindt, the German Inspector of Field Hospitals, on my mooting the question 
of our departure, stated that in a week's time members of the Reserve Staff would arrive 
at Sedan, and be put in orders to take our place. I therefore informed Captain Bracken- 
bury that our staff would be at his disposal on the loth. No German surgeons were, 
however, available at that period, and Dr. Baerwindt confessed that considerable incon- 
venience would result in case of our leaving before the evacuation of the hospitals could be 
completed. 

The following arrangements ultimately received his sanction : The French wounded 
were transferred to a Dutch Ambulance. The four Bavarians remaining at the Cafe 
Alexandre were transferred to Chateau Poupard, where Mr. Chater, assisted by 
Mrs. Chater, Miss Veitch, Madame Godefrin, and subsequently by Mr. Lloyd, remained in 
charge of seventeen patients till October 27th, when the survivors were evacuated to 
Germany. 

The Inspector of Hospitals had expressed a wish that the three patients still at 
Mont Villet should also be transferred to Chateau Poupard; at my request, however, these 
soldiers were allowed to remain there (two of them being surgical cases of great interest : 
the first, a case of excision of the head of the humerus and acromion ; the second, a case of 
perforating wound of the bladder with fracture of the pelvis, which I felt unwilling to expose 
to the risk of contracting pyaemia at the Chateau Poupard ; and the 3rd, a severe case of 
typhoid, not at all suited for removal). Moreover, Mr. Hewett, one of our assistants, and 
a Bavarian student (the only one remaining of the three above alluded to, his comrades 
having been invalided homewards), were laid up with typhoid fever, contracted in the 
discharge of their duties at Mont Villet, and were still in a condition requiring absolute 
rest and careful nursing. Mr. Watson, Mr. James, and Mrs. Capel volunteered to remain 
in charge of these five patients, and were gratified by seeing them all convalescent when 
the hospital was closed at the end of the month. 

It must be stated that, in addition to the work performed in the hospital, Mr. Watson 
attended, from the 21st September until the end of October, to no less than eighty cases 
of fever and dysentery occurring among the people now returning to their ruined homes 
at Bazeilles and the inhabitants of the neighbourino- hamlets. 

A labourer who had been injured by a portion of ruin falling upon his head during a 
gale of wind, which rendered circulation among the tottering walls rather dangerous work, 
was extricated by Mr. Watson and myself and admitted into hospital. 

Mr. Blewitt attended to numerous cases of dysentery and fever, also to some of the 
inhabtants who were wounded at Balan. 



The relations between the Ambulance and the Medical Officers of the belligerents were 
throughout of the most cordial and friendly character. Dr. Duplessis, the Surgeon-in- 
Chief at Sedan, and the Intendant-General, were invariably most courteous and obliging. 

The Surgeon-General of the Crown Prince's army, Dr. Boeger, and the Consulting 
Surgeons-General, Dr. Wilms and Professor Volkman, visited the Ambulance a few days 
after the battle, and were most fair and considerate in their remarks on arrangements, 
which at that period left much to be desired. 

Dr. Basrwindt, Director of Field Hospitals, assumed inspectorial functions in the 



116 

Sedan district on the 16th Septemher. This officer paid frequent visits of inspection to 
our hospitals. Remarks relative to treatment of individual case3 were often made on 
these occasions, but they were invariably offered in a spirit of suggestion, and without 
intention to interfere with perfect liberty of action on our part; indeed, the attitude 
assumed by Dr. Basrwindt testified invariably to his entire confidence in the efficiency of 
our arrangements and to a hearty appreciation of our services. Dr. Baerwindt con- 
fessed to me on parting, that he had come to Sedan rather prejudiced against voluntary 
surgeons, but that seeing us at work at Bazeilles on the occasion of his first visit had con- 
vinced him of our earnestness, and that the first few days of his acquaintance with our 
proceedings had led him to abandon his original intention of associating an Oberstabsarzt 
with the staff of our hospital. 

Death certificates and a ten days' report, giving admissions, discharges, and deaths, 
were the only documents Ave were called upon to furnish to the Inspector's office. 

All stores, with exception of the bread and meat rations, drawn from the Intendance, 
were either supplied in kind by the English Society or purchased with its funds. The 
Society also furnished us with a cart and two horses about the end of September, which 
were of great service in supplying the hospitals at Bazeilles. 

From the Johanniter depot at Donchery we received a large supply of mattresses, a 
set of arm and leg baths, irrigators, splints, and plaster-of-paris ; also wine, seltzer water, 
and dried fruit, a very welcome addition to the diet of the wounded. 

With Captain Brack enbury's sanction, all surplus stores were left at Balan, in charge 
of M. Sauvage, M. Somvielle (the worthy schoolmaster), and Madame Godefrin, who 
could be fully relied upon for distributing these articles among the poor villagers of Balan 
and Bazeilles, for whose relief they were intended. 

All expenses incurred in the working of the suburban division of the Anglo-American 
Ambulance were defrayed by the English National Society. 

I have no record of a great part of the work performed during the first week at Balan, 
as no list of admissions was made out before the 7th September. Confining myself 
strictly to cases registered in the very imperfect lists at my disposal, I find the number of 
cases treated at Balan and Bazeilles to have been 280, of which 119 belonged to the 
French and 161 to the German army. 

Of these, 32 were cases of sickness from dysentery and typhoid, with 1 death from 
the former and 5 deaths from the latter disease, and 248 were cases of wounds received 
in action. 

There occurred among these latter cases (54 deaths, of which no less than 32 took place 
among the 61 wounded handed over to us in the Chateaux Poupard and Le Gardeur. 

The following Tables offer an enumeration of these injuries arranged in accordance 
with the classification adopted by Mr. MacCormac in his report on the cases treated in the 
Asfeld Hospital at Sedan. 

The operations were not all performed bjr ourselves, some of the cases in which they 
had been required having been admitted from other hospitals : — 





Admitted. 


Died. 


WOUNDS OF HEAD. 

Scalp wounds, with grazing of bone 
Fractures of skull : 

(1) By shell 

(2) By bullets _ 

Fracture of frontal bone, with destruction of right eye 
Ditto, with detachment of retina from concussion 


3 

o 

O 

4 
1 
1 


3 
3 




12 


fi 


WOUNDS OF FACE. 

Fracture of upper jaw, with injury to facial nerve 
Fracture of lower jaw 

In one case extensive injury to lower lip and floor of mouth. 
Shell-gash, right submaxillary region, with severe contusion of jaw; 
profuse arterial haemorrhage ; osteo-periostitis of jaw 

Ligature of common carotid. The ligature came away on the 
eleventh day. The patient died of pyajmia on the twenty-sixth. 
Thrombus in right internal jugular vein, extending from sub- 
el avian vein to sinuses of dura mater. Pulmonary embolism. 


1 

Q 

o 
1 


1 




5 


1 



117 



Tables — continued. 




UPPER EXTREMITY. 



Gun-shot fracture of scapula.. • .. 

,, clavicle and scapula 

wound of axilla 

,, „ with injury to brachial plexus 

„ shoulder (non-penetrating) 

,, penetrating shoulder-joint 

„ traversing shoulder-joint and fracturing acromion . . 

Flesh-wounds of arm . . 

,, „ with injury to circumflex nerve 

Fractures of humerus 

Of these, 4 were treated conservatively, with 1 death from 
tetanus and pyaemia. In 2, disarticulation at shoulder- joint was 
performed — died 1 (pyaemia). In 2, amputation upper third — 
died 1 (pyaemia). 
Fracture of radius 
Flesh-wounds of fore-arm 

„ „ with injury to radial nerve 

Injury of hand without fracture 
with fracture . . 



LOWER EXTREMITIES. 



Penetrating wounds of hip-joint 
„ „ knee-joint 

In 4, secondary amputation of the thigh was performed ; 3 died, 
1 recovered. 
Fracture of patella (shell) 
Penetrating wounds of ankle-joint 

2 died under conservative treatment. 1 died after resection 
(osteo-phlebitis — pyaemia). 1 recovered after secondary ampu- 
tation of leg. (Bullet lodged in astragalus.) 
Wounds around knee-joint (non-penetrating) 

Followed in 3 cases by synovitis, in all by more or less of peri- 
articular inflammation. 
Wounds around ankle. . 
Flesh-wounds of thigh. . 

Of these 5 were extensive shell-gashes. In 1 case the sciatic 
nerve was injured. 
Gun-shot wound traversing popliteal space. . 
Buttock wounds 

Thigh-bone injured but not fractured 
Compound fractures of femur 

Of these, 16 were treated conservatively ; 8 died. One of these 
fatal cases was complicated with perforating chest wound. In 8, 
operative interference was resorted to. In 2, disarticulation at the 
hip-joint was performed. The issue was fatal in 1 from tetanus ; 
in 1 from septicaemia, which existed before the operation. In 6, 
amputation of the thigh was performed in the middle and upper 
third ; 3 died. 
Flesh wounds of leg 
Tibia injured, but not fractured 
Tibia, or fibula, or both bones fractured 

Of these, 7 were treated conservatively ; 2 died. In 11, ope- 
rative interference was resorted to. In 2, amputation at the knee- 
joint was performed ; 1 died. In 5, amputation of the thigh 
(lower third, secondary) ; 2 died. In 4, amputation of the leg 
(2 primary, 2 secondary) ; 1 died (secondary). 
Gun-shot wounds, traversing planta pedis . . 
,, perforating os calcis 

„ „ tarsus 

,, fracturing metatarsus . . 

„ metatarsus and toes 

Smash of great toe (amputation) 



Total 



9 


- 


1 




38 


— 


4 


2 


10 


— 


3 


— 


24 


13 


13 




3 


— 


18 


6 


4 




3 


_ 


2 


_ 


1 


_ 


2 





1 


- 


152 


34 



R 



118 



Tables — continued . 





Admitted. 


Died. 


CHEST. 






Gun-shot wounds of soft pai'ts, without penetration 
,, with penetration (ball lodged) 
Death occurred in 2 cases 12 hours after injury. 
Ball penetrating chest after fracturing head of humerus '. . 

In one of these cases there was gun-shot fracture of elbow on 
the other side. 
Ball, perforating lung : (1) Upper lobe 

„ (2) Below inferior angle of scapula 
Gun-shot injury of lung, complicated with compound fracture of thigh . . 
„ „ „ dysentery 


8 
4 

2 

4 

2 
1 

1 


3 

2 

1 
1 
1 

1 


Total 


22 


9 


PELVIS. 






Perforating gun-shot wounds, with fracture of os pubis and perforation of 

bladder 
Penetrating gun-shot wounds. Ball lodged in pelvis : 

(1) After perforating os ilii 

(2) After entering through sciatic notch 
Compound i comminuted fracture of os ilii by shell 


2 

2 
1 

2 


1 

2 

1 
1 


Total 


7 


5 


TESTICLES. 






Gun-shot wound of scrotum and testicles 


4 


- 


Total 


4 


- 


WOUNDS OF ABDOMEN. 






Extensive shell-gash, left iliac region 

Gun-shot wound, ball traversing abdomen subcutaneously 

,, ,, ball perforating liver ; sixth rib fractured and pleura 

opened by same projectile 
,, ,, penetrating abdomen 
,, ,, perforating abdomen; entrance above spina ilii, exit 

scrotum 
,, ,, perforating abdomen ; faecal fistula, left iliac region . . 


1 

2 

1 
3 

1 
1 


1 
3 

1 

1 


Total 


9 


6 



List of Cases in which Major Operations were performed. 







Cases 


5. 


Deaths. 








h 






K 








k 


03 




k> 


03 








03 

a 


T3 
CI 

o 


13 


03 

a 


r3 

a 

o 


'oS 






^ 

Ph 


o 

1/2 


o 
H 




o 
no 


o 




Disarticulation at the hip-joint . . 


1 


1 


2 


1 


1 


2 


J 1 Trismus. 
L 1 Septicaemia. 


„ ,, knee-joint . . 


- 


2 


2 


- 


1 


1 


f 1 died from Shock a few 
\ minutes after operation. 


„ „ shoulder-joint 


- 


2 


2 


- 


1 


1 


Amputation of arm 


1 


2 


3 


- 


2 


2 


f 1 died from Tetanus. 


,, thigh 


1 


15 


16 


1 


9 


10 


•< 1 „ „ Exhaustion. 


„ !eg 


2 


3 


5 


- 


1 


1 


(.8 „ „ Pyaemia. 


„ great toe 


1 


- 


1 


- 


- 


- 




Excision of knee-joint (operation per- 
















formed by Prof. Nussbaum). . 


1 


- 


1 


1 


- 


1 




Excision of shoulder-joint 


- 


2 


2 


- 


- 


- 




,, ankle-joint 


- 


1 


1 


- 


1 


1 




,, half of clavicle 


1 


- 


1 


- 


- 


- 




,, spine of scapula 


- 


1 


1 


- 


- 


- 




Ligature of right common carotid 


1 


- 


1 


1 


- 


1 


26th day, Pyaemia. 




- 


- 


38 


- 


- 


20 





119 



Work performed at Chalons, Metz, and Epernay. 

We arrived at Brussels on the 16th of October, and in accordance with the information 
received prior to leaving Bazeilles, looked forward to being able to start on the 18th, via 
Amiens, for Dannnartin, with the view of establishing an International Hospital in that 
place, which had been represented to Captain Brackenbury as an advantageous centre for 
the Society's operations in connexion with the siege of Paris ; the assurance of a hearty 
reception awaiting us on the part of the medical authorities of the Saxon army forming an 
important inducement, in addition to other considerations which had determined this 
selection. 

With few exceptions all the stores calculated to suffice for the fitting out of a field 
hospital of one hundred beds, and for which requisitions had been forwarded to London a 
week before, had arrived at Brussels, and had been stowed in six waggons, which, after 
conveying the staff and supplies of the Ambulance to their destination, were to be 
employed in the transport service of the Society's depot, which Captain Brackenbury 
intended to establish at the tete-de-ligne of the Eastern Railway. 

At this juncture, however, doubts as to the expediency of the undertaking had arisen 
in the minds of the London Committee, and orders were received to stop all further prepa- 
rations in connexion with the Ambulance. Ultimately, in accordance with a decision 
arrived at on the 22nd October, a grant of £2,500 was placed at my disposal. 

It was decided at the same time that we should proceed to Chalons, and either 
establish the Ambulance there, or be guided in the selection of a field of work by such 
information as we should receive from the principal medical officer of that station. It was 
not considered improbable that the capitulation of Metz, then known to be imminent, 
might afford opportunities for beneficent co-operation on our part in the efforts which 
would be called for to meet the requirements of the vast number of sick and wounded 
accumulated within the walls and enceinte of that fortress. The staff of the Ambulance 
was constituted as follows: — 

Physician — Dr. Woodham Webb, 1 ^ • . , A/r , ,• ., ,, 7 

rM di 'u Original Members of the Anqlo- 

j Mr. Blewitt, r a ■ a i i' 

bur aeons < A t ^\t I American Ambulance. 

v [_Mr. Wyman, J 

Dressers -{ yr . jr ' r Of tne Balan Staff. 

Storekeeper — Mr. Mansfield. 

Nursing Staff — The Mother Superior and four Sisters of All Saints'. 

We proceeded from Brussels on the 25th October by train to Nouzon, and thence by 
road to Charleville-Mezieres, a fortress at that time closely watched by a German force, 
and daily expecting bombardment. Permission to pass through the fortress was readily 
and courteously granted to us by the Commandant ; but on our attempting to leave, the 
guard of mobiles stationed at the gates refused to respect the pass with which we had been 
supplied. An excited mob surrounded our waggons, crying out that we were taking provi- 
sions to the Prussians. Some of our boxes were broken open, and the discovery of some 
hams, which formed a part of our stores, was regarded as conclusive evidence against us. 
Ultimately the sergeant of the guard was arrested by order of the Commandant, who at 
my request accompanied me to the gates, expressing great indignation against the origi- 
nators of the disturbance, and we were allowed to proceed on our journey, followed by the 
hootings of the crowd. 

Although the road was reported to be very unsafe, numerous attacks by Francs- 
tireurs having been made on the German provision trains, we proceeded on the 28th 
without further hindrance to Attigny, where we found an hospital accommodating about 
thirty Germans, who were most carefully tended by Dr. Lesure, the chief medical prac- 
titioner of the town. It appears that on the return march of the German army from 
Sedan, a field- hospital had been left at Attigny. About the end of September, however, 
the officer in charge received orders to follow the army to Paris, and left forty-three cases 
of typhoid and dysentery, which were not in a fit state for removal, under charge of 
Dr. Lesure, who stated to me that without a large supply of medical stores forwarded to 
him from the English Society's depot at Charleville, he would have found it impossible to 
meet the requirements of these patients. On the 29th we drove to Suippes, and on the 
30th from Suippes to Chalons, where we arrived at 3 o'clock in the afternoon. • 

Dr. Lewis, the Society's representative at Chalons, had already cultivated most 
friendly relations with the German authorities, and nothing could exceed the kindness and 
courtesy with which we were received, both by the Commandant and the principal medical 
officer of that station. As intelligence from head-quarters had been received on that day, 
to the effect that Chalons was to be the principal receiving station for the sick and 
wounded from the armies investing Paris, and the seat of the w Evacuations-Commission, " 
our arrival was regarded as most opportune, and I at once proceeded to inspect several 
buildings, which were considered suitable for hospital purposes. No decision was, however, 
arrived at on that day. On the 31st we were requested to take temporary charge of the 

R 2 



120 

Eulalie Hospital. This hospital had been under the care of Dr. Aubin, of the English Society, 
and Dr. Hering, one of a body of Russian surgeons, who had been sent to the seat of war by 
the Russian Aid Society, under the distinguished guidance of Professor de Hubbenet. 
Dr. Aubin was confined to his room with a mild attack of typhoid, contracted in the discharge 
of his duties, and Dr. Bering's services were required in another hospital. There were sixty 
sick and wounded of both nations under treatment at that time. This supplied good tem- 
porary occupation for the staff of the Ambulance, which remained in charge of this hospital 
till the 13th November. On the same day (31st October), 1 inspected, with the Principal 
Medical Officer and Dr. Lewis, whose advice in sanitary matters was greatly prized by the 
authorities, the College of Chalons, and it was settled that an application should be made 
to the Commandant for permission to establish the English Ambulance in that building. 
On the following day, however, the orders relative to making preparations for the establish- 
ment of the Centre of Evacuation at Chalons were countermanded, and the prospect of finding 
work there came to an end, the existing hospitals being quite sufficient to meet all ordinary 
requirements. On the 2nd November, the Hon. R. Capel, one of the Society's chief dele- 
gates, arrived from Metz, with the information that three hundred French surgeons were to 
be kept there in charge of the sick and wounded, and that for the present no employment 
could be found for the Ambulance in that quarter. After a conference with the Com- 
mandant and the Director of Field Hospitals for the district, I proceeded on the 4th with 
Mr. Capel to Chateau-Thierry, en route for Nogent, the station at which the sick and 
wounded arriving in carts from the armies around Paris were transferred to the trains, and 
where it was supposed we should find a splendid opening. Unfortunately there were no 
buildings at all adapted for hospital purposes in that wretched village, and although useful 
work for two surgeons and nurses might have been found there, it would have been impos- 
sible to make arrangements for the employment of the whole Ambulance. 

The medical officer in charge did all he could to prevail upon me to establish a 
branch of the Ambulance there ; but as a knowledge of German was indispensable, and I 
myself was the only member of the Ambulance possessing that qualification, it was obvi- 
ously impossible for me to comply with his request. I spent the next two days in visiting 
Coulommiers, Crecy, and La Ferte ; there was, however, no want of any supplementary 
establishment in any of those places, so that my search for an opening in this direction, 
was entirely unsuccessful. In order to leave nothing untried, I finally determined on pro- 
ceeding to Versailles, where I arrived, after two weary days' drive, on the evening of the 
7th. I at once had an interview with Prince Pless, who gave me but little encouragement, 
and thought I should do best to apply to Dr. Bceger, the Surgeon-in~Chief of the Crown 
Prince's army, with whom I had become acquainted at Sedan. Dr. Bceger received me on 
the following morning with great kindness, but confessed himself quite unable to find em- 
ployment for the Ambulance. The large Ambulance of the English Society was then at 
St. Germain, waiting for work ; and numerous German field-hospital trains were in 
reserve at Versailles. At noon I had a second interview with Prince Pless, who, after con- 
ferring with Count Malzan, suggested the possibility of the Ambulance being of service 
in connection with the army of Prince Frederic Charles, then rapidly moving towards the 
Loire, and requested me to put myself in communication with M. de Zedlitz, the Etappen- 
Delegate attached to the Second Army, then at Nancy. A telegram was then sent by 
his Highness to Chalons, directing the Ambulance to await my return. 

I found it impossible to get back to Nogent before the morning of the 1 1th. Here 
I heard, to my great surprise, that the Ambulance waggons were at Chateau-Thierry. 
They had been started from Chalons prior to the arrival of Prince Pless's telegram, at the 
suggestion of the Hon. R. Capel, who reckoned with certainty on my succeeding in find- 
ing work at one of the stations near Paris. The staff of the Ambulance was still employed 
in the Eulalie Hospital, at Chalons. On reaching Chateau-Thierry, I heard that Prince 
Pless, to whom the arrival of the waggons had been reported, had telegraphed to inquire 
whether they belonged to the Ambulance under my direction. 

I explained in a despatch to Prince Pless how it had come to pass that his orders had 
not been strictly followed, and requested his Highness to let me know whether I was still to 
act in accordance with the instructions I had received on leaving Versailles. 

Before his Highness's answer arrived, I received a telegram from Epernay, to the effect 
that the services of the Ambulance were urgently needed at that station, and also a message 
from the chief representative of the Society, Captain Brackenbury, inquiring whether we 
could at once come to Metz. Prince Pless's reply, directing me to await further orders at 
Chateau-Thierry, arrived a few hours after Captain Brackenbury's message, and was 
followed by a second despatch on the 13th, requesting me to establish the Ambulance at 
Epernay. 

I wound up affairs at Chalons on the morning of the 14th, and proceeded at mid-day 
with the staff of the Ambulance to Epernay, where the waggons were expected to arrive 
from Chateau-Thierry in the evening. AVe unpacked our stores on the day following, 
and sent four of the waggons back to Chateau-Thierry, the Society's depot being now 
temporarily established in that place. With four days' hard work, and an expenditure of 
about £40, we converted a school-house, situated near the railway station, which was 
handed over to us by the authorities, into a hospital for the accommodation of thirty-six 
patients. This was, however, regarded at the time only in the light of a temporary 
arrangement, as 1 looked forward to being ultimately in a position to form an hospital of 
at least one hundred beds in a large wine-shed of Messrs. Moet and Chandon, which the 
principal medical officer, Dr. Lewin, expressed his readiness to place at my disposal. Some 



121 

delay was, however, inevitable before the necessary preparations could be perfected to fit 
that locality for hospital purposes, and it was of importance that we should be ready, as soon 
as possible, for receiving patients, the Evacuations Commission being now definitely fixed at 
Epernay, and the two hundred and fifty beds of the " Etappen-Lazareth " being considered 
insufficient to meet the increased requirements likely to result from this arrangement. 
The subsequent removal of a portion of our staff to Metz made it necessary to content our- 
selves with the original establishment. This division of our forces was brought about by 
the following circumstances : — On the capitulation of Metz, 20,000 sick and wounded were 
found in the hospitals of that fortress ; all convalescents and slightly-wounded were sent 
as prisoners to Germany; those who were obviously incapacitated for further service 
received passes enabling them to return to their homes. There remained after this distri- 
bution about six hundred sick and wounded still requiring hospital treatment, and as all 
available French surgeons were most urgently required for the armies in the field, and the 
German authorities had agreed, in conformity with the provisions of the Geneva Conven- 
tion, that all medical officers who desired to do so should be at liberty to rejoin their coun- 
trymen, Captain Brackenbury offered the services of the Society's surgeons to assist in 
taking charge of the six hundred patients alluded to. It was in view of having our staff in 
readiness for this work that Captain Brackenbury forwarded the message to me, which 
arrived while I was awaiting Prince Pless's orders at Chateau-Thierry. Although these 
orders had led to our settling down at Epernay, Captain Brackenbury did not abandon the 
idea of utilising the Ambulance in the interest of the sick and wounded still remaining; at 
Metz, and at his request Dr. Webb proceeded there on the 27th to make arrangements 
relative to taking over a part of the French wounded, who, as it was now settled, were to 
be distributed amongst surgeons of the English, Dutch, and Belgian Societies. 

Dr. Webb telegraphed to me to join him on the 30th, but I was obliged to return to 
Epernay before the negotiations, by which a portion of the Caserne du Genie, with one 
hundred and fifty beds, was ultimately handed over to us, could be completed. Mr. Wyman 
and Mr. Crookshank were sent from Epernay for duty, under Dr. Webb, on the 5th and 
8th December respectively. Dr. Walker and Mr. Fosbroke, of the Saarbruck Hospital, 
were subsequently added to his staff. Miss Neliganand Miss Hornby, and a large staff of 
French Sisters and Infirmiers, gave their services in nursing the patients in the Metz 
Hospital. Being the only surgical member of the Ambulance possessing a knowledge of 
German, I was bound to devote myself to the Epernay Hospital, and with the exception of a 
second visit to Metz on the 21st, my connexion with that branch of the Ambulance was 
merely nominal, the whole credit of the very excellent and beneficent work performed 
there being due to Dr. Webb and his assistants. Four hundred and seventy-six French 
soldiers were treated in the Metz Hospital. 

Mr. Kane having been obliged to leave on the 26th November, Mr. Blewitt and myself 
remained in sole charge of the Epernay Hospital, which was increased by eight beds (six in 
the house of Dr. Palle, a physician of the town, and two in a small house 1 had rented for 
my own quarters.) Thirty-six wounded were admitted into the Epernay Ambulance on the 
20th November, and discharged in a hospital train to Germany on the 26th. Between the 
27th November and 1st December, forty-one fresh admissions took place, among which 
were seven cases of typhoid fever and three of dysentery. These latter cases Avere 
transferred to other hospitals between the 5th and 7th December, to make room for cases 
of gun-shot wounds, of which eighty-five were admitted from the 1st December to the 
12th January, so that the total number of patients treated in the Ambulance was one 
hundred and sixty-two ; of these forty belonged to the French, and one hundred and 
twenty-two to the German armies. 

62 of the latter being Bavarians. 
41 „ Prussians. 

14 „ Saxons. 

5 „ Wurtembergers. 



122 



In addition to the patients treated in the hospital, twenty French wounded, who 
passed through Epernay to Metz on their way homeward, was treated as externes. On 
several occasions of great pressure we gave our assistance to the German surgeons in attend- 
ing to the wounded in the sheds arranged for supplying temporary accommodation to the 
disabled soldiers passing from the front to Germany. 

The two waggons belonging to the Ambulance were in daily requisition for conveying 
patients from the station to the various hospitals in the town, and vice versa. 

With the exception of the rations of bread, meat, ordinary wine, and fuel, all expenses 
connected with the arrangement and maintenance of the hospital were borne by the English 
Society. 

Our work was performed under strict supervision on the part of the German autho- 
rities, the principal medical officer paying daily visits to the Ambulance, and inspecting all 
our cases. Excepting on one occasion, when I had to tie the brachial artery durino- the 
night, all major operations were performed in his presence after a consnltation had becrrheld. 
Professor Hueter, the acting Consultant at Rheims, performed several operations, at a time 



122 

when I was disabled from the effects of a poisoned puncture, accidentally self-inflicted during 
amputation of a thigh. 

The principal Johanniter, Baron Sehr-Thoss, spent an hour every day in the 
hospital. The Sous-prefet, Count Bliicher, who treated us throughout with most 
distinguished courtesy, and Colonel von Zedwitz also paid us frequent visits. 

Daily states, &c, had to be sent to the Principal Medical Officer. 

Our relations with these and other authorities, as also with the members of the Muni- 
cipal Council, were invariably of the most friendly character, undisturbed by even the 
slightest unpleasantness or disagreement during the whole two months we spent at Epernay. 

I wish, as in the preceding report, to abstain, on this occasion, from any remarks 
which may lead to the belief that this summary of our work claims in the least degree to 
be regarded as a surgical essay. A few remarks as to the nature of cases admitted will, 
however, be of general interest. No cases were received in our hospital within less 
than four days after the date of injury ; wound-fever and inflammatory conditions, espe- 
cially diffuse cellulitis, were, therefore, all but invariably present on admission, the cases 
selected for detention in the Ambulance being those which presented these secondary 
complications in the more aggravated forms. 

In eight cases projectiles, giving rise to very considerable irritation, were still found 
embedded in the tissues. 

In several instances an original error of diagnosis had led to patients being removed 
who should at once have been subjected to operative interference, or have been treated in 
the immediate neighbourhood of the battle-field. The use of appliances necessary to 
enable the transport of serious cases to be effected with impunity was occasionally found 
to have been neglected ; a comminuted shell-fracture of the tibia, a gun-shot fracture of the 
knee-joint, and a shattered ancle-joint being sent for admission without splints or support 
of any kind to steady the injured parts. In other cases, the effects of comparatively simple 
injuries had been greatly aggravated by the fatigue, pain, inconvenience, and exposure 
inseparable from conveyance in country carts and railway waggons entirely unsuited for 
the transport of wounded, it having been obviously impossible to provide a sufficiency of 
ambulance waggons and hospital trains for the large numbers whose removal was impera- 
tively required. To illustrate the inconvenience and distress endured by some of the 
wounded, I will instance the case of a Bavarian rifleman, who was admitted with pneumo- 
thorax and empyema, consequent upon a perforating wound of the chest. He was 
wounded on the 8th of December, and remained till the 17th in a field-hospital in the 
neighbourhood of Orleans. From the 17th to the 21st he spent seven to nine hours daily 
in a country cart, suffering greatly from the jolting of the conveyance and the severe 
cold then prevailing. From the 22nd to the 26th, he was in hospital at Lagny. On the 
27th, he travelled in a railway waggon to Epernay, remained till the 29th in one of the 
temporary hospitals at the station, and was admitted into our Ambulance on the 30th 5 in a 
most pitiable condition. 

I may also mention the case of a Bavarian soldier, who was wounded at the battle of Sedan. 
Amputation of the thigh was performed at Douzy, near Bazeilles, on the 20th of October. 
He was admitted at Epernay, being unfit to proceed on his way homewards, on the 23rd of 
November, with an abscess in the stump of his right thigh, a still suppurating wound 
communicating with his right wrist-joint, extensive bed-sores exposing the sacrum, and 
similar sores over the spinous processes of the dorsal vertebras and the spines of both 
shoulder blades, and suffering at the same time from hectic fever, chronic lung-disease, 
and dysentery. He succumbed to this complexity of evils on the 3rd of January. 

Although unwearied attention was given to the most minute hygienic details, and the 
antiseptic dressing of wounds with carbolised oil and marine lint was carried out with the 
greatest care, no less than 10 of the 12 deaths which occurred amongst the 162 patients 
treated in the Ambulance were attributable to blood-poisoning. Amongst the causes to 
which this result must be ascribed, I must give due prominence to the fact that three 
cases of pyaemia and one of septicaemia were admitted from without (these admissions 
having taken place on the 7th, 19th, and 20th of December), as I find it impossible to 
resist the impression that both surgeons and nurses may have conveyed infection from 
these cases to other patients, in spite of all precautions which were taken to diminish the 
risk of this contingency. 

The first of these cases was admitted on the 7th of December, and was unavoidably 
detained in one of our wards (which freely communicated with each other) for a period of 
five days, as we had to be prepared to tie the carotid artery, from a branch of which 
several severe attacks of haemorrhage had occurred before admission. As no further 
bleeding took place, he was then isolated in a well-ventilated room of a house I. had 
rented for my own quarters, where he died on the 18th. 

Pyemic rigors occurred in a second case, an hour after amputation of the thigh had 
been performed in a neglected case of comminuted shell-fracture of the tibia, on the 
17th December, the condition of all other wounds under treatment at the time being 
however so absolutely satisfactory, that we did not feel justified in distrusting the hygienic 
condition of the hospital on the strength of this case. 

On the 1!)fh and 20th, three eases were admitted, presenting symptoms of blood- 
poisoning. Of these patients two were pyemic, the first being a case of compound frac- 
ture; of 6Capula and two ribs, with penetration of the chest and lodgment of projectile ; the 
second, a case of compound fracture of the elbow-joint; the third was a case of shell-smash 



123 

of the wrist-joint, which had led to mortification extending to the elbow-joint, and was 
associated with all the classical symptoms of septicaemia. 

In the five fatal cases which have still to be accounted for, pysemic symptoms super- 
vened between the 24th December and the 5th January, a period during which we were 
decidedly over-crowded with cases of profusely-suppurating wounds (no less than fourteen 
cases in which major operations had been required being under treatment at the time), 
and during which we were unfortunately prevented by the extreme cold of the weather 
from neutralising the evil influences which would necessarily result from this agglomera- 
tion of serious cases, by a thoroughly adequate ventilation of our wards. 

It must also be remembered, as already stated, that the wounds were all in a more or 
less unhealthy and neglected state at the time of admission, and the patients reduced in 
tone and resisting power by want of appropriate food, by fatigue, exposure, and suffering, 
so as to be in a most unfavourable condition, especially for undergoing the operations, 
which had to be performed at a period when operative interference in cases of gun-shot 
wounds is generally admitted to be most unsatisfactory in its results. 

Two cases of erysipelas of a severe type, complicating gun-shot wounds, were sent 
to us for treatment ; they were at once isolated, and no further cases of this disease were 
observed. 

We left Epernay by order of the Chief Representative of the Society on the 15th 
January, the hospital being handed over in working order to the German authorities. 
Our surplus stores were divided between Dr. Aubin, of the St. Eulalie Hospital, at 
Chalons, and the Committee for the Relief of French Prisoners at Epernay. 

Table of Cases in which Operations were performed. 





Total. 


Died. 


OPERATIONS FOR EXTRACTION OP PROJECTILES 


CO 


2 


In one of the fatal cases a piece of the leaden coating of a shell was 
removed with pieces of bone from the base of the skull, where it was 
impacted in the anterior part of the middle fossa. 

In the second, an incision was made in the right iliac region in 
search of a bullet which had penetrated the abdomen after fracturing the 
forearm ; a distinct and circumscribed hardness above Poupart's liga- 
ment leading to the belief that the projectile was lodged in that place. 
Profuse suppuration followed, and the patient ultimately died of pyaemia. 
The bullet was found after death near the sacro-iliac synchondrosis. 




i 


FACE. 






Resection of alveolar process of upper jaw 


1 


- 


UPPER EXTREMITIES. 






Resection of portions of scapula 

,, half of clavicle 

„ head, and three inches of shaft of humerus 

,, elbow-joint .. .. .. .. . . 

„ wrist-joint 

,, metacarpal bone of thumb 
Amputation of arm 

(In one case the operation had been performed before admission.) 
Amputation at wrist-joint 

(Operation in this case performed before admission.) 
Amputation of fingers 


2 
1 
1 

3 
1 

1 
5 

1 

3 


1 
2 


Ligature of brachial artery 


1 


- 


LOWER EXTREMITIES. 






Amputation of thigh 

In one case the operation had been performed before admission. 


3 


3 




31 


8 









London, Feb. 8, 1871. 



PHILIP FRANK, M.D. 



124 



Letter from Dr. Pratt. 

86, Faubourg St. Honore, July 24, 1871. 

All my papers and notes were so much upset here during the last siege that I 
have not yet even been able to lay hands on my notes in full for my report, the which 
I shall undoubtedly find sooner or later, when I shall publish in detail. Now I can only 
give you a resume of our work in and around Orleans (four months). The aggregate 
number of patients who passed through our hands during these four months we calcu- 
late at 2,300, viz. : 

In-patients . . . . . . . , . . . . . . 1,032 

Out-patients . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 368 

Patients attended to on battle-fields . . . . . . 800 



2,200 



By in-patients we mean such as were admitted into our hospitals, and remained 
some time under our care; by out-patients such as were quartered in Orleans (the 
town), and were either attended to in their lodgings, or they came daily to the 
hospital for the purpose ; and by those attended to on the battle-field we mean such as 
received their first surgical assistance at our hands, and we more especially refer to 
the battles of Coulmiers (Baccon) and Neuville aux Bois, Artenay, Terminiers, 
Cercottes, Chevilly, Orleans, Beaugency, and Meung. 

With the funds we received through the National Society, something less than 
£2,000, we not only kept our whole personnel, consisting of a staff of twelve gen- 
tlemen (including ten doctors), with six infirmiers, four servants, two grooms, and 
fifteen horses (the three ambulance and store waggons), but we furnished the hospital 
of the Church St. Euverte (Loyd-Lindsay Hospital) of 200 beds with its entire material, 
beds, blankets, mattresses, &c, and kept it in working order during the last two 
months of the war. I hope soon to get into ship-shape my entire report, and send 

vou. 

T. T. PRATT. 

p.S. — From about October the 20th to end of war, our entire support came 
through the National Society. The existence of the Anglo-American Ambulance 
during nearly the whole of the time I served as its Chief Surgeon I attribute to 
this aid from you. 



125 



THE WOOLWICH AMBULANCE. 

Dr. Guy went out as Director of the Woolwich Ambulance, and returned to 
England on its division into three parts. The following letter contains some details 
that will be read with interest : — 

" Beaune-la-Rolande, December 1th, 1870. 

" I have the honour to acknowledge your letter, dated 17th ultimo, received by 
me late yesterday evening. 

" At present I am unable to carry out the instructions of the Committee relative 
to the return to England of the staff which was left behind at St. Germain after the 
departure of two divisions of the Ambulance, under the respective charges of Surgeons 
Manley and Ball. These left on the morning of 12th November; and as Surgeon 
Porter arrived from Versailles, where he had been to seek a safe-conduct, and had to 
proceed with the least possible delay that evening, I desired him to tell you verbally 
that these had been sent out by my orders, in consequence of trustworthy information 
having been received from two separate sources (one of them a Johanniter) as to 
the utility the services of the English Ambulance would be in the neighbourhood of 
Orleans, where a battle was imminent. Surgeon Manley went via Chartres. Surgeon 
Ball went via Dourdon. Both have rendered good service. Surgeon Ball for some 
days had charge of a number of wounded Prussians, left behind without medical aid at 
Angerville, when the Prussians retreated from Orleans. 

" Surgeon Manley has always been early on the field, and has assisted in trans- 
porting the more serious cases. 

" Relative to the movements^f the Ambulance which remained at Versailles when 
Dr. Porter left for England on evening of 12th November, I have to state that, during 
the interval between 12th and 22nd November (the latter the day on which we started), 
rumours of an impending battle at Orleans were everywhere rife, and the General com- 
manding at St. Germain expressed his surprise to an English officer residing in that 
town that the English Ambulance remained there, when there was no field for action, 
instead of proceeding towards Orleans, where its services would be valuable. 

" I disregarded these, and olny determined to start on my own authority, on 
receiving a letter from Deputy Inspector-General of Hospitals Innis, M.D., C.B., 
attached to the head-quarters of the Crown Prince's Army, stating that, in conversa- 
tion with him, the King of Prussia had intimated to him his fears as to the fate of 
the numerous wounded in the battle expected to take place within the next three 
days. 

ik We started the following morning, as I did not consider it right to await 
Surgeon Porter's arrival, having been told by the Director of the Dutch Ambulance 
that, as Dr. Porter considered it unsafe to proceed via Louviers from Rouen, and 
had therefore taken route via Belgium, he could not arrive before 26th or 27th at the 
earliest. 

il No message was sent through the Director of the Dutch Ambulance by Dr. Porter, 
though the latter knew that, if the former were successful in the route he had selected, 
he would reach me in two days. 

" On 22nd November, as before stated, we started from St. Germain, with four 
Ambulance waggons, two store waggons halting at Montlhery, after march of 30 miles. 
On 23rd, marched to Monnerville, 26 miles. 

" On 24th, we passed through Angerville, and at Toury we were directed by 
Prince of Hesse to report ourselves to General commanding at Janville, who refused 
us permission to proceed to Artenay. At Janville, we found Surgeon Ball's 
Ambulance. 

" Twenty-five Ambulances went to Crossroads, near Toury, with troops remaining 
there five hours, expecting an attack. 

" On 27th, again marched out in early morning, ten miles in a different direction; 
remained in fields whole day with troops, not reaching Janville till 7 p.m., 29th 
November. On inquiring of the General where our services could be useful, I was 
directed to proceed to Pithiviers and Beaune-la-Rolande, in which neighbourhood a 
battle had the day before taken place. Surgeon Ball was directed to remain at 
Pithiviers, whilst the remainder of the Ambulance proceeded to Beaune. 

" On the march from Pithiviers to Beaune we found troops formed up for action, 
with heavy firing in the front. At the direction of the General, we halted at entrance 
to town. In the evening we were requested to proceed to an adjacent village, and 
found there 70 French wounded, who had never been dressed since light of 29th. 

k ' On 1st December, arranged with Prussian medical officer that, in conjunction 
with civil practitioners of town, the English Ambulance should take under their charge 
the whole of wounded French in Beaune. Found them scattered throughout town, 
upwards of 150 in number. 

" On 2nd December, Dr. Ball's division joined us. 

" Besides our own work, Ambulances have been employed in transporting wounded 
Prussians and French. 

s 



126 

" Present quarters of English Ambulance : — 

" Surgeon Manley, with Drs. Power, McNalty, Moore ; three ambulance waggons, 
three store waggons, attached to 22nd Prussian Army Corps. 

" At Beaune-la-Rolande — 

" Myself, Surgeons Ball, Jameson, Wiles, Melladew, Malcolm, McRobin ; five Army 
Medical boxes, three store waggons. 

" These will be subdivided as soon as practicable. 

" Mr. Young, Commissary of Supplies, at St. Germain, with spare horses and 
stores. 

" Dr. Wiles, I am sorry to say, is ill from injury received in dressing wounds. 
Case at present not unpromising. As soon as practicable, we shall endeavour to move 
on towards Orleans. If, therefore, the Committee determine to send a portion of the 
Ambulance to England, it would appear advisable that a letter should be addressed to 
Orleans, as also to Versailles ; from the latter we drew our supplies, and are therefore 
in frequent communication. 

" Before this letter reaches you I hope you will have received a telegram asking 
for instructions in the greatly altered condition of things as compared with those 
existing on the despatch of Dr. Porter. As far as regards myself, I have only to add 
that I should have been but too happy to have resigned yesterday the directorship of 
your Ambulance into Surgeon Manley's hands, but the work is too hard at present to 
admit of any medical officer leaving. 

" When things are again smooth, I shall take the earliest opportunity of so 
doing. 

" Before concludiug, I would beg to add that in all my communications with the 
Prussian authorities, both verbal and written, I have endeavoured with the utmost 
courtesy to express myself, and, although grieved at the obstruction often made, 
cannot convict myself of having manifested the same by gesture or in words. 

" T. GUY, M.D., Director of Woolwich Ambulance." 



Surgeon Manley, V.C., undertook the direction of the Woolwich Ambulance after 
Dr. Guy's departure for England, and gives the following interesting particulars of 
its work : — 

The Society for Aid to the Sick and Wounded having decided to equip and send 
to the seat of war an Ambulance, the following was the detail which left 
Woolwich : — 

Medical officers, 11. Deputy Inspector-General of Hospitals, Dr. Guy, in 
command. Surgeons — Porter, 97th Regt. ; Manley, R.A. ; Ball and Jameson, staff. 
Assistant-Surgeons — Power, staff; McNalty, staff; Melladew, 12th Lancers; Malcolm, 
staff; Moore, 4th Dragoon Guards ; McRobin, 2nd Battalion Rifle Brigade. Mr. Young, 
Control Department. Mr. Coe, wheeler. 1 Sergeant-major, 5 Non-Commissioned 
Officers, 21 Privates, A. H. C, and 3 English grooms. 

The detail of the equipment, material, and stores of the Ambulance was as 
follows : — 

8 Ambulance waggons complete. 12 general service waggons. 20 vats of 
harness, each containing 2 sets of wheel, and 2 of lead harness. Also saddles and 
bridles, &c, for 14 horses of Officers and others of the personnel. 

Medicines, 

23 cases, weighing about 22 cwt. 

Surgical instruments and appliances. 

9 fracture boxes, filled as per list, including one case of capital instruments. 

1 large case containing instruments, &c. 

2 pairs field panniers. 

2 field-companions and water-bottles. 

Camp Equipage. 

12 hospital marquees complete, with waterproof flooring. 

21 bell imfs, lor personnel, officers, kitchen, and latrines. 

60 hags <>f bedding, each containing,— -5 blankets, grey, for field service. 5 
paillasses, for straw. 5 bolster cases, for straw. 12 sheets, cotton. 5 bed- 
covers, waterproof. 1 cork bed. 



127 

30 hospital bearers or stretchers. 12 bill-hooks. 

3 operating tables. 24 water buckets. 

4 operating lamps. 16 reaping hooks. 
12 axes, felling. 12 saws, hand. 
12 axes, pick. 12 spades._ 

12 medical comfort boxes, for wine and spirit, containing 2 dozen each. 
12 canteens, A, containing cups, plates, knives, forks, saucepans^ &c. 
12 canteens, B, containing basins, towels, lamps, close stools, urinals, chambers. 

Total weight, 9^ tons. 



Medical Comforts. 



Bottles. 

360 Ale. Arrowroot 

1,680 Porter. Barley 

96 Port wine. Coffee 

24 Sherry. Tea . . 

48 Brandy. Rice. . 

Mustard 
Pepper 



28 lbs. 

56 „ 

28 „ 

28 „ 

56 „ 

3 „ 

3 „ 



E 

"a 



Preserved meat (boiled mutton). , 200 

„ potatoes . . . . 28 „ 

„ vegetables . . . . 56 „ 

Essence of beef . . . . . . 400 \ pint tins. 

Sperm candles . . . . . . 20 lbs. 

Soap . . . . . . . - 20 „ 

Extract of beef (Liebig's) . . 30 „ 

Provisions of Dietary of Sick and Wounded. 

On opening of Hospital : — 

Preserved meat, 1,000 lbs. 
Biscuit, 1,000 lbs. 
Preserved potatoes, 250 lbs. 
Cocoa, milk, 250 lbs. 
Sugar, 65 lbs. 

Provisions for Feeding Personnel, Officers, and Men. 

Preserved meat, Coffee. Sugar. 

Biscuits. Tea. Salt. 

Lime juice. Rum. 

The ambulance was divided into four divisions, as follows : — 

Staff— 3 officers, consisting of Dr. Guy, D.I.G. ; Mr. Young, Control Department : 
Mr. Shee, Secretary; N. C. Officers, 2; Man, 1. 

Officers, Medical. N.C. Officers. Men. 

ADiv 3 1 5 

B „ 3 1 5 

\,j .., •••••• O J- o 

D „ ...... 2 1 5 

Total, including Staff. .14 6 21 

The steamer " John Bull," chartered by the Society, having arrived at Woolwich 
on Thursday, October 13, 1870, the whole was embarked from the Royal Arsenal 
that day. 

It took 12 hours to embark the whole equipment and material under the superin- 
tendence of the arsenal authorities. It was the intention to have started the same 
evening en route for Havre, the port of disembarkation, but this was found imprac- 
ticable, the " safe-conduct " from the Prussian Ambassador not having arrived until 
after dark. 

At daylight on the morning of the 14th the steamer got under weigh, arrived at 
Havre at 3 o'clock in the moruing of the 15th, began to disembark ambulance at 12 
o'clock ; the whole was out of the ship in 4 \ hours. 

It had been decided that Mr. Alchin, a foreman in the carriage department, Royal 
Arsenal, should accompany the expedition as far as Havre, for the purpose of superin- 
tending the putting together of the ambulance and general service waggons ; but at 
the last moment he was counter-ordered by the Chief-Controller, Royal Arsenal, and 
was not allowed to proceed. This might have proved of the greatest inconvenience, 
as from the number of bolts, screws, &c, also from the general construction of the 
waggons, some experience was required in putting them together. Fortunately, how- 
ever, a few days previously the services of Mr. Coe, who had served for a considerable 

S 2 



128 

time in the R.H.A., had been secured by the Society, and also Assistant-Surgeon 
Power and the men of the A.H.C. had gone through a course at Netley, in which the 
taking to pieces and putting together of the ambulance waggons had formed a part. 
By this means, the difficulty which the sudden decision of the Controller withdrawing 
Mr. Alchin might have caused was obviated, and the work of equipping and putting 
together the waggons was accomplished with facility, the waggons and ambulances 
being all properly put together by an early hour on the morning of Sunday, 16th 
instant. On the same day also the whole were loaded in the following manner. To 
each of the four divisons two ambulance waggons and one general service waggon 
were apportioned, and so packed and arranged that a division could at any moment 
be detached, complete in itself, and afford accommodation for 25 sick or wounded. 
The remainder of the waggons were loaded with the general stores of the Ambulance, 
and were a reserve upon which the several divisions could indent for further supplies 
of all kinds. 

Everything as regards the disembarkation at Havre, viz., the putting together 
and loading of the waggons, was performed with the greatest regularity and despatch, 
the remarks of the French being to the effect that they could see it was English from 
the celerity and quietness with which everything was done. In fact, so long as what 
might be called the military element remained pure, nothing went wrong. Immediately, 
however, on coming info contact with the civilian employes, the elements of dis- 
organisation, and consequently discord, began to show themselves. To explain myself 
I must relate how this came about. 

When it had been decided to send this Ambulance, Lord Bury proceeded in 
advance, accompanied by an English veterinary surgeon, to purchase horses at Havre. 
At the same time were hired Frenchmen for drivers, also for collar-makers, farriers, 
and wheelers, and to act as grooms for the saddle-horses. This proved a most unfor- 
tunate proceeding, as it at once broke down the neutrality which should have 
characterised the Ambulance, and was throughout a continual source of annoyance, 
obstructiveness, and in fact materially affected the mobility and usefulness of the 
whole concern. 

But to continue the thread of the story : 

The departure of the Ambulance being delayed by the steamer not being ready at 
the time appointed, and consequently our arrival at Havre not occurring so soon as 
was expected, Lord Bury left for England, leaving the horses in charge of the English 
veterinary surgeon. This person appeared to have very little idea of what he had to 
do on the arrival of the Ambulance, and his manner was such that it was quite im- 
possible to do duty or work with him in any way. He commenced immediately to 
cause such confusion that from my experience, having served for a considerable number 
of years in the Royal Artillery, and thus having gained, although in a slight degree, 
some knowledge of what ought to be done as regards forming the horses into teams, and 
having them properly harnessed, I began seriously to think that we should never be 
able to get further than Havre. The horses were scattered in different billets about 
the town, the position of which was known to no one but the veterinary surgeon. 
His first proceeding was to get all the vats of harness away on drays, and distribute 
them ; it can easily be imagined what was the effect which the contents had on the 
so-called French drivers. Only four of them, as I was informed by the head English 
groom, had been stablemen before ; many of them had worked on the quay at Flavre, 
and of those that came under my personal observation three were stonemasons, one 
was a florist, one a grocer, one an omnibus driver, and one an old postboy. They had 
been hired promiscuously about the town, without reference to their qualifications as 
drivers ; and I can safely say that few of them knew anything about the management 
of horses. The foreman of these men, the man specially hired to superintend them 
and explain to them their duty, was a commercial traveller for a Avine and spirit firm. 
With this material to work with, and told to harness the horses with English military 
harness, the result can perhaps be imagined ; suffice it to say that, when the horses 
appeared harnessed to the waggons, the effect was, if it had not been so serious a 
matter, most ludicrous. Pairs of horses appeared, one in wheel and the other in lead 
harness, reins and bridles, bits and curbs, arranged in a most fantastic manner. This 
parade was asked for by the veterinary surgeon, for the purpose, as he said, of a trial 
as to how the horses would draw the waggons ; but on account of the drivers not 
coming up to time with their horses, and also from the mixture of wheel and lead 
harness, only one horse could be put into each ambulance waggon ; the only apparent 
result was," that the tailboards of two of the ambulance waggons were broken through 
by the shafts of the ones in rear being forced through them, the effect of bad driving, 
and from suddenly halting without warning. To add to these difficulties, the Prefet 
of the town insisted on our taking part in a procession to the Hotel de Ville, which 
was to take place the next morning at ten o'clock. Dr. Guy therefore ordered the 
veterinary surgeon to have the horses harnessed and hooked into the waggons not later 
than half-past eight o'clock the following morning; this was not complied with, and 
at ten o'clock, after the National Guard and the procession had formed up, and was 
ready to move off, some of the waggons had not been horsed at all ; the others, which 
had been more fortunate, moved off through the town to the railway station, after 
having defiled before the Prefet and other town notables. As the whole was to 



129 

proceed to Rouen by rail at half-past two o'clock the same afternoon, and the 
remainder of the horses not coming to hand, some of those which had already brought 
waggons to the railway were sent back to bring up the remaining waggons which had 
no horses, and officers were despatched about the town to hunt up the missing drivers 
and horses. At this stage, seeing how things were falling into confusion, I went to 
Dr. Guy and reported the whole of the circumstances, and volunteered to take charge 
of the whole of the horses and transport arrangements on the march, or until my 
proper professional duties should commence. When I say the transport arrangements 
I mean all the duties connected with the stabling, embarking, and disembarking of the 
horses at the railways, forming the teams, fitting the harness, stable duties, supply of 
forage, also the order of march. In this I was most zealously and ably seconded by 
Assistant-Surgeon Moore, 4th Dragoon Guards, and Monsieur Seve, a French veterinary 
surgeon, who was to accompany us, and who presented a marked contrast in every 
way to his English brother professional. In fact, without the assistance and hearty 
co-operation of these two gentlemen, it would have been quite impossible for me to 
have carried out these duties. I must not forget to mention, also, that in fitting the 
harness Mr. Coe rendered great assistance. At the railway station at Havre, ten 
cattle vans were placed at our disposal ; into these 103 horses were placed harnessed, 
that being the only way to count the sets of harness, and see if all were present. The 
horses were all packed as closely as possible, to prevent their falling, the floors of the 
vans being in a filthy and slippery condition, having recently been used for the con- 
veyance of cattle and sheep. The vans held ten horses each harnessed, the additional 
three being placed in the vans containing the saddle horses, which on account of not 
having harness were able to contain them. 103 Avas the total number that came up to 
time from the billets, and as it was impossible to delay the departure of the train 
longer Surgeon Ball and Assistant-Surgeon McRobin were ordered to remain and 
bring on the stragglers, and also any harness that was left behind. The total number 
of horses being 108, five were missing, and four sets of harness. Our train was made 
up, and consisted of between thirty and forty carriages. We got off at half-past three 
p.m., and arrived at Rouen at six o'clock. It was then dark and raining heavily. The 
secretary, Mr. Shee, had been sent on the day before to secure stables for the horses 
and billets for the A. H. C. men ; fortunately he was able to get, in one inn, sufficient 
stabling for ninety horses, so that only thirteen had to be sent elsewhere. Owing to 
the length of time which the railway authorities took to shunt our train, it was nearly 
ten o'clock p.m. before we could get the horses disembarked ; and before they were fed 
and inspected, and everything seen to for the night, it was twelve o'clock. The 
waggons were left on the trucks, as it was the intention to go on the next day 
to St. Pierre, a distance of twelve miles from Rouen, and the farthest point to 
which railway travelling was possible. Owing to the fact of some of the horses 
and harness being left behind at Havre, and from the harness and teams not 
having been as yet numbered and arranged, and from the impossibility of being 
able to get the necessary papers and permits from the French authorities in time, 
the march was counter-ordered. This delay Avas very useful, as it allowed time 
to get into some order, and to counteract the effects of the confusion which occurred 
at the commencement. At 6 o'clock the following morning, therefore, the ambulances 
and waggons were got off the trucks, and parked in a vacant space at the railway 
station. The horses were brought up from the stables, teams were told off, and the 
harness fitted and numbered, according to the waggon to Avhich each belonged, so that 
the drivers at once knew to Avhich Avaggon they had to take their horses for the future. 
It was now found that the missing harness Avas four sets of Avheel, so that two 
waggons had only leaders. In the course of the evening Drs. Ball and McRobin 
arrived from Havre with the missing horses and harness, and also a riding horse in lieu 
of one that Avas sick, so that our number of 108 was now complete, and as far as 
regards the horses, harness, and waggons, everything was ready to start the next day. 
At Rouen Ave fell in Avith some gentlemen, employed as agents of the Aid Society, 
whose duty it appeared to be to travel about to see if anything Avas Avanted by 
ambulances or hospitals of the Society. We were not, however, in want of anything. 
As the waggons had been taken off the railway trucks, it Avas considered that it was 
hardly Avorth the expense and trouble of taking the rail on to St. Pierre, a distance, 
•as I have stated, of only 12 miles, more particularly as that was the last point of 
railway commiuiication, and our destination was Versailles. It Avas therefore settled 
by Dr. Guy that it was best to march direct from Rouen, and a route was in con- 
sequence decided upon, the head of the French Aid Society, M. Pouyer-Quertier, helping 
Dr. Guy in drawing it out: it was as folloAvs : — Rouen to Louviers, Louviers to Vernon, 
Vernon to Poisy, Poisy to Versailles. From information obtained from the Rev. Mr. 
Hill, who had recently been over this route, there Avas supposed to be much difficulty 
in obtaining forage for the horses on the march. To meet every eventuality which 
might occur, it Avas decided that a supply of forage sufficient for 20 days should be 
taken on, and this, supplemented by Avhat could be procured en route, Avas calculated 
to keep us, on our arrival, a sufficient time for convoys to reach us, and for us to look 
about as to the best means of supplying ourselves at Versailles. This was a very 
Avise and judicious plan, and although tAvo country Avaggons and eight sets of country 
harness would have to be bought, the difference in the price of oats at HaA r re and 



130 

Versailles would not only reimburse the Society the price of the waggons and harness, 
but would be much cheaper in the end. Mr. Young, the commissariat officer, was there- 
fore ordered to proceed to Havre, to get the oats, harness, and waggons, as it was found 
impossible to buy them at Rouen. This caused the delay of another day at Rouen, 
but still it was not a loss, as by these arrangements it was calculated that both horses 
and men, in fact the Ambulance as a whole, could have existed for a mouth cut off 
from all supplies, the oats being calculated for a full ration of 16 lbs. per day per 
horse, should no hay be procurable. Just as Mr. Young was about to start, he met at 
the railway station Colonel Loyd-Lindsay, Chairman of the Society, who was returning 
to England from Paris and Versailles. Be counter-ordered Mr. Young, altered our 
route, stated that we were to go on to Versailles as soon as possible, that we should 
find no difficulty about the supply of forage on the road, nor when we got to Versailles. 
The route which Colonel Lindsay marked out for us was as follows : Rouen, by rail, 
to St. Pierre, St. Pierre to Louviers, Louviers to Vernon, Vernon to Mantes, Mantes to 
Moule, Moule to Versailles. By adopting this route it will be seen it was again necessary 
to embark the whole of the waggons, horses, and material on to the railway. This in- 
curred a great amount of trouble and expense, totally out of proportion to the advantage 
to be gained. It was supposed that time would have been gained by this arrangement, 
but it proved the reverse. The railway authorities, instead of having the trucks ready 
for loading at 6 o'clock a.m. as was agreed upon, did not commence until 9 o'clock ; and 
after the train was loaded and formed ready to start, they found that their locomotive 
was not powerful enough, and had to send for another, so that we did not move off 
until past 2 o'clock. The cost of this journey was, I believe, about 40/., so that if we 
had marched to Louviers by road we should, as it turned out, have saved time. On 
getting to St. Pierre, the horses were got out of the trucks and put to the waggons, 
and an order of march formed. This took 1^ hour. Drs. Ball and Malcolm were 
sent on to Louviers in advance, to obtain billets and stabling; this was done by 
application to the Mayor, who put them in the way of procuring what was required. 
On coming to the town, the column was halted, the billeting paper was given to 
Surgeon Mauley, who told off the horses and waggons to the various stables, where 
they were conducted by a medical officer, who was placed in charge of each. The 
next morning the march was resumed for Vernon, two medical officers were again 
sent on as a billeting party. At Vernon some difficulty was experienced in obtaining 
the necessary stable accommodation, as the town was full of Gardes Mobiles. The day 
following marched from Vernon to Mantes ; the latter town was in possession of the 
Prussians, and it was expected that we should fall in with their outposts about four 
miles out of Vernon. This proved to be the case; we were stopped by a party of four 
hussars, who examined our " safe-conduct " and allowed us to pass, riding along our 
line. The effect of hiring French drivers now began to show itself, as not only were 
they an object of suspicion in themselves, but the uniform which had been designed 
for them was very similar to that worn by the Francs Tireurs. On arriving at 
Mantes everything was different from what we had already experienced, the town 
being in the possession of the Prussians, and under military law. The billeting party 
had to report itself to the Commandant of the town, and then to go to the Mairie for 
billets for the officers and men. As the town was the head-quarters of General 
von Werder, and full of troops, with a large force of cavalry, stabling was difficult to 
get, some market sheds on the outskirts of the town being all that could be given 
over to us. During the day the fire of artillery had been heard for some hours on our 
right, and soon after our arrival, about 4 o'clock p.m., a force of cavalry, artillery, and 
infantry returned, having had an engagement with the French at a village about 
twelve miles to the south-west. We had scarcely got the horses fed and littered 
down for the night, when an officer came with a message from the General, to say 
that he wished to see the officer in charge of the Ambulance, and as Drs. Guy and 
Porter had gone on to Versailles to communicate with Prince Pless and Mr. Furley, 
the agent of the Society, I, being left in charge by Dr. Guy, went. The General 
wished to know how we had come into his command, and on showing him the " safe- 
conduct " he was satisfied. He soon after sent to request that one of the ambulance 
waggons might be sent out, under the guidance of a Prussian surgeon, to bring in 
the body of his aide-de-camp, who had that day been killed in action. His request 
was immediately complied with, and the load of the Ambulance distributed. The 
waggon was got ready, the horses being hooked in, when the same officer returned 
to say that the surgeon could not be found, and that the General wished that the 
waggon might be allowed to go early the next morning. This was arranged, 
Assistant-Surgeon Melladew being detailed to accompany it. Two horses only were 
sent with the waggon, the leaders being ordered to remain in the stable until its 
return, when the whole were to follow on to Moule, the place of halting for the day. 
This duty was performed, and the waggon arrived safely at Moule about 7 o'clock the 
eame evening. The Ambulance started from Mantes about 8 o'clock a.m., and arrived 
at Moule about 3 o'clock p.m. As this was the last march out of Versailles, orders 
w< re given to halt here until the return of Drs. Guy and Porter, with final arrange- 
ments as to our destination. I may mention here that on coming into the towns 
within the Prussian lines, instead of the waggons going to the stables with the 
horses, the whole were formed up in the " Place," the horses were unharnessed, and a 



131 

guard placed over the waggons. We halted at Moule the whole of the next day. In 
the evening Drs. Guy and Porter returned, having seen Prince Pl?ss, who stilted to 
them that he considered our Ambulance a military organisation, and referred them to 
General von Roon, the Minister of War. He, I believe, stated to them that there was no 
necessity for our services at Versailles, and that our location would be, for the present, 
at St. Germain-en-Laye. They also heard from Mr. Furley that it was impossible to 
procure forage for the horses at Versailles. As our orders were to go to Versailles, 
it was thought best to try, if possible, if this could not be managed, and while Dr. Guy 
was at St. Germain, Mr. Shee, the secretary, was ordered to communicate with the 
authorities at Versailles, with a view to obtaining stabling at all events for a few days, 
so that the Ambulance should march to Versailles, and then, if not allowed to remain, 
to go on the next day to St. Germain. Before leaving for Moule, Mr. Shee had given 
Dr. Guy to understand that he had obtained stabling, with which understanding 
Dr. Guy left for Moule to bring the Ambulance into Versailles, Mr. Shee being left at 
Versailles, and ordered to meet the Ambulance the next day at the point where the 
road from Moule came into that leading to Versailles and St. Germain. The next day, 
on arriving at this point, on meeting Mr. Shee, he was asked if the stables were all 
right ; he stated that they had been occupied by the Germans, and as the march had 
been very long and fatiguing, and the rain continuous, Dr. Guy very promptly and wisely 
decided not to go to Versailles, but turned off to St. Germain, where we arrived about 
6 o'clock, and obtained stabling for the horses in the Imperial manege. After remaining 
at St. Germain for some days trying if possible to utilise in some way the services of 
the Ambulance, Prince Pless declining to have anything to do with us, we were at 
length inspected by the officer commanding the town, and it was decided that we 
might establish an hospital, which was, however, to be entirely under the superin- 
tendence of the Prussian medical authorities. A large house was obtained from the 
commandant, and fitted up under the superintendence of Mr. Young as a hospital to 
contain 50 beds. Everything was done promptly and well, and although the house 
was in a filthy condition and undergoing repairs, it did not, I think, take more than 
three days to thoroughly cleanse it, and equip the rooms with bedding, bedsteads, bed- 
head tables, and everything requisite for the reception of the sick. Cases of continued 
and typhoid fever and dysentery from the investing army of Paris were immediately 
sent in, and in two days all the beds were occupied. The adjoining house was then 
taken over and similarly equipped. It soon, however, became apparent, not only 
from the superintendence, but also from the interference in every individual case 
of the German surgeons, that the hospital could not be continued under the charge of 
the Ambulance, as it was absurd to suppose that any medical men would consent, 
immediately after they had prescribed for a sick man, to have another medical man 
come in, examine the case afresh, and criticise the treatment. This was the plan 
pursued by the German surgeons, acting, as it appeared, under orders of their 
superiors. If we had continued to work under this supervision, I conceive that we 
should have been taking the pay of the Aid Society, by whom we were employed, 
under a false pretence, as it must at once appear to any one that our services thus 
employed were not only of little good, but that we were not doing the work for which 
the Aid Society was called into existence. I accordingly, a few mornings after the 
hospital had been opened, after having gone round my division, and being followed 
from bed to bed by a staff" of German medical officers, wrote to Dr. Guy to say that 
I could no longer consent to do duty if this interference was to continue. The same 
opinion, was also expressed by the other medical officers. The whole corresj^ondence 
was referred to the German medical authorities, with, I believe, a request that, if it 
was impossible to continue their supervision without such marked interference, they 
would take over the entire charge of the hospital. In answer, they stated, I believe, 
that they could not alter in any respect their mode of procedure, and they would take 
over the hospital the next day. This they accordingly did, Dr. Guy giving them the 
bedding, &c, but stipulating that the bedsteads, bed-head tables, and things that 
were hired from the French, should be continued to be paid for. 

As it was the orders of the Society that the Ambulance should proceed to Ver- 
sailles to work with the German army, Dr. Guy, immediately on the closing of the 
hospital at St. Germain, put himself into communication with the Prussian military 
authorities and with the principal medical officer of the Crown Prince's army, with a 
view to utilise the services of the Ambulance by obtaining permission to locate several 
detachments in different places round Paris, and by this means to render aid through- 
out the whole circuit of the investing army, which we were well able to do. The 
military authorities granted us permission to proceed to Corbeil, where our chief, if 
not our only employment would have been the transportation of sick and wounded 
from that place to Chateau Thierry, the points between which there was no railway 
communieation. As, however, this proposition had been made by Prince Pless to 
Mr. Shee, the Secretary of the Ambulance, with the addition that the waggons were 
to bring back forage on the return journey from Chateau Thierry, and as the services 
of the medical officers on a duty of this kind would be of little or no use, it was 
not acted upon. Dr. Berger, the head medical authority of the Crown Prince's army, 
in answer to Dr. Guy's letter, simply stated that it was contrary to the rules of the 
Prussian service to allow foreigners to establish hospitals within their lines. Under 



132 

these circumstances, it having been found quite impossible to carry out the orders of 
the Society, Dr. Guy stated the whole of the circumstances in writing, and sent 
Surgeon Porter home to lay them before the Committee, and to wait their instructions 
as to what they wished done. One cannot be surprised at the result of our efforts to 
establish and work a hospital at St. Germain. It was impossible to suppose that a 
foreign Ambulance would be allowed to establish itself, with independent action, at 
the head-quarters as it were of a victorious army, under the eyes of the King and 
Crown Prince, as it would have been tantamount to acknowledging that their own 
establishments were insufficient. Also I think that jealousy of the interference of any 
foreigners was only natural on the part of the Prussian medical department ; in fact, 
it cannot be denied that the sending us to Versailles and St. Germain was a mistake. 
About this time it was rumoured abroad that active operations were about to take 
place to the south, having for their object the driving back of the French out of 
Orleans and from the line of the Loire, and it was thought that the most useful sphere of 
operations for the Ambulance would be in that direction ; consequently, on the evening 
of the 11th November, at 7.30 o'clock, I received an order to proceed to Chartres with 
the B division of the Ambulance, as, in consequence of the repulse of the Bavarian 
Army from Orleans, it was expected that important operations would shortly take 
place in that quarter. The following was the detail of the Division of the Ambu- 
lance : — 

Surgeon Manley, R.A., in charge. 

Assistant Surgeon McNalty, Staff, and Assistant Surgeon Moore, 4th Dragoon 

Guards. 
1 Sergeant and 4 men, Army Hospital Corps. 

1 English Groom, 1 French Groom, 4 French Drivers, 1 Farrier. 

2 Ambulance Waggons (complete) with two Field Stretchers in each. 
1 General Service Waggon. 

12 Horses. 

The list of Stores, Medical and Surgical Material, was as follows: — 

Extract of Meat, 2 lbs. 

Tea, 7 lbs. 

Coffee, 14 lbs. 

Sugar, 12 lbs. 

Rice, 28 lbs". 

Candles, 10 lbs. 

Salt, 2 lbs. 

Oil Cans, 1. 

Bedding, 5 bags. 

Preserved Potatoes, 28 lbs. 

Cases of Cigars, 1, containing 1,000 

Woollen Shirts, 10. 

Drawers, 10. 

Medical Comfort Box, 1, containing 18 bottles of Port Wine, 6 bottles of Brandy. 

A and B Canteens, containing cooking and hospital utensils, 1 sack of Potatoes, 

12 4-lbs tins of Boiled Mutton, 1 Circular Tent, Rum 4 gallons. 
1 Pair of Field Panniers, containing Medicines and Surgical Instruments and 

Appliances. 
In addition, seven days' supply of Oats for 12 horses, at the rate of 16 lbs. for 

each horse, was carried in the waggon. 

The ambulance waggons were kept ready for service, and carried, in addition to 
the permanent stretchers, two field stretchers each. 

These stores were packed, and everything was in readiness the same evening. 
The division left St. Germain at 7 a.m. on Saturday, the 12th, and arrived at Rambouillet 
at 4.30 the same evening. A medical officer was sent on in advance to communicate 
with the Prussian authorities, and to obtain billets for the men and stabling for the 
horses from the Mayor. 

As it was impossible to ration the men from the stores in the waggon, I decided 
to grant to each of them a sustentation allowance of three francs daily, as the least 
amount with which, taking into consideration the state of the country, they could 
provide themselves with proper food. 

On Sunday morning, the 13th, at 7.30 o'clock, the division resumed its march 
for Chartres. Mr. McNalty was sent on in advance, but was stopped at the village of 
Maintenon by the officer commanding, who considered it advisable that he should 
await the arrival of the Ambulance before proceeding farther, as he stated that he 
wished to see it all before allowing any one to proceed. From this officer an escort of 
two Uhlans was received for the remainder of the journey. It did not appear to me 
for what object this attention was conferred upon us. It had the effect of delaying 
our obtaining billets and stables at Chartres; lor although we arrived at 5.30 o'clock, it 
was !) o'clock before the horses were got into stables and the men housed. 



133 

The 14th, the Division halted for the purpose of obtaining information as to 
further movements. At first it was decided to go to Voyes, as being nearer the out- 
posts of both armies, and about 20 miles nearer Orleans ; but later in the day, having 
called upon Dr. Bourchardt, the Prussian surgeon in charge of the hospital in the town, 
who received us with the greatest kindness, it was deemed the best course to attach 
the Ambulance to the 22nd Division of the Prussian Army stationed in the town, as it 
was expected that an important movement was about to take place, and that this 
would be the most likely field in which the services of the Ambulance could be most 
beneficially employed. I accordingly called upon the Principal Medical Officer of the 
Division, Dr. Hohman, and was introduced to him and to the Brigade Major by 
Dr. Bourchardt, who stated our mission. It was then arranged that we should form 
part of the Sanitats detachment of the Division, the Lieutenant of which was ordered 
to put himself in communication with me, so that our place in the line of march might 
be indicated, and that we should receive the earliest intimation of a move. The horses 
were foraged and the men rationed by the Prussians. The 15th and 16th were employed 
in getting everything ready for a sudden move. 

On the 17th, at daybreak, the order to move at 7.30 o'clock was received ; an 
orderly was sent to show us our place in the column, which was in rear of the 
Sanitats detachment, so that we were kept separate from the Prussian Ambulances. 
The march of the 17th commenced at 9 o'clock a.m., and at 7 o'clock p.m. we arrived 
at the village of Marville les Bois, about 12 miles north-east of Chartres. The ambu- 
lance waggons were packed in a field on the outskirts of the village, and close to the 
high road, and the horses and men told off to a farm. The horses stabled, the men 
had to sleep in the lofts, and the officers were told to take possession of any room in 
the house that was available. The parlour was accordingly occupied ; some straw 
spread on the floor for sleeping on ; some bread, coffee, salt, and rice issued as a ration. 
Early in the morning of the 18th, the order to march was issued. The horses had 
already been ordered to be harnessed, in readiness ; consequently they had only to be 
hooked in. The march began at 7.30 o'clock, a.m., in a direction north-east. A dense 
fog prevailed the whole day. At about noon, the fire of artillery was heard on our 
left, near the town of Chateauneuf, and along our front. Judging from the sound, at 
the distance of about half a mile, a continuous fire of musketry was kept up, varying 
in intensity, at one time appearing to be nearer, and at another further off. This 
continued for about four hours, when it gradually ceased. 

About 4 o'clock the ambulances were ordered to advance ; passed through the 
village of Leraville St. Sauveur, on the outskirts of which, and continuing on to another 
village named Forcay, was the scene of the action. Across the high road a bank and 
ditch had been made, and on the left side of the road and in the ditch the Prussian 
skirmishers were lying ; the road for the distance of about 300 yards was marked by 
frequent pools of blood, some broken rifles, and very many cartridge papers, showing 
that here the fight had been severe. Further on the ambulances turned off the road 
into the ploughed field, advanced at a trot, and so on through country lanes for a 
distance of about a mile, at which point the road was made on an embankment crossing 
a valley, the opposite sides of which was covered by belts and patches of young timber 
and brushwood. Here had been collected, in the hollow at the side of the road, a 
number of Prussian and French wounded, also some Prussian dead; and further on, in a 
wood on the opposite side of the valley, were numerous French dead. On the embank- 
ment the waggons were halted, the stretchers sent out, and all the wounded that could be 
found brought in. In this duty the Prussian corps of Kranken Triiger seemed to be most 
efficient — their stretchers contrasting most favourably with our field stretchers, our 
system of bringing the wounded to the waggons on the field stretchers, and then 
moving them again on to the permanent ones, being not only most objectionable but 
inhuman, as giving unnecessary pain to the seriously wounded, who are those for whom 
the permanent stretchers are provided. This was so apparent, that I caused the per- 
manent stretchers to be taken out of the waggons on to the field, as the most humane 
plan, and the one which common sense ought to have suggested in the construction of 
the Ambulances — the permanent stretchers being at present too short in the handles 
to allow of their being carried far by the bearers. In this diary, however, the very 
numerous defects and deficiencies of the service ambulance waggon cannot be entered 
upon, but must be left to be considered separately. 

After collecting all the wounded that could be found, the Ambulances were 
ordered to march to Chateauneuf, a small town at which a hospital had been already 
established in the national schools. This town was reached at about 7 o'clock, p.m., 
but it was not until 9 o'clock that the Ambulances were all emptied, as the whole of 
the division had been concentrated in the town, and the blocks in the narrow streets 
prevented free locomotion. No billets were told off for either horses, men, or officers ; 
but we were told to make our own arrangements. I accordingly placed the horses in 
a shed in the school-house yard, the Army Hospital Corps obtained an empty room at 
the top of the school-house, and the officers one on the floors immediately above those 
occupied by the wounded. No rations were issued. Fortunately the supply of oats in 
the waggon had not been expended, so the horses were able to be well fed, which was 
most necessary, as the work of the day had been most severe on them. I may mention 
that the Prussians seemed to prefer putting their serious cases into our waggons as 

T 



134 

far as they could be accommodated, as they were under the impression that in going 
over rough country lanes and across the ploughed land our waggons, were steadier and 
less liable to jolt. This is undoubtedly the case, and as far as what may be called 
the traction part of the Ambulances, the general sendee waggon is everything that 
could be desired. During the marches of this section of the Ambulance both have 
been well tested. 

On the 19th, the 22nd Division of the Army (the 11th Army Corps) rested at 
Chateauneuf, the Ambulances employed all day in bringing in wounded from the 
villages. In this interval was afforded an opportunity of seeing the working of the 
German field hospital, or what perhaps might be called, with more correctness, the 
arrangements made for the care of the Avounded immediately after an engagement. They 
are as follow: — A house is taken as a receptacle for the wounded, straw is laid on the 
floor thickly all round the rooms, the Ambulances are drawn up to the door and emptied 
as fast as possible, and immediately again sent off to the field for more wounded. The 
wounded are laid on the straw side by side, and the medical officers proceed to dress 
their Avounds ; after each wound is dressed a small card is tied to the coat button, on 
which is a short description of the wound, and this is signed by the medical officer 
Avho has dressed it and to Avhom the case belongs afterwards ; as soon as possible 
bedsteads and bedding are procured by requisition, and also all other requisites. As 
regards medical and surgical arrangements, it does not appear that anything has to be 
learned from the Germans, their surgical practice being altogether too conservative. 
This may in some measure be accounted for by the fact that a surgeon in the Prussian 
service is not allowed to amputate a limb if the man objects, no matter what the 
surgeon's opinion may be on the matter. There is also one great defect which may 
be stated, and that cannot be too strongly commented upon, with a vieAV to its being 
avoided in ottr oavii service, viz. : that no arrangements seem to be made for giving 
nourishment to the wounded either on the field or immediately after they have been 
brought in, until a very considerable time after they have been admitted into hospital. 
In my opinion this ought to rank in importance before the dressing of the wounds, as, 
after they have been dressed, the man is so much exhausted, both from the wound and 
the fatigue and excitement of the march and the fight, that he falls off to sleep, and it 
is wrong to Avake him up to gi\ T e him food. 

As this Avas but a small engagement, and the Prussian Feld Lazareth was present, 
little or nothing Avas required from the Ambulance ; some bedding, cigars, and port Avine 
Avere supplied. 

On the 20th, orders were received to march, and at the usual hour, 7.30 o'clock, 
the division started, passed through Digny, and arrived at La Loupe, where it 
halted. 

On the 21st, started early on the march from La Loupe. About 10 a.m. a heavy 
fire of artillery commenced on our left ; soon the action became general, the French 
holding the village of Bretoncelles and the neighbouring farms. The engagement 
lasted some hours, Avhen the firing gradually ceased. One medical officer remained 
with the Ambulances, the other tAvo rode on to render assistance to the wounded. The 
medical officers of the Ambulances Avere employed until past 11 p.m. in dressing wounded ; 
Ambulance waggons employed also till a late hour in repeated journeys to bring in 
wounded. Our position being ill defined, and finding that our horses were left until 
all the Prussians had been settled, I complained to the Principal Medical Officer of the 
Division, and stated that I could not remain with the Division unless the horses Avere 
placed under cover and better provided for. This produced a most beneficial change ; 
the Rittmeister Avas requested to provide stables for our horses, and a non-commis- 
sioned officer Avas told off to attend to this duty. On these difficulties being overcome 
I consented to go on ; afterwards there Avas no cause of complaint. A distribution of 
cigars Avas made to the Avounded, and as the Feld Lazareth Avasin charge of the hospital 
nothing Avas required of us. 

22nd. — At 8 o'clock commenced the march in a Avesterly direction ; halted at a 
late hour in the evening at Berdhuis. 

23rd. — The march was continued from Berdhuis to Belleme, still Avesterly. 

24th. — Marched from Belleme to Nogent-le-Rotrou ; this Avas a retrograde move- 
ment ; and on inquiring the reason, Avas informed that the column had been in pursuit 
of a French force of 12,000 men, Avhich at Belleme could no longer be heard of. The 
marching had been very severe, and the men were very much distressed — numbers 
falling out ;. as many as possible Avere accommodated in the Avaggons, the others Avere 
taken on in country carts requisitioned for the purpose from the farmers. 

25th. — The march continued in a southerly direction to Authou-de-Perche. 

26th. — From Authon to Chateau Caille or Cochardie, near Brou. The Sanitate 
Detachment to which we were attached Avas ordered to remain for the night in the 
chateau of M. Caille; this had been abandoned by the proprietor, and had been, 
previous to our coming, occupied by other troops. 

27th. — From Chateau Caille* marched to Anjouville. 

28th. — Halted at Anjouville; this was the second day's halt in twelve days, and 
was of great service to the men, who were greatly in want of rest. 

291. Ii. — March continued to Imonville. 

30th. — From Imonville to Champilory, the first village north of Toury. 



■5.) 



1st December. — Halted at Champilory. 

2nd.— From Champilory marched in the direction of Artenay. Engagement 
commenced at about 11 o'clock a.m., at the village of Bagneux: the action soon 
became general in and around the villages of Lumeau and Pouprey. The ambulance 
ordered to halt and take charge of the wounded and establish a hospital in the village 
of Aimeux, which was filled with the dead and wounded, being the advanced portion 
of the French line. The largest house in this village was a farm-house ; this was 
taken possession of and formed into a hospital ; although, in reality, the whole village 
was occupied,' — not only were all the cottages filled with wounded, but the stables and 
outhouses also. Still, the farm-house being most commodious, the cases requiring 
immediate amputation were brought to it. Every member of the Ambulance was im- 
mediately fully occupied. The first thing ordered, even before the wounds were 
looked to, was that the largest pot of the canteen was got ready and coffee made, — 
milk was fortunately procurable at the farm. The coffee was prepared immediately, 
and every wounded man in the whole village was given about a pint of it. This was 
most beneficial, as the weather was intensely cold, and the march and fight had been 
most exhausting. The coffee was taken round from house to house, and I personally 
saw that every man received this nourishment. The wounded numbered over 80. I 
had the day before despatched Mr. Moore to St. Germain, as I had had no communica- 
tion from the head-quarters of the ambulance for over three weeks. This was unfor- 
tunate, as it made us underhanded, and as the sergeant of the Army Hospital Corps 
who accompanied the section of the ambulance had proved himself utterly worthless, 
and as one of the Army Hospital Corps men was completely knocked up from the 
severe marching and exposure that we had previously been undergoing, the remainder, 
consisting of Mr. McNalty, myself, three Army Hospital Corps men, and a Prussian 
Kranken-Trager, who had been told off to us as servant, were very hardly pressed. 
After the coffee the wounds were looked to and examined, and those requiring opera- 
tion immediately proceeded with. This duty was performed under the greatest 
difficulty, the kitchen being the only place, and the table the only position, where 
the amputations could be performed, all the rooms of the house being filled with 
wounded, as also the kitchen itself, — in addition the slightly wounded crowded round 
the fire, and the wounded were continually coming in from the field. It was dark 
before we were able to commence operating, the ambulance waggons being still out 
on the field bringing in wounded. To get room round the operating table it was 
necessary, as a last measure, to send the slightly wounded out into the stables. The 
weather was intensely cold, the character of the country being extensive plains, dotted 
"with farms and villages, and belts of young timber. While operating, and at about 
10 o'clock, the waggons having only a short time before returned, the General com- 
manding the 22nd Division came in and requested that the waggons might be again 
sent out to the field, as there were numbers of wounded not yet brought in, and the 
severity of the cold and keenness of the north wind rendering it a matter of vital 
importance that they should be got in without delay. His request was immediately 
complied with ; they were again despatched, and employed on this duty until far into 
the night, not returning until 3 o'clock a.m. In the meantime the operations and 
dressing of the wounds were continued by the medical staff, and at about 4 o'clock 
a.m. the most urgent cases having been attended to, the medical officers and Army 
Hospital Corps men lay down amongst the wounded, as the only available place to 
get some rest, the duties of the day having been most fatiguing. 

At daylight on the next morning (3rd), coffee was again got ready, and extract 
of meat for the serious cases ; port wine and brandy were also given when necessary. 
The beds were filled with straw from the bags of bedding, and the rooms of the 
houses cleansed of straw, &c. The houses of the village were visited, and the wounded 
as far as possible removed from the stables and outhouses, and placed in the rooms 
where there were fires ; the dressing of the wounds proceeded with, and operating 
continued. For dinner rice from our store and milk were provided ; also I was 
enabled to purchase three sheep ; coffee and sugar, and also port wine, being given 
them for the wounded. Cigars also were given to all who wished them. On the 
evening of this day a Prussian Feld Lazareth arrived with orders to take charge of the 
whole of the wounded in the village ; accordingly they were shown to the surgeon in 
charge, and their wounds described, — our duties in operating and dressing, and also 
feeding the wounded, ceasing. At the same time I explained that we would remain 
in the village until the next day, and if there was anything I could assist him in, or 
anything that I could supply him with, I should be most happy to do so. 

They were, however, well supplied, and needed little or nothing. On this day 
the waggons were out until after dark in conveying wounded. The surgeon in charge 
the next morning (4th) having received an order to evacuate the wounded out of the 
village to another village named Lumeau, where a hospital had been established, 
asked us to use our waggons in the transport of the most serious cases, and in the 
general evacuation of the village. The Prussian Feld Lazareth then proceeded to the 
village of Lumeau, about three-qiiarters of a mile distant, and left us to clear the village. 
I accordingly got as many country carts as possible, and with these and our own 
Ambulance waggons, by repeated journeys, managed to get every one along by the 
afternoon. On the evening of this day the surgeon in charge of the Feld Lazareth and 

T 2 



136 

hospital established at Bagneux, a village about a mile in rear of Auneux, and the place 
at which the action of the 2nd December commenced, came over to us and said that if 
we would go back to him he would give us employment in the transport of wounded 
and care of them, handing over a portion of the hospital to us. On the next day (5th), 
according to appointment, we arrived at Bagneux, the Ambulances immediately went 
out to the neighbouring villages to bring the wounded in, there being in the surrounding 
villages as many as 1,000 wounded, and in some of them very little accommodation, food, 
or medical attendance, the medical staff employed in operating, and then going with 
Ambulance to the villages. 

6th. — Hearing that Dr. Guy was in the neighbourhood, I went and found him 
about forty miles distant, with the remainder of the Ambulance, fully employed at the 
town of Beaune. I made this journey in consequence of receiving your letter of 17th 
November, placing me in charge of the Ambulance. On this day the waggons were 
employed in evacuating the villages. 

7th. — Returned from Beaune with one Ambulance waggon and one general 
service waggon with stores. Staff employed in attending and dressing wounded : 
Ambulances, as usual, in bringing in wounded from villages. 

8th. — As our supplies of surgical appliances were running short, also the chloro- 
form, and being in a most undefined position by your late instructions to Dr. Guy, and 
his not acting upon them, and not knowing how far I was to continue an independent 
charge ; also wishing to send on this report ; and it being absolutely necessary to 
bring the sick Army Hospital Corps man up where he could have better attendance 
and food, 1 proceeded to St. Germain, and arrived about 2 o'clock p.m. on the 9th instant. 
Before I left, two Ambulance waggons were to proceed to Orleans under Dr. Power 
with wounded; the Prussians, in consequence of the hospitals to the north being full, 
having decided to evacuate their hospitals in the villages to that city. 

1 have now brought the diary of the Section of the Ambulance under my charge 
up to 10th December. It will be seen that, from the time it left St. Germain on the 
morning of the 12th instant, it has been continually in the field or on the march. The 
work has been very severe indeed, and I cannot speak too highly of the way in which 
it has been performed by those under me, both officers and men. I must not lose this 
opportunity of recording the very great assistance which has been rendered to me by 
Lieut. Armit, R.N., both at Bretoncelles and at Auneux, and also at the battle of the 
2nd December. At Bretoncelles, while the medical officers were employed attending 
to the wounded, he very kindly arranged with the Prussian authorities about the 
Ambulances returning to the field for wounded, and offered to take charge of them. 
In this duty, at the battle of the 2nd December, he accompanied me and assisted me 
in dressing and bringing in the wounded under a heavy fire, and afterwards, in the 
village of Auneux, assisted at the operations in administering chloroform, and in many 
other ways. I cannot feel too grateful to him. 

On the evening of the 4th, Dr. Power, who had been cut off at the retreat of the 
Prussians from Orleans in November last, joined my section of the Ambulance with one 
general service waggon. I shall keep him with my division, and consider him a portion 
of it until I hear definitely from you. I also enclose his report for the information of 
the Committee, and a copy of a letter which I have received from the head of the 
Anglo-American Ambulance at Orleans with reference to him. 

I may say that I expect within a week from this date (10th December) the need 
for our services at Bagneux will have become unnecessary ; when that is the case, I 
shall proceed immediately to join again the 22nd Prussian Division, which at this time 
is, I believe, beyond the Loire. 

[The preceding five pages are extracted from Surgeon Manley's diary, which he 
sent home to the Committee in December.] 

Up to the 15th December, the division continued working at Bagneux ; the waggons 
being employed in bringing in sick and Avounded from the villages, and evacuating 
those fit for transportation, and the medical officers in attendance on the wounded in the 
village. On the 15th we left Bagneux for the purpose of joining the 22nd division of 
the Prussian army ; marched to Coulmier, where we remained for the night. On the 
16th reached Beaugency. On the 17th marched from Beaugency to Oucques in search 
of the division. On the 18th from Oucques to Cloyes-sur-Loire, where we found 
the division, reported our arrival to the divisional medical officer, and placed the 
section of the Ambulance under his orders, lie explained how thankful he was for 
our services, and stated that in the event of another battle we should have an 
independent charge of wounded allotted to us. I may mention here that previous to 
the battle of December 2nd, although we were allowed to dress the wounded, the 
divisional surgeon gave us to understand that we must not perform any operation 
without first consulting him ; and it was evident from their very conservative surgery 
that none would fall to our lot. It was the result of our services, therefore, on the 
2nd December which led to this change. On the 19th halted at Cloyes. On the 20th, 
at the request of the principal officer of the division, sent three ambulance waggons 
under the charge of Assistant-Surgeon Moore to evacuate wounded from the village 
oi Mm-ce, to bring them to Cloyes, en route for Chartres, via Chateaudun. 

This duty was very severe, the weather was intensely cold, and the waggons 
were out from 3 o'clock p.m. to 2 o'clock the next morning. The convoy in 



137 

addition to our own waggons consisted of about 40 country carts, and the wounded 
numbered about 300. On the 21st this duty was continued, the convoy starting from 
Cloyes at 3 o'clock p.m., marched the whole of the uight, and arrived at Chartres 
about 5 o'clock on the morning of the 22nd. The sufferings of the wounded on 
this march must have been very great indeed, as the cold was intense, and the 
distance over 40 miles. While the ambulances were thus employed, the other 
waggons and the remainder of the officers and men left Cloyes on the 21st, halted 
for the night at Meslayda-Vidame, and arrived at Chartres on the morning of the 
22nd. The division of the Ambulance had again arrived at the point from which it 
started on November 16th. During the time it had been in the field, a little over one 
month, the service which it had been engaged upon was most severe. It had inarched 
upwards of 300 miles, and that in intensely cold weather. For the first fortnight of 
the time there had only been three days on which a halt was made, the marches com- 
mencing at half-past 7 a.m., and generally ending between 4 and 5 p.m. The division 
had also been present at three engagements, one of which was a general aetion. The 
ambulance waggons, when not on the march and after the engagements, were continually 
employed in the transport of wounded. The medical officers on the inarch had to 
perform all the duties connected witli the horses, supply of forage, obtaining billets, 
in fact all duties which were necessary to keep the division in proper working order, 
and efficient in every respect. At Bagneux and at Auneux, which was the longest 
halt, the service as regards the medical officers was most severe. They were con- 
tinually employed either in the dressing of wounds or in taking charge of convoys of 
wounded. In addition I had to send them and go myself long journeys to procure 
stores and money, as, from want of proper organisation between the division in the field 
and the depots at Versailles, no regular system of supply was kept up. In addition 
there were many other duties incidental to such an expedition as ours, too numerous 
to mention, such, for instance, as paying the men, keeping the accounts, &c. Although 
supposed to be rationed and foraged by the Prussians, it was in reality only nominally, 
and if one had depended on what was received from them we could not have remained 
in the field for a week. I can best explain what I mean by relating how on the march 
these matters are conducted. Forage, meat, and bread are obtained by requisition. 
What was called a full ration was as follows: — Meat, about 1 lb. ; bread, about the 
same ; some rice or pearl barley, salt, sugar, and coffee in the berry and unroasted. On 
no occasion, however, were the whole of these things issued together as long as we 
were working with the Prussians. Sometimes nothing was issued, but as a general 
rule a ration of meat was given, the cow, bullock, or sheep having been taken either 
from a field or farm-house along the line of march, and killed on their arrival. It 
seldom, however, happened that the ration of coffee was wanting, although in some 
instances the quantity was very small. The mode of procedure as to roasting and 
cooking it was as follows : — The berries were placed in a dry iron pot on the fire, and 
kept stirred by a stick until they were supposed to be sufficiently roasted ; it was then 
taken off, some of it placed on the table, and ground as fine as it was possible to do so 
by an empty bottle being rolled over it ; it was then placed in a pot of water and 
boiled. The product resulting from this process was very indifferent, from the berries 
being burnt in roasting and from the inability to grind them sufficiently fine with a 
bottle. The articles of the ration which were issued most often after meat and coffee 
were salt and pearl-barley or rice. After these, bread in insufficient quantity, cer- 
tainly never more than half a pound for a man. Sugar seldom if ever appeared. It 
may be wondered how the Prussians themselves were able to inarch on this scanty 
fare. It is explained by the fact that wherever the men were billeted they were 
entitled to food of some kind ; also I believe the regular troops fared better than the 
Sanitats detachment to which we were attached, which, being in rear of the column, 
arrived last in the billets, when perhaps all the bread, &c, which had been requisitioned 
in the town, had been issued to the regiments which had already arrived. The plan 
which I pursued with the men of the A. H. C. and the French drivers was to give them 
a subsistence allowance of 2 francs a-day. This enabled them, by laying in a supply 
of bread wherever it was procurable, sufficient for two or three days' consumption, 
always to have sufficient food. The wine of the country was also obtainable and 
carried on in the same way. As regards hay and corn for the horses, we seldom or 
ever received any. On applying to the Quartermaster, we were generally told to take 
what we wanted wherever we could find it. This necessitated our distributing our- 
selves over the town, searching over the different barns, stables, and granaries for 
what we could find, but being last in the column the supplies had generally been 
appropriated before our arrival. We managed, however, always to get straw, and 
when the people saw that we were not Prussians, and when we explained to them that 
we paid for everything, and from the fact of our having their countrymen as drivers, 
we often obtained hay and corn which had been hidden away from the Prussians. 
They always received a fair price for what they supplied, and by this means we 
generally got as much as Ave wanted, although it often took a long time, 
and sometimes only by discovering where it was hidden, to make them give 
it. In addition, I always kept in the waggon oats sufficient for a full ration for 
all the horses for four days, and 'whenever this was drawn upon, which was often 
the case, it was replaced again as soon as possible, on the first opportunity. 



138 

I experienced often the greatest difficulty in keeping up the supply of forage, as 
everything that could be used for food for the horses was hidden away. Sometimes 
I would have to visit several of the grain-sellers' shops, go up into their granaries, 
hunt about, and perhaps find hidden away behind several sacks of bran two or three 
sacks of barley or peas. These I would buy at a high rate, the proprietor being very 
glad to sell them, and thus saving them from requisition. In the villages, also, I 
would get my sacks replenished at night, that being the only time when the people 
would bring their supplies. By these means I was enabled to keep my horses always 
in good condition, and fit to perform the severe work which they had to do. On 
coming into a town or village in the evening, and inquiring what billets we could have, 
•we were often told to appropriate lodgings for ourselves. This was often difficult, as 
we could not act as the Prussians did by taking possession of whatever house or room 
they wished. Our rule was to explain who we were, and that we paid for everything, 
and although on many occasions this caused us to fare very badly, still it was the 
right course, and when the people understood us we got things which no Prussian 
could. Often we had to collect wood ourselves for firing, to hunt in the kitchens for 
pots, plates, and other things necessary for cooking, and to cook our suppers ourselves, 
as at first we had no one to act as servant. (Subsequently the Prussians told off a 
Kranken-trager to attend upon us. 1 had taken the precaution when leaving St. 
Germain to bring a bell tent ; this was of great service, as it saved the trouble of seek- 
ing for lodgings for the men of the A. H. C, which very often they would have been 
totally unable to obtain. By pitching their tent close to the waggon, and getting a 
supply of straw, they were well and quickly j>rovided for for the night, and with a 
large fire outside, and the big pot of the canteen to cook their food in, they were, as a 
general rule, better off than the officers. I may mention that theirs was the only tent 
in the Prussian division. The French drivers slept in the stables with the horses, I 
need hardly say that no spirit of any kind was ever issued as a ration. The 22nd 
Prussian Division, the one to which the Ambulance was attached, formed part of a 
force sent to the westward from Chartres to check the advance, engage, and disperse 
any of the French armies which might be formed in that direction. After the 
battle of Bretoncelles, the severe marching was for the purpose of overtaking 
a force of French which we were in pursuit of. To give an idea of the severity 
of the march and service hi which this division was engaged, I may mention 
that I have seen nearly a whole regiment up in country carts which had been 
requisitioned from the iarmers along the line of march. At other times the knap- 
sacks were carried, and from the time it left Chartres, on November 17th, until its 
return on the 22nd of December, a little over one month, out of a strength of 15,000 
men with which it started, only 7,000 remained effective to march in. The 8,000 
casualties were made up of killed, wounded, prisoners, and non-effectives from illness, 
the result of the hardships, fatigue, exposure, and bad feeding which they had under- 
gone. From Chartres the 22nd Division was ordered to Maintenon, where it was 
supposed that it would remain inactive, at all events until the weather became milder. 
I accordingly communicated with Dr. Hohman, the principal medical officer of the 
division, as to what he wished us to do. He stated that we were to continue attached 
to the division, but to remain at Chartres for the present. This arrangement turned 
out to be so far fortunate as, immediately on our arrival, both Drs. Power and McNalty 
became very ill with quinsy, resulting from the fatigue and exposure they had under- 
gone, and in addition both these officers and myself were suffering from poisoned 
wounds of the hands, resulting from attendance on the wounded, so that it was 
impossible for us immediately to commence work again. 

As soon as these officers had sufficiently recovered their health, I communicated 
with Dr. Schilling, the Surgeon-General of the 11th Army Corps, with a view of having 
the services of the Ambulance utilised at Chartres, where there were upwards of 3,000 
wounded. He stated that our services were not required at Chartres, but that he 
had just received a telegram from the surgeon in charge of the hospitals at Meung, 
on the Loire, to the effect that he was greatly in want of assistance, and that if we 
would go we might render valuable aid. This occurred on the 2nd January, and 
on the morning of the 4th, at half past seven a.m., we left Chartres, halted the same 
night at Artenay, and the next day (the 5th) arrived at Meung. These two marches 
were very long and fatiguing, and the weather was bitterly cold and frosty, and the 
distance gone over between 60 and 70 miles. On arriving at Meung we reported 
ourselves to Dr. Mollay, the surgeon in charge of the hospitals. It appeared that all 
along the lirte of the Loire, viz., Orleans, Meung, and Bcaugency, there had been great 
mortality amongst the wounded, from the crowded state of the hospitals, causing pyaemia, 
erysipelas, typhus, and other diseases induced by a poisonous atmosphere. This had 
been the case particularly at Meung, the old chateau being ill adapted for a hospital. On 
our arrival, from the deaths, and from the wounded having ceased to be sent to Meung, 
the overcrowding had begun to decrease, but there were numerous oases ready for 
evacuation. Accordingly, the morning after our arrival, the ambulance waggons were 
sent up to the chateau and to the different hospitals in the town filled with wounded, 
and si-nt off to Orleans. This duty was continued nearly every dayuntil the 18th. The 
distance from Meung to Orleans was about 10 miles. The ambulance being ordered to 
return the same day, the convoy had to be sent under charge of a medical officer, as 



139 

on arrival at Orleans the duty of getting billets for the wounded, seeing them into 
the different hospitals and houses, and also getting forage for the horses devolved on 
the medical officer. In addition to these duties we took over one of the hospitals in 
the town. This was in a very bad state from the severity of the wounds and the 
want of cleanliness which existed. The cases were distributed as much as possible 
throughout the different rooms of the house, and some of them being soon sufficiently 
well for evacuation, the place was got into better order. The port wine — which I had 
been obliged to use freely, as it was the only thing which the men would drink, and 
which produced a most marked improvement in their condition — and other stores 
and surgical appliances becoming exhausted, and as there was a total want of 
organisation of a system of supply between the division and the depot at Versair 
I started on the 19th with Mr. Moore and a waggon for Versailles for a fresh supply, 
so as to put the division in a fit state to take the field again, as I calculated that the 
duty at Meung, with the exception of the very severe cases, which would take months 
to recover, would in from ten days to a fortnight be finished. As it was of gr,eat 
importance to get the port wine and stores without delay, I made forced marches ta 
St. Germain, and got there on the evening of the second day, the distance from 
Meung being 98 miles. I had hoped to have got the waggon loaded and despatched 
on the third day, but the gentleman in charge of the Society's store at Versailles 
was absent, Mr. Young, the commissariat officer in charge of the Ambulance depot, 
and the storeman were also away getting a supply of money from Metz, and the keys 
of the store were in charge of a person who was ordered to let no one have them. I 
was thus unable to get the waggon off for two more days. Such are the consequences 
of divided authority and want of organisation. 

As an agent was daily expected from England with instructions from the Committee 
of the National Aid Society as to the future constitution of the Ambulance, I considered 
it best to await his arrival at Versailles, and accordingly sent back Mr. Moore with +he 
waggon to Meung. Towards the end of -January these instructions were received. 
By them, Dr. Guy's resignation being accepted, I was requested to take charge of 
what was called the field portions of the Ambulance, and Mr. Young was placed in 
charge of the depot at Versailles. As the want of one central directing head had 
been the cause of the want of organisation which had existed since the division took 
the field, both as regards the supply of stores and the payment of the officers and 
men, and as the whole of the Ambulance had originally been sent out under the 
sole command of a medical officer, and as under such command it had succeeded in 
carrying out the objects of the Society to the utmost, I considered that by placing 
the money and stores in the hands of Mr. Young, who was to occupy an independent 
position with reference to myself, not only would the faults in organisation which 
had already existed be continued even perhaps in a greater degree than heretofore by the 
fact of this double authority, but that also to a certain extent a want of confidence was 
displayed in the ability and power of myself as a medical officer to command and 
conduct the whole affairs of the Ambulance, and also that, as the depot over which I 
was to have no control was to remain at Versailles, 100 miles at least from where the 
divisions were working, these arrangements as detailed in the recent instructions 
must only lead to failure. I therefore wrote to the Chairman of the Society to say 
that, having carefully read the instructions of the Committee as to the way in which 
they wished the future working of the Ambulance to be conducted, I would on 
no account take charge of the field portion without the depot being under my entire 
and complete control, as it was my opinion that the Ambulance could not possibly be 
worked with any hope of success unless there was a sole head and director of all. I 
therefore decided to hand over the field portions of the Ambulance to the next senior, 
and waited till I could carry out the reductions which had been ordered to take place 
by the Committee. 

I have now told the story of the British Ambulance as far as it has come under 
my personal observation, and have endeavoured to show some of the difficulties which 
we had to contend with in endeavouring to succeed in a very difficult undertaking. 
I may also say that I never was engaged hi such a severe aud arduous service during 
the whole time I have been a medical officer. 

In the next portion of this Report I shall endeavour to give as much information 
as I have been able to gather from personal observation of the organisation and 
working of the Prussian medical service ; their ambulances, field hospitals, surgical 
practice, evacuation of hospitals, and transport of wounded, and in fact everything 
connected with the service which may be of use, giving my opinion as to what I 
consider might be adopted with benefit in our own service. It must be remembered 
that we were granted no official position whatever, and consequently our opportunities 
of visiting the Prussian hospitals and gaining information were not so great as they 
would have been if our position as army medical officers had been acknowledged. 

A Prussian army corps consists of two divisions. The 11th Army Corps, the one 
to which we were attached, consisted of the 21st and 22nd divisions. A division 
consists of 4 regiments of infantry, 1 regiment of artillery, 1 regiment of cavalry, 



140 

1 battalion of jiigers, 1 battalion of pioneers. The medical service of a division is 
3 sanitats detachments and 12 feld lazareths. In a sanitats detachment are 7 
surgeons and assistant surgeons, 1 staff surgeon, and 1 apothecary, and 1 paymaster ; 
also a corps of Kranken-tr'ager ; the whole under the command of a rittmeister, who 
in the case of the 22nd division was a captain of artillery, and who was under the 
orders of the surgeon of the division, who rode with the general staff, and gave 
directions as to the movements and taking of positions of the detachment. The staff 
surgeon and all the other surgeons are under the orders of the rittmeister. This as 
regards discipline in quarters and on the line of march, also with reference to the 
Kranken-tr'ager is good, but in bringing the wounded from the field the direction 
ought to be with the surgeons. The sanitats detachment to which we were attached 
consisted of 6 ambulance waggons, 2 medicine carts, 2 pack waggons for holding 
officers' baggage, splints, and some reserve stock, so that to each three ambulance 
waggons there was one medicine cart and one baggage waggon. The detachment 
marched in the following order, first 4 Kranken-tr'ager, then the rittmeister, having a 
lieutenant under him and a paymaster. Along with these, in the same body, marched 
the surgeons and assistant-surgeons, all mounted, then the body of Kranken-triiger, 
after these the ambulance waggons, then the medicine carts and store waggons, and 
in addition 3 or 4 country carts with provisions and forage, then the remount and 
second horses of officers. There was also a proper proportion of non-commissioned 
officers. A " feld lazareth," at least the one which we worked with, consisted of 
1 staff surgeon belonging to the regular army in command, 3 civilian surgeons under 
him, and obliged to serve during the war, 1 apothecary, 1 student of two years' 
standing, an inspector and assistant inspector, whose duty it was to find quarters and 
provisions for the men and forage for the horses, also lodging, feeding, and 
accommodation for the sick and wounded ; also 1 paymaster. These are all officers. 
There is also 1 cook, 9 Kranken-triiger, 12 servants for the hospital, and in addition to 
these latter officers' servants. The 12 servants do all the menial work of the hospitals, 
the Kranken-tr'ager being skilled in the dressing of wounds, and moving and care of 
sick and wounded. 2 medicine carts and 7 waggons for the conveyance of stores ; 
these being calculated to provide in every respect for 200 wounded for three days, 
including bedding and all other necessary detail. As the whole system on which the 
medical service of the Prussian army is conducted can be found in their medical 
regulations, it will be useless for me to go further into it. I shall simply, therefore, 
give my opinion as to the way in which, from personal observation, I consider it to 
have worked under the strain of war, and the adaptibility to our service. Where I 
consider the Prussian system so effective is in the two portions which I have already 
described, viz., the sanitats detachments and " feld lazareths." As regards the corps 
of Kranken-triiger my opinion will be found in " Questions and Replies " on the work 
of the Society. In addition to what I have there already stated, I am of opinion 
that, unless a similar corps is formed in our own service, it will be impossible to 
carry out any improvements in the service stretcher or in the means of bringing 
the wounded in from the field. In our own service the same evils occur which 
were found to work so badly, and which led to the formation of the corps of Kranken- 
trager in the Schleswig-Holstein campaign, viz., that it is easy during an engagement 
to get any number of men to carry a wounded man from the field, but that, after it 
is over, when the danger of being shot has passed away, it is almost impossible 
to get a second man to lift the stretcher. 1 have had to appeal to officers to compel 
men to 'this duty, and assist the man who carries the field stretcher. With a corps 
of stretcher-bearers all this would be obviated, the men Avould be properly trained, 
would know their duty, and not having the fear when they returned from the field 
of being detailed for out-lying picket, guard, or commissariat fatigue, would do it well. 
I can see no way by which a corps of this kind can be formed in our own service but 
by having men specially trained for the purpose. The bandsmen at best are only a 
make-shift, and it is impossible to train them as these men ought to be trained in time 
of peace, and that they should attend to their proper duties besides. I should there- 
fore suggest, as the only means by which the deficiency can be supplied, that 
certain men of the first class of the army of reserve, or of the militia, be specially 
trained for this duty, that they should receive while learning their duties a rate of pay 
similar to the Army Hospital Corps ; that they should be periodically called out to see 
that their efficiency was kept up, and that they should serve with the understanding 
that immediately on the declaration of Avar they were to be permanently embodied 
and ready to take the field when called upon, and that, except for misconduct, they 
would not be liable for any other service. The Sanitats Detachment is a formation 
which I think would be adopted with advantage in our own service in time of war, for 
this reason, that it relieves the regimental surgeons and orderlies from the duties of 
forming hospitals and attending to the wounded after an engagement, when perhaps 
they may have been the whole day during the battle actively employed in applying 
the field dressings, performing indispensable operations, &c, and when perhaps they 
may have to march on the next day with their regiments. The organisation of the 
Sanitats Detachment is also good (as it always accompanies the division) in having 
the means and being able to establish a large central field hospital immediately on the 
battle-field, which is ready even the next day to be given over to one of the Divisional 



141 

" feld iazareths," whereas in our own service the only means is for surgeons to 
form numerous "scratch" hospitals all over the field wherever the regiment may 
have been engaged and the wounded collected, the effect of which is that a 
numerous transport has to bo provided to collect these different small hospitals 
and convey them to the rear, thus hampering and delaying the general advance of 
the division. The composition of the; " fold Iazareths " is as good as can possibly 
be provided for the important duties which it has to perform. In our own service 
there is nothing analogous to it, and the deficiency is one that would be and 
is with us most felt in time of war. The "feld Iazareths"' take up and form 
the general hospitals and general field hospitals, and take over the temporary 
field hospitals from the base of operations to the battle-field. In our own service, 
when a general field hospital is required to be formed, a staff surgeon is 
detailed by the principal medical officer, and it may be that for some hours ho is the 
only representative, both as regards personnel and materiel, of what may be requisite 
for the accommodation of 500 wounded. The next step is, that most likely some 
regimental assistant-surgeons are taken away from the regiments where their 
services can ill be spared. After this the paraphernalia of the purveyor's department 
comes up, and so eventually the thing begins to work. In the Prussian service, should 
a hospital or hospitals of this kind be required, say for instance in a large town, one, 
two, three, or four of the " feld Iazareths " are ordered to remain behind, and being 
complete in themselves they open their hospitals and commence work immediately. 
In the " feld Iazareths " the military staff surgeon has the command. Every one 
else is under him. In our own service the difficulties which would attend a similar 
formation are that many medical officers would be incompetent to take charge of them 
for want of proper training ; for not only is it requisite that they should know their 
own professional duties, but that they should be able to ride, and have sufficient 
knowledge of transport duties to know whether their horses were in good condi- 
tion or not, whether they were properly groomed, shod, and attended to in every 
other respect, what distances they are able to march and what loads they are able to 
pull ; also that their harness and waggons were in working condition and repair, and 
that the horses were properly harnessed. They should also be able to keep proper 
discipline amongst their men. It often happened in the late Franco-German war that 
a " feld lazareth " was established in a town or village fur away from any other 
troops, where the surgeon in charge had the entire responsibility of keeping his 
hospital equipped, his sick and wounded fed, and his own men and horses rationed and 
foraged. In addition to this, small detachments of men passing through came to 
him for anything they wanted in the way of billets or provisions, he supplying his 
own wants and theirs and those of the hospital by requisitions on the mayor which it 
was the duty of his inspector to see carried out. Another difficulty with us would be, 
where to find men to fill the office of inspector, assistant-inspector, apothecary, and 
paymaster, also the non-commissioned officer in charge of the transport. All these, 
with the exception of the latter, rank as officers, and I should think in Prussia, but on 
this point I cannot speak with certainty, they are drawn from the shop-keeping class. 
The non-commissioned officer in charge of the transport with us might, I should 
think, be well supplied by a good sergeant of cavalry or field or horse artillery ; but to 
fill the offices of inspector, assistant-inspector, paymaster, and apothecary, I am at a 
loss to know where they can be obtained, unless men having perhaps the status 
of captain of orderlies could be specially engaged. The non-commissioned officers of 
the present hospital corps would, as far as my experience goes, be totally unfit. I 
must mention, however, one exception which has come under my notice, and that is 
Sergeant-Major Ward, A.H.C., who accompanied the British Ambulance to the seat of 
war. He could not only perform the duties of inspector and paymaster well, but with 
very little practice' would know everything that was requisite with reference to the 
transport duties. The rank of divisional surgeon only exists during war; he is 
selected without reference to seniority from the whole of the staff surgeons. 
His position is with the divisional staff, and he gives orders and is in com- 
mand of every person belonging to the medical service of the division. One thing, 
however, was wanting, and which it was very necessary that he should have, viz., an 
orderly medical officer to carry his orders and convey them to the officers of the 
sanitats detachment or " feld lazareth." It occurred once during an engagement 
in the late war that the medical officer of the division to which we were attached had 
to request Mr. McNalty to go back with orders to the rittmeister to bring up the 
sanitats detachment, he having no one of his own people whom he could send. The 
regimental surgeons accompany their regiments into action, perform the necessary 
field dressings, and continue with the regiments, and march on with them, their 
wounded, as I have stated before, being taken over by one of the divisional " feld 
Iazareths." The surgical equipment which accompanies a regiment is a medicine cart ; 
this is very complete. In addition, a certain number of Kranken-trager, according to 
the strength of the regiment, I think it is at the rate of three per company, i.e. 250 
men. These men have a knapsack, on the back of which is painted the red cross on a 
white ground, and which is filled with things requisite for the primary field dressings. 
These men thoroughly understand the application of the dressings, and have also in 
the pouches on their waist-belt charpie, oil, bandages, and pins. This I conceive to be 

U 



142 

abetter arrangement than our field companions and panniers, as only things requisite for 
field dressings are carried. 

After engagements, when working in the field hospitals, the defects of the panniers 
became apparent; the greatest of these appeared to be the small quantity of surgical 
appliances and things requisite for primary dressings, and the number of medicines and 
other things which are only required when a hospital has been established for some 
time, and would be much better placed in the equipment of the field hospitals which 
follow the advance. The panniers are only of use in countries where it is impossible to 
use wheel transport, or in small expeditions where there are likely to be few wounded. 
In a great war, after a battle Avith a large number of wounded, the supply in the 
panniers is soon exhausted, and the reserve in our own medicine cart would have to be 
brought up, perhaps before the action was over. I conceive, therefore, that the plan 
of having three or four men with knapsacks filled as described above, with a medicine 
cart arranged as in the Prussian service, with nothing in it but purely medical and 
surgical appliances, is better than our plan of having the panniers and tield companion 
(in addition to which the surgeons and assistant-surgeons and hospital sergeant 
have to carry haversacks of bandages and lint, &c.) and medical store cart, in which 
surgical appliances and hospital equipment are mixed together. 

The panniers are also defective in what may be stated to be the poverty of their 
equipment as regards surgical appliances. There is no tow, and next to nothing to 
make padding for splints ; there is only one set of splints, and those are the most 
impracticable, and less able to be manipulated to fit different kinds of injuries, that 
any I have met with. They are the cane ones. It is impossible to bend or cut them 
without the greatest difficulty, and if partially cut or bent at an angle they split up, 
and the sharp points stick out ; the ends of them also are sharp and cutting, and it is 
a mistake to suppose that they are cleanly, because the discharges are absorbed 
through the pores of the wood. They were so defective that, when in field hospitals 
with the Prussians, I always used their splints, and never, if I could avoid it, applied 
one of our own cane ones. 

The quantity of lint also is too small, and the kind supplied (Taylor's patent) is, 
where rapidity of dressing is required, most impracticable. I only wonder how it can 
have lasted so long in the service. It is impossible to tear it hito strips rapidly for 
water dressing, but must be carefully cut, and when thrown into a basin of water it 
is almost impossible to spread out the strips again, so as to apply them evenly to a 
wound, on account of its falling to pieces. 

By reason of these faults I have found it to be most wasteful, and I have no 
hesitation in saying that I will, with the old kind of lint, dress double the number of 
cases in less time than can possibly be done with Taylor's patent. Nothing that I 
have seen in any way comes up to the old pattern lint as a dressing ; it was quite 
soft enough, easily manipulated, would tear into strips readily, and when wetted 
could be applied rapidly and smoothly to a wound. In the panniers also there are a 
number of held tourniquets, which are never required. I conceive that if the panniers 
are to be kept in the service a good deal of remodelling and rearrangement would be 
necessary. 

Primary dressings on the field ought to be as simple as possible. Lint bandages 
and pins are about all that are required. Splints can easily be improvised from 
materials generally available on the field. I have made very good ones with rushes, 
reeds, brushwood, and the boards out of a knapsack. 

The points which have come under my notice where the surgical appliances of 
the Germans are better than our own are as follow : — Their splints are formed of 
wire gauze work, from two to three inches wide, and of various lengths. Their 
advantages are that they are sufficiently strong to support a fractured limb ; at the 
same time they can be bent to any required angle, and made concave, and when 
padded will form a casing for a limb, which is of great importance in transportation ; 
they are clean, light, and take very little space in packing. Their wire cradle splints 
are also very good, particularly for transporting limbs in, and also when men are 
lying on the straw they can be padded and arranged so as to put the limb in good 
position. The method by which they give chloroform is also good, as being less 
wasteful than our own. It consists of a round and flattish bottle, through the cork 
of which are two brass tubes, one extending to the bottom of the bottle, the other 
through the cork only. They have also a wire framework, pear-shaped, and concave 
on one side; over this is sewn a piece of flannel or merino; this is held over the 
mouth and nostrils, and chloroform sprinkled on it from the bottle; when this 
apparatus is not being used the chloroform is returned to the glass-stoppered bottle. 
I was struck with the difference in the quantity which was required to place a man 
under the influence of chloroform by this method compared with our own of simply 
placing some on a piece of lint. 

There are also in the panniers too tew bandages, and the amount of chloroform 
IS too small. In the Prussian equipment there are shallow kidney-shaped tin dishes 
for catching the blood and discharges, &c, from the wounds. They are much better 
adapted for this purpose than the blood porringer in our own service. Charpie as a 
dressing for wounds is only to be used when there is nothing else available; it is 
impossible to apply it smoothly, and on becoming dry after being soiled with blood or 



143 

matter it hardens into lumps, and is a source of irritation. It is, however, useful to 
prevent discharges flowing about when not in contact with the wound. The irrigator 
in use with the Germans is also very useful, particularly in the washing away of 
discharges and cleansing of the wounds, as by it wounds can be perfectly cleared out 
without being touched by the hand, and so pain is avoided. It is also used by them 
to wash the cut surfaces of amputations, and also to find out the bleeding arteries ; 
but when there is any difficulty in taking up a vessel I think the old plan of pressing 
on the bleeding surface with the sponge is best, as it renders the orifice of the vessel 
more discernible. The irrigator, if adopted in our own service, may be slightly 
improved upon. There is one deficiency, however, which is common to both services, 
viz., there is no receptacle for foul dressings, and as cleanliness and the removal of 
these dressings are most essential in a military hospital, I think in all equipments there 
should be some utensil for this purpose. In the German equipment the ligatures are 
kept, ready cut to the proper length and waxed, in pieces of stout paper similar to 
those in which ladies keep their skeins of worsted. This is a good method, as they 
are only taken out when required, and it prevents waste. They had also a very good 
appliance with which to dress stumps, viz., pieces of linen perforated at regular 
intervals with holes. The triangular bandage and cushion are both very good. In 
amputations of the leg and thigh, however, the former is not so good an application 
as the old system of slips of plaister and bandaging. It does not give sufficient 
support to the flaps, and being tied in one place near the end of the stump is apt to 
cause constriction. The gypsum bandage is very much used by the Germans ; it is a 
first-rate contrivance. It not only insures rest to the injured parts, but by the equable 
pressure it produces it prevents tenseness and swelling, and also allows the injured 
parts to be moved about for the purpose of inspection and dressing without causing 
pain or irritation. On the subject of evacuation of hospitals and transport of 
wounded, my opinion will be found in " Questions and Replies " on the work 
of the Society. The wounds which require most care in transport, so as to 
avoid injury, are amputations of the leg or thigh, and any mechanical contrivance 
which will insure the dressings, ligatures, and sutures being undisturbed would be 
of great value. The best that I can suggest is as follows: take for example an 
amputation of the thigh between the middle and lower thirds, the flap operation. 
To transport a case of this kind, I should take gutta-percha of the thickness 
which is found in the fracture-box, and sufficiently long to extend from the 
small of the back round the back of the hip and thigh to a distance of three 
or four inches beyond the stump. This is to be moulded by warm water, and 
rendered concave, so as to form a casing for the posterior half of the 
thigh. A similar piece in front, extending from the abdomen opposite the upper 
edge of the posterior one, down to the groin, and then along the front of the thigh 
to a similar distance beyond the stump as the posterior one. This also to be moulded 
so as to form a case for the anterior part of the thigh, and bent at any required angle, 
the upper ends to be secured and kept in position by two slits being made in each of 
them, and a piece of webbing, on the end of which is a buckle, to be passed through 
them, and secured round the body, similar straps to be placed at intervals along the 
thigh. Two or three pairs of this kind of appliance would, I think, be very useful in 
forming part of the equipment of a surgical apparatus box, as very little manipulation 
in warm water would make them fit any amputation of the leg or thigh. Amputation of 
the leg or thigh, done up in this way, would bear transport with little risk of injury, 
particularly on board ship, and gaping, retraction, and opening out of the flaps, whicli so 
often occur, would thus be prevented. By the gutta-percha being able to be bent, the 
front piece at the groin, and' the posterior one opposite to it, the patient can be placed 
in the semi-erect position, can lie down on either side, or on the back with the stump 
elevated, without risk of injury or displacement of the parts or dressings. I have 
already sent in a report on the service ambulance waggon ; in it I have omitted to 
state how it (the waggon) should be conducted, viz., as to whether the driver should 
ride on the near horse or on the box front seat. My opinion on this point will be 
found in " Questions and Replies" on the work of the {Society. 

The small white ticket which the Germans tie to the button of a man's coat when 
wounded, describing the nature of the wound, is better adapted for the purpose than 
ours. The one in our service is a kind of parchment, and, as such, I have found 
difficulty in writing on it with a pencil ; having a slit, through which the button is 
meant to go, it is not secure enough : I have seen them displaced or rubbed off almost 
immediately after they have been put on, by the man turning about, opening his coat, 
or being moved from one place to another. The German ticket is made of stout paper 
or card, which can easily and plainly be written on with a pencil, and, having a piece 
of red tape passed through a hole and tied to each of them, can be easily and firmly 
secured by it to the button, without any fear of its becoming detached. The best to 
adopt would be a card composed of some paper material on linen, not too smooth, 
with the string as in the German one. 

Surgery in the field ought to be as simple as possible. There can, I think, be no 
doubt that the best time to operate is immediately reaction h is sufficiently taken place 
to allow of the operation being performed. If this favoui a'>le time is allowed to pass, 
operations as far as possible should be deferred until about the fourth week ; the inter- 

U 2 



1 44 

veiling period is, I think, and will prove to be, the most unfavourable. Of all opera- 
tions those commonly called secondary, and performed when inflammation has sent in, 
viz., from about the 4th to the 10th day, are almost invariably fatal. The German 
surgery, as far as I am able to judge, is more conservative than our own, and in many 
instances having a very good result. In gun-shot wounds through the ankle joint 
with comminution of the bones and laceration of the soft parts, as long as the large 
vessels are not injured the limb is preserved. I have seen cases of this kind in the 
German hospitals from six weeks to two months after the injury, done up in gypsum 
bandage, doing well in every respect. I am unable to speak, however, as to the final 
result. In resection of the elbow-joint, it is, I believe, their practice to cut down, 
removing only the splintered portion of the bones. This, I believe, was attended with 
very good results. Professor Nuzbaum has resected the knee-joint as many as thirty 
times during the late war. I saw him operate once, and although nothing could be 
more perfect than the skill of the operator, I heard that almost all the results had 
proved fatal, and 1 think this will turn out to be the case. I am of opinion, consider- 
ing the circumstances under which this operation is performed in the field, viz., the 
condition of the patient, the impossibility of keeping perfect rest, the bad food, and 
other unfavourable circumstances, that it is unjustifiable, and that when there is an 
injury of the knee-joint requiring operation, Carden's, or that through the lower third 
of the thigh, is the amputation which should be performed, as giving the man the best 
chance of recovery. The wounds which may be considered the most severe, and those 
about which it is most difficult to lay down any decided plan of treatment, are gun- 
shot wounds through the upper and middle thirds of the thigh, with splintering of the 
femur. The very large mortality which is the result of amputations in these cases 
renders some modification of this treatment necessary. Amputation, I think, ought 
only to be resorted to when one or other of the great vessels is injured, when an 
endeavour to save the limb is useless, or when the laceration of the soft parts is so 
extensive, and involves so large an amount of structure, as to render the chances of 
healing impossible. Where there is laceration, even to a considerable extent, no 
matter how great the splintering of the bone is, I think the proper plan is to endea- 
vour to save the limb by cutting down and taking away all the splinters. In those 
cases where there is a small orifice of entry and exit, I should enlarge one or other of 
the openings, and extract all the splinters, no matter how numerous or large. Both 
these ojDerations should be performed as soon as possible after reaction has set in. The 
result may be much shortening, and perhaps a limb of very little use ; still I think it 
will prove to give a man the best chance of recovery. 

It is impossible to carry out the carbolic acid treatment in time of war. I have 
spoken to the German surgeons about it. Some are of opinion that very good results 
might accrue from it if it was possible to carry it out, both as regards the effect on 
the recovery of wounds and as an agent to counteract the poisonous effects of the 
atmosphere of the hospitals in checking pyamha, erysipelas, hospital gangrene, &c. 
Others do not speak with such confidence of it. In hospitals where the wounds are 
of such a kind that they will take a long time to recover, I think that the carbolic 
acid treatment is, as a curative agent, of no use whatever, but that on the contrary 
it produces such a sickening and overpowering odour as to be injurious to the health 
of the patients. I conceive that the best means of keeping a hospital atmosphere 
pure are scrupulous cleanliness, fresh air (the patients being kept warm with 
increased clothing if necessary), and the wounds dressed and washed with a solution 
of Condy's fluid. 

The German " Herbwiirst " is a kind of desiccated soup. I was told by a German 
surgeon that some wounded men had had nothing but it to eat for fourteen days. 
When cut up and boiled in water it makes pea soup. As far as my experience goes 
it is the most palatable of all the different preserved meats and soups ; it is very 
portable, keeps good for a long time, and from the large quantity of pea-meal it 
contains must be of very great nutritive value. 

Three out of the five non-commissioned officers of the Army Hospital Corps who 
accompanied the British Ambulance proved themselves utterly unfit for their position. 
They not only neglected their duty, but from their inability or from their want of know- 
ledge of what was necessary to keep discipline amongst the men, they proved an obstruc- 
tion. The men, knowing and feeling that they knew their work as well, if not better than 
these non-commissioned officers, would not take orders from them, and I found that not 
only was the work better performed, but that there were less pilfering and loss of stores 
when there was no non-commissioned officer present. Some of the men worked very 
well; in fact, when not subject to the bad example of these non-commissioned officers, 
and when left to themselves, nothing could be better than the way they performed their 
duty. They, however, lost all sense of their position as soldiers, and did not seem to 
think that it was necessary to pay any respect to the medical officers placed over 
them. I can only account for this by supposing that it is on account of these officers 
having no power of punishment or of enforcing discipline, and that therefore the 
men do not look upon them in the same light as they do other officers. I am unable 
to offer an opinion as to how the delect, as regards the non-commissioned officers can 
be remedied, or where a better class can be obtained. 

On the question of the management of military hospitals, as to whether they should 



145 

l)c placed under the complete control and command, in every respect, of medical 
officers, or whether, as in the French plan, the military or officer of "intendance" 
should be paramount, I am of opinion that no middle course can be pursued ; that 
either the medical officer must b'e simply a treater of wounds and disease, or else he 
must have complete control in every way. At present, I believe that if such a 
system as the Prussian was adopted in our own service, particularly as regards the 
" feld lazareths," many medical officers would be unfit to take charge, but that if a 
special course of training was gone through to fit them for these duties, not only 
would no class of officers perform them better and more efficiently, but the sick and 
wounded would be better attended to in every respect, care being taken that a 
selection should be made of officers having special aptitudes for the different duties 
which they may be called upon to perform. 

In equipping this Ambulance one could not help being struck with the way in 
which the different things had to be procured ; for example, the operating lamps were 
obtained from the arsenal, the wicks from the contractor, and the oil from some other 
source. The divisional boxes for wine and brandy were supplied from the arsenal 
empty, the wine and spirit obtained from a contractor, and placed in the boxes by 
people who did not understand anything about it. I remember telling them not to 
put sawdust in ; they, however, thought they knew much better, and filled in round 
the bottles with it. The result was that in every instance the boxes had to be broken 
open from the sawdust getting into and spoiling the locks, which are at best too weak 
for the boxes. This want of concentration of stores and hospital equipment, in the 
event of England being engaged in a great war, must lead to confusion and to 
things being forgotten when they are most wanted ; and as in any future war hos- 
pital ships and transports specially fitted up would be a matter of necessity, and as 
the port of disembarkation for sick and wounded must be Netley, one cannot help 
thinking that the hospital service and equipment would be much more efficient and 
more rapidly put on a war footing by everything that was requisite being kept ready 
in store at that place sufficient for 100,000 men. This is hardly a subject to be entered 
upon in this Report, but the want of system which showed itself in the equipment of 
such a small thing as the Ambulance suggested these remarks. 

W. G. N. MANLEY, Surgeon, Royal Artillery. 
Woolwich, 21st April, 1871. 



Major Jones undertook, on 13th December, to convey 16 tons of stores, consisting 
of medical comforts, medicines, warm clothing, &c, from London to Versailles, for the 
use of the Woolwich Ambulance, and met with considerable difficulty in carrying out 
his mission. His adventures will be found described in the following letters. Having 
arrived at Havre on the 22nd December, he writes : — 

" Thanks to Mr. Langstaff, of Havre, who was acting as Society's agent there, 
in three days sufficient means of transport were provided, and we made our start at 
9 a.m. There were eight country carts with two horses each, carrying about 
two tons Of goods apiece ; eight French drivers, an open caleche and pair, one other 
driver, my colleague Mr, Tweddell, and myself. Every other cart was surmounted 
with the red cross flag, the leading one bore the Union Jack. About 2 p.m., we 
were stopped by a post of francs-tireurs, who politely requested my companion and 
myself to accompany them to their chef de poste, whose quarters pro tern, were in a 
farmhouse near the road ; our papers appearing to him en regie, he allowed us to 
proceed. We reached Bolbec, 28 miles from Havre, without further incident. The 
country was frozen hard and covered with snow. ■ On the 26th we started early 
from Bolbec : we had marched over nine miles ere we saw the first Prussians ; 
and then two dragoons rode down the hill and, unslinging their carbines, civilly 
inquired who and what we were. My companion, Mr. Tweddell, an excellent 
German scholar, at once w r on their hearts by talking German to them ; he returned 
with them to their officer, who was some half-mile behind them with his troop. I 
and the convoy continued quietly on our way. We got to Yvetot about 2 o'clock, 
and went to the Maire, who found lodgings for our cavalcade on the 27th. We 
started betimes, the country covered with snow, and apparently uninhabited. We 
halted to feed our horses at Barentins, rather more than half-way between Yvetot 
and Rouen ; here the Prussian soldiers were very troublesome, putting their hands 
into the carriage, and trying to lift up the tarpaulins of the waggons. I found out 
the officer in command, and he at once gave me a sentry, and invited myself and 
colleague to breakfast, which invitation we most readily accepted. When we 
started again on our way it was snowing hard, with a bitter N.E. wind, but there 
was nothing to be done but plod steadily on against it, and in process of time, 
when the lamps were all lit, we rumbled along the quays of Rouen, and halted 
outside the Hotel d'Angleterre, where the General commanding the division had his 



146 

head-quarters. We reported ourselves, and had an interview with General Von 
Bentheim, commanding a division of Manteuffel's corps d'armee; he was most 
charmingly polite, but most obstinately firm in refusing to allow us to cross the 
river to Elboeuf, and so pass into the French lines again, alleging, with great justice, 
that although he would willingly help us and the objects of the National Society, 
lie could not allow the nine French drivers to return to the French lines, after 
having walked right through the country occupied by his army. All this time our 
fcired horses were standing in the snow, but they had still longer to wait, Avhilst 
I and Mr. Tweddell went to the Mairie and cast about for stables — no easy matter to 
find in a town with 10,000 men and 1,000 horses added to its ordinary population. 
At first, the Maire said it was impossible to put up 18 horses; but when I said we 
were English, and would willingly pay all expenses, difficulties vanished, and we 
got an order on the proprietor of the Hotel des Augustines to take us in. ' The 
Augustines was full of Prussians and their horses, there was no room ' —again the 
promise of libei - al payment proved an ' open sesame.' Our horses were but poorly 
lodged after all ; they stood side by side literally touching one another, so closely 
were they packed, under a shed, hock-deep in half-frozen slush ; and as they coidd not 
sleep, they amused themselves as only French horses can. My room was over them, 
so I had a lively night of it ; those horses behaved as if possessed of evil spirits ; at 
intervals, one of the drivers came amongst them, and laid about him with a whip, and 
then there was peace for a few minutes. Soon they began again, and I got but little 
sleep that night in Rouen. The General's decision, that we must keep on the right 
side of the river, sorely discomposed my plans. Our route as originally sketched was 
to cross the Seine at Rouen, and passing through Elboeuf to proceed via Louviers, 
Vernon, and Mantes to St. Germain — a matter of from four to five days' march — 
but now it seemed as if we must go on till we found a bridge to cross either at 
Mantes or above it. We started about 8 o'clock on the 28th, and began to climb 
the hills of Bon Secours, a most tremendous pull for the horses. Passing through 
Ecouis, we arrived at 3 o'clock at Fleury sur Andelles ; the only hotel so called was 
shut up. The next place we tried, the landlord said he could not attend to us. 
At the third and last, they had no room for men or horses. Things looked bad (it 
was snowing hard, and our horses were done up after their previous night's fighting, 
and the toilsome drag over the snowy road). Mr. Tweddell then came back from an 
expiring expedition with the news that he had found good stab'es at a farm. 
Still our own prospects were not promising, and chances seemed in favour of our 
sleeping in the street, but the good farmer who had taken in our horses came 
and said, ' Gentlemen, I thought you were Prussians ; it is not so, I hear ; will 
you accept room in my house ? everything I have is at your service ! ' 

" On the 29th, our troubles began early ; the horses showed evident signs of hard 
work, and the very steep hill out of Fleury tired them sorely. It took us an hour 
and a half to crawl up ; and as each cart reached the top, the leading horse had to 
be taken out and sent down the hill again to drag up the others. The whole country, 
as far as the eye could reach, was one unbroken sheet of snow ; the air was full of the 
most lovely snow crystals, which, however, cut the face like bits of glass, driven as 
they were by a bitter north-easterly gale. I think this was the coldest day I ever 
felt. Our breath froze on our moustaches till they felt quite heavy and brittle, and 
icicles hung from the horses' noses. At Etrepagny the inhabitants had seen none 
but Prussians for months, and their news was six weeks old. The wonder was great 
when they found we had come from Havre. 'Were the Prussians there yet?' 'Had 
England declared war against France ? ' were some oi the questions we were asked. 
At Gisors we halted for the night. I here learnt that we should have great difficulty 
in getting to Versailles, as after Gisors we should find neither food or shelter for 
man or beast. On the 30th, the cold was more intense than ever, and the horses 
slipped about sadly. As usual, about 11 o'clock, I and Mr. Tweddell mounted into 
our caleche with good appetites, intending to breakfast. Alas ! we could not. Our 
staple cold goose was frozen hard, the bread was frozen, and so were the bottles of 
water. About 1 o'clock we arrived at Magny. I at once sought the postmaster, 
who metaphorically knocked me into a heap by telling me that the temporary bridge 
at Mantes was destroyed by the ice, and that between there and Corbeil there was 
no means of crossing the Seine. This was indeed a blow to be so near, and yet so 
far from our point. We were only two days' march from St. Germain could we have 
"rossed the river. I found food for even one man or horse was quite unprocurable, 
when onee the zone of besieging forces was entered. Most reluctantly then I 
determined to return to Rouen and try again if the Prussian authorities would let 
me cross the Seine there; so having fed our horses, we started in a snowstorm on 
our return. Wo left Magny at about half-past 3 P.M., and had 14 English miles to 
accomplish before we could reach Tillers, where I intended to halt for the night. It 
was midnight before; the last cart crawled into that village. Really in some places 
the horses skated, and to get up the hills it required eight horses to be attached to 
each waggon. 

" On the 31st, to give the horses a fan- chance, I delayed our march till 9 o'clock, 
and desired that all stores might be looked to, and everything ready by that 
hour. 01' course at the last moment there was one lazy fellow who had not attended 



147 

to his orders, his horse wanted two shoes, and he never noticed it till we were about 
to start; to his horror I left him behind, and started with the other waggons, telling 
him to get his horses shod and follow us. His terror of Prussians and Francs-Tire urs 
was great, but I was inexorable ; before we had made half our distance towards 
Fleury he had rejoined us, much to his delight and my surprise. 

" 1st Jan., 1871. After much reflection I determined to get into Rouen betimes, 
eross the bridge of St. Serran, and march boldly on Elboeuf, trusting the advanced 
posts might let me through into the French lines. 

" At St. Etienne Ave were told that the road to Elboeuf was barricaded, and only 
loot-passengers could pass, but I determined to try. Whilst wo halted here to feed 
our horses, the country people surrounded our waggons and became very trouble- 
some, demanding biscuit which they had descried printed on one of the boxes. 
This I had of course to refuse, and it nearly led to an emeute, but at the critical 
moment two of the horses who were supposed to be on friendly terms, and wen 
therefore permitted to feed out of the same wheelbarrow, began to light. This 
made a diversion, and we got off without further trouble. 

'" About 5 o'clock that evening we met a Prussian regiment marching towards 
Rouen. The commanding officer demanded whither I was bound with my convoy. ]. 
told him I wanted to cross the bridge at Elboeuf. He laughed aloud, and said, ' We 
'blew up the bridge at Elboeuf this morning.' Here went my last hope, and nothing- 
remained but to go sadly back to Rouen. 

" On the 2nd I presented myself at the General's office. 1 told the Chief of the 
Staff' I wanted to go back to Havre, and so via England and Belgium to Versailles 
by that route. He said he could not authorise my return to Havre, but if I chose I 
might go to Dieppe. 

" On the 3rd we marched 22 miles to Tottes, half way to Dieppe, and on the 4th, 
after a slippery march, we got to Dieppe. I had a good deal of difficulty in getting 
authority to re-embark my goods for England, and when this was arranged i 
certainly felt most heartily thankful to see the last of my 213 cases swung into the 
hold ol the steamship 'Marseilles,' belonging to the London, Brighton, and South 
Coast Railway Company, to whose manager, Mr. Light, and the agent, Mr. Marcellais, 
the Society are most deeply indebted, for without their assistance the stores must 
have remained at Dieppe. The horses and waggons under charge of my friend 

Mr. Tweddell returned the following day to Havre. 

" On the 5th I landed at Newhaven, left my stores in the Custom House, there 
to be sent on as speedily as possible to Dover, to be re-embarked for Ostend, and so 
ended my flrst trip on behalf of the National Society for Aid to the Sick and 
Wounded in War." 



" In six days from the time when I left the stores at Newhaven they were ready 
for re-embarkation from Dover, and on the morning of the 12th January I again set 
out for Versailles." 

Major Jones encountered considerable obstacles at Ostend, Conz, Saarbruck, 
Metz, and Frouard, between which place and Toul the German provision train in 
which he had secured a place for himself and his packages passed over the bridge a 
few minutes before it was blown up by the Francs-Tireurs. 

" Mounting into my horse waggon with about a couple of handfuls of straw, we 
crawled slowly along with a pilot engine half a mile in front of us. I say crawled 
advisedly, for over each bridge the pilot engine carefully picked its way to see that no 
hidden pitfalls lay prepared for us. Through each tunnel it went, and then returned 
whistling either warning or safety as occasion demanded, and so, I say, we crawled 
and crawled along in no enviable state of mind. It is not at any time a very pleasant 
thing to go over a railway bridge the arches of which are already blown up, and 
merely two planks laid across from one broken ruined pier to another, but particularly 
when it comes to the chance of these planks being half sawn in two, and that the whole 
of your train will simply drop down. I passed a very stifling night in the lamp 
porter's room of the station. It was the only hole one could find to put one's head 
into. When we arrived at Meaux I at once ivent off to seek Captain Nevill, the 
Society's agent in that city, who welcomed me most kindly. On the morning of the 
26th we started in good time. An ambulance store waggon is nothing more or less 
than an ordinary strong-built waggon, with a tarpaulin stretched over it, with broad 
wheels, and no springs ; easy as it may look to ride on one of them, it is by no 
means a pleasant amusement, more especially when going over roads cut in deep 
ruts which are frozen hard. At last, about 4 o'clock in the afternoon, we came to 
the only bridge across the Seine between St. Germain and Rouen, and exactly one 
month from the day on which I had originally attempted to cross at Rouen by the 
circuitous route which took me back through England, Belgium, Luxemburg, Prussia, 
and right across the north-east part of France, I crossed the same with my 16 tons of 
stores, and began to feel that my task was nearly accomplished. This bridge, like 
all the others, had been blown up ; planks had been laid across from one broken 
pier to another, and although it shook and trembled I had no doubt it would carry 



148 

my waggons. Another hour brought us to St. Germain. The Prussian officers had 
made a clean sweep of everything that could be found there. 

" On the 28th we went to Versailles. My convoy started some two hours 
previously. No jolting on a gun waggon now. A waggonnette drawn by two 
good horses, well cushioned, and with easy springs, was indeed a change. 
Arrived at Versailles and my stores once finally deposited in the Society's depot, 
I felt a weight off my heart and breathed freely. How any of those 213 
cases ever arrived is to me a miracle. From Dover to Ostend, there re-shipped 
to Havre, there transferred to waggons, wandering all through the north of France, 
day by day through the contending armies, standing at night in open places, with 
nothing to protect them further than appealing to the vigilance of the mayor of 
some little village, brought back again through France, unloaded from the waggons 
on to the quay at Dieppe, from there slung into the hold of the steamer, unloaded 
again at Newhaven, and placed in the custom house, bundled off again from Newhaven 
to Dover, and from Dover again into the steamer, and from the steamer unloaded at 
Ostend, at Ostend packed into railway vans and sent as far as Saarbruck, there 
transferred again into Prussian railway vans, three days and nights remaining 
among a crowd of waggons of all sorts, kinds, and descriptions in that great 
station at Metz, unloaded again at Meaux, transferred to the stores at Meaux, 
again into ambulance waggons and taken to Versailles, and ultimately deposited 
without the loss of one of them, — all this is one of those miracles which I cannot 
explain." 

L. J. F. JONES, Major h.-p. 



149 



APPENDIX C. 



MEMORANDUM on practiced points regarding the distribution of Stores and Money for 
the relief of Sick and Wounded during the late War contained in the correspondence 
of Agents of the National Aid Society. 

By Dr. Sutherland. 

I have read the whole of the correspondence sent to me, with the exception of a 
few fragments not directly connected with the work of the National Aid Society. It 
is very voluminous, and the consecutive dates and events are scattered among- a very 
large number of letters, many of them not very legible. It is by no means an easy 
matter to grasp the whole case presented in this way, and no doubt it would be a 
great convenience in dealing with the questions contained in the correspondence, if the 
letters and reports were put in type, as is usually done in the case of evidence taken 
before Royal Commissions. I shall, however, do my best (after this statement of 
difficulties) to lay before the Committee an estimate of the practical value of the 
work, with the two-fold object of ascertaining, as far as can be done, the amount of 
relief afforded in money and supplies, and any hints for future use which may be 
deduced from the experience. 

The following statement is not a report, it is rather an indication of the nature ot 
the evidence contained in the papers, looking at the evidence on its practical side. 

1. The first important fact which comes up throughout the whole correspondence, 
from its first to its last dates, is that the emergencies of modern warfare are so over- 
whelming that no amount of provision in the way of supplies for sick and wounded 
men which it is possible for the best organised armies to carry with them, is likely to 
be sufficient. 

Perhaps the best proof of this fact is the information contained in a letter from 
the Strasburg Society relating to the opening battles of the war. The French, it is 
true, were defeated, but the Prussians were close to their own base, with their 
Ambulance transport and supplies intact, and yet all the aid the Strasburg Society 
was able to send into the field was absorbed at once. 

The subsequent correspondence by the Society's agents shows that as events 
progressed in the north-east and north of France, there were times when the resources 
of both combatants appeared to have been, for all purposes of practical relief, 
exhausted ; when wounded and sick were scattered over large areas of country, and 
when all the exertions of the Society's agents, as well as of the agents of other 
societies, failed for a time to cope with the necessities. This part of the evidence 
appears to show that, had it not been for the rapid and continuous evacuation of 
wounded and sick men into Germany, the calamity Avould have exceeded any existing 
means of relief. 

At this period of the war, the Ambulance service of both armies, supplemented 
largely as it Avas by voluntary aid, was most successful, not in dealing with all the 
sick and wounded, but with the unremoved balance mainly. As in all wars, there were 
constant accessions of sick and wounded requiring supplies, but in this war every 
sick and wounded man admitting of removal was taken home. 

The correspondence follows these men into their own country ; and even there, 
among their friends, and with an organised system of reserve hospitals and voluntary 
aid ramified throughout the whole of Germany, there is proof that in not a few 
instances local resources could scarcely bear the strain upon them ; and the National 
Society had to step in to assist them. 

2. The whole of this earlier experience appears to indicate that an essential part 
of the work of Aid Societies in war is, to be ready at a moment's notice to meet emer- 
gencies. Their agents must be in the field and their supplies at hand. More good 
may be done, and more life and suffering saved in the first six hours after a battle than 
in as many weeks after, if the earlier hours are lost. 

3. The correspondence shows that the National Aid Society was not prepared for 
this war of emergencies.* The Soeiety had only been formed at the opening of the 
war. The British Government had been parties to the Geneva Convention, but nothing 
was done to give a practical direction to the Articles of the Convention until the alarm 
was sounded by Colonel Loyd-Lindsay. After the first battles, funds, material, and offers 
of personal help flowed in. It was too late either to organise the relief or to enter on 
any concerted plan of action with other Aid Societies. 

It is difficult to see what other course could have been taken than the one followed, 
namely, to send over trustworthy agents, to pour in supplies of all kinds into suffering 
districts, and to trust to British practical sense and skill for their distribution. 

* It must, however, be stated here that early in 1869 the Chapter of the Order of St. John in England began a 
movement towards the formation of an Aid Society, and that Captain Burgess and Mr. Furlcy were unremitting 
in their exertions to call attention to the subject. These gentlemen also, as representing the Order of St. John, 
which had been invited to send delegates, went to the Berlin Conference for the purpose of forwarding the work. 

X 



150 

The most important group of correspondence bearing on the earlier period of the 
war is Captain Brackenbury' s and his coadjutors'. It is full of interest, and is very 
important as a record, step by step, of the development of a system of store-supply, out 
of nothing but agents and material. Everything else had to be found : — depots, horses, 
waggons, drivers, means of communication, had to be obtained, and depot service to be 
organised, in the midst of most pressing need, when thousands were requiring 
help. 

The correspondence about this period evinces a degree of practical power, in 
dealing with difficulties, of the most valuable kind ; but on one point there was a 
deficiency. There appears to have been no organised Intelligence Department. It is 
very easy to criticise this defect, but it ought to be borne in mind that the first thing- 
was to obtain supplies and the means of distributing them. The places where they 
were required had to be ascertained afterwards. Practically, however, there appear to 
have been stores on the frontiers of France and Belgium which were not available at 
an early enough date for wounded about Metz. There is also evidence in the papers 
of some delay in supplying stores immediately after the Battle of Sedan. But as soon 
as arrangements could be made, we find Captain Brackenbury doing not only organis- 
ing and administrative work, but also inspecting work ; visiting hospitals himself and 
supplying their wants. There was an officer wanting for this purpose. 

There can be no reasonable doubt that this defect would not have occurred had 
there been previous preparation. But the time was too short ; at all events the occur- 
rence points out the necessity of providing means of bringing to the immediate know- 
ledge of agents in charge of stores all localities where supplies are wanted, and the 
nature of the supplies. In the medical regulations for the British Army a field hospital 
inspector, distinct from the principal medical officer of the force, must be appointed in 
the field, for the special pmpose of seeing to the efficiency in supplies and otherwise 
of all hospitals. The duties of this officer are additional to those of the control, which 
is bound to supply the hospitals, and of regimental medical officers, who must make 
requisitions for everything when they consider it necessary to do so. 

Suppose there had been one or more such Inspectors in connection with the 
National Society's stores detached on service among the ambulances and villages 
about Metz, Pont-a-Mousson, Gravelotte, with sufficient means of communication, — one 
can scarcely fail to recognise that much of the suffering immediately after the great 
battles in these localities might have been prevented. 

Such an officer would also economise stores ; he would know exactly what was 
wanted: he would receive requisitions, and check the amounts and articles before 
presenting them to the storekeeper. He would besides be in direct communication 
with the military authorities, and might in this way direct the movement of advanced 
depots so as to be within easy reach in case of need. 

A general system of account would be required, but it would be useless and 
unnecessary to keep detailed accounts. Any attempt at this would fail during 
emergencies, at the very time when the expenditure of stores was greatest. 

There is evidence here and there in the correspondence, and it has also been 
furnished from other quarters, that the store issues were greater than the needs in 
some cases ; while, in others, stores appear to have been used for purposes not within 
the intention of the Committee. 

Cases of both kinds were exceptional. They may have been more numerous than 
the correspondence indicates, but their general lesson is that some technical check 
should be kept over requisitions and issues, and that the same professional officers who 
discharge this duty might at the same time discharge the far more important duty of 
discovering where supplies are wanted. 

It may be well to point out here that duties of this class are quite different from 
those so well discharged by Captain Brackenbury and others. These were mainly 
organising everything connected with stores, depots, issue, transport, and the like. 
For such duties great administrative talent is required. After a careful consideration 
of the correspondence under this head, and bearing in mind the hurry and difficulty 
with Avhich everything was done at first, I think the Aid Society has every reason to 
be satisfied with its agents. 

It is impossible not to feel that common sense and practical talent arrived at 
results which might have been sought in vain from a strictly regulated procedure, but 
at the same time it must be admitted that to enter on such an undertaking without 
previous arrangement, which in this case there was no possibility of making, is some- 
what costly in the end. 

4. As the war progressed there was more arrangement, but the want of some 
system of inspection such as that pointed out above was still evident, There is not 
so much information regarding the movement of stores after the Prussian Army moved 
towards Paris as might be wished, but there is evidence to show that considerable 
necessity existed along the line of advance. It is about this period that the Boulogne 
branch commenced its operations. Some experience had been obtained by this time, 
and there appears to have been some preliminary difficulty about arranging districts 
and authorities. But the work of this branch shows a distinct and important advance 
in administral ion. 

This appears to have grown out of circumstances, and is important for future 



151 

guidance. The Boulogne branch not only collected, received, and issued funds and 
supplies, but the agents visited hospitals and ambulances everywhere as soon as they 
heard of any military operation. 

Sir Vincent Eyre, Colonel Cox, Captain Uniacke, and Messrs. Leslie and Goodenough 
went about everywhere, sparing neither comfort nor work. From information placed 
at their disposal by the Prussian authorities, they were able to send help for prospec- 
tive battles, to take charge of sick and wounded, — the medical officers performing 
operations, and taking with them for use and distribution the amount and kind of 
stores required, — to go long distances over bad roads in the depth of winter, enduring 
privations, smoothing susceptibilities, relieving urgent wants of sick and wounded in 
villages which had suffered severely from the effects of war, and doing their work so 
earnestly for both French and Prussians, in a district under Prussian military rule, as to 
receive, perhaps, the highest testimony to their usefulness, namely, that they were 
working for the Prussians. 

It is quite clear to me that unless these gentlemen had entered on the aggressive 
phase of the work, viz., unless they had gone to find out where help was wanted, on 
such intelligence as they could obtain, there must have been a large amount of unre- 
lieved suffering within their district in the winter season. 

True, there were no such catastrophes as took place at the opening of the war. 
The conditions rather resembled those of ordinary field work, and were more easily 
coped with. 

Nor must the great services rendered in this district by Mrs. Cox and Lady 
Eyre be overlooked. I know very few instances of greater self-denial (exercised 
in Mrs. Cox's case under severe family affliction) or of more successful work among sick 
and wounded than was done by them. 

5. Much excellent work was also done in the Tours branch on behalf of sick and 
wounded after the battles with the Army of the Loire. Their work was not like either 
Captain Brackenbury's or that of the Boulogne branch. They had no great catastrophe 
to provide for. They had to send supplies to points where they heard they were 
needed, and to help ambulances to which wounded had been removed from the 
front. 

It is impossible not to be struck with the business-like character of then work. 
This appears to me to be its teaching, and it shows that, under the conditions at least in 
which this branch was placed, it is possible to be as precise in the administration of 
relief to wounded and sick men in war as it is to be in ordinary mercantile transactions. 
This result appears to have been mainly due to the American business habits of Mr. Lee, 
the Secretary, and is valuable for future example. 

(3. During this period, a distinct branch of relief was carried on at Saarbruck by 
Mr. Bushnan in conjunction with the Johanniter, viz., the refreshment of French and 
German sick and wounded men in their progress to Germany. It appears that no 
fewer than about 40,000 were relieved by this agency. This work was in addition to 
the forwarding and distribution of stores to Ambulances. 

7. There is some interesting experience in Captain Nevill's correspondence 
regarding the Meaux depot. Tavo of his staff appear to have been sent on exploring 
expeditions to find out where aid was wanted, and with very beneficial results. 

This experience affords an additional illustration of the importance of an 
intelligence officer at every depot. 

8. Mr. Furley's correspondence is full of interest as showing the way in which the 
work first presented itself, and the steps subsequently taken for keeping up supplies 
to Ambulances during the siege of Paris. It would be important to have the method 
of distribution and account-keeping reported on with a view to future use. 

9. The correspondence appears to me to show that, in administering voluntary 
aid of this kind, the personal character of agents and their practical ability are of far 
greater importance than any rigid rules ; that when well selected and placed in a 
district, the agent should be held responsible for all money and supplies sent to him, 
for their distribution, and for general accounting thereafter. 

10. The last practical matter requiring notice is the aid distributed by the 
National Aid Society to other agencies, because this involves points of neutrality. 

For instance, the Johanniter are the accredited agents of Germany in distributing 
relief to field hospitals. This relief is supplied in money and kind by the German 
Societies. But it is quite understood by the German Societies that the Johanniter 
may, when occasion arises, administer to the necessities of healthy men going to the 
front. 

In certain matters there is thus a community of goods between the sick and the 
healthy, and there would be no security that blankets, warm clothing, and other things 
made over by a neutral Society to the stores of the Johanniter, might not go directly, 
at all events indirectly, to a quite different destination than the one for which they 
were contributed. One agent, at least, of the National Society would be prepared to 
justify to a certain extent this misappropriation of stores, on the ground that so 
far as the relief of sickness is concerned it is quite as important to prevent disease as 
to cure it. 

There are allegations, I am sorry to say (in some documents not belonging to the 

X 2 



152 

Society), that other stores entrusted to the Johanniter were turned to quite different 
purposes, while sick and wounded were left in want of them. 

Great good appears to have been done by donations made by the Aid Society to 
neutral local Societies in France, Belgium, and Switzerland. This is a most 
legitimate field of action. Local Societies have local knowledge as' well as local 
means of distribution according to necessities. 

An important question is raised in the correspondence, viz., to what extent support 
should be given to ambulances out of the theatre of war ? 

Was it justifiable to send money and supplies to reserve hospitals and ambulances 
in Germany? There was no war in Germany ; reserve hospitals and ambulances are 
part of the military system of the country ; how far is it the duty of a neutral 
society to take upon itself any part of the burden of a government ? 

Again, the war was all on French territory, the support of reserve hospitals in 
France falls on the Government ; did the existence of war within French territory 
justify the neutral societies in aiding these hospitals ? 

There were Prussian sick and wounded in French hospitals, but the proportion of 
French wounded in German hospitals was far greater. 

The reply to these questions will be best reached by deciding what neutral 
societies ought not to do. I have found no reason in any part of the correspondence 
to justify a neutral society in building or equipping reserve hospitals anywhere. 

The only point, therefore, which requires discussion is whether neutral societies 
should aid reserve hospitals by funds or supplies. Seeing that practically the chief 
reason why aid societies have been called into existence at all, has been to afford 
assistance in emergencies which could not be met by the belligerents in the field, it 
appears an obvious principle that aid of all kinds should be mainly directed to this 
object. If there are more funds and supplies than are required for the field, then part 
might be applied for increasing the efficiency of reserve hospitals, but this can only 
be wisely done after a report by a proper officer. 

(By a reserve hospital I mean a hospital into which sick and wounded are drafted 
from the field hospitals away from the theatre of war altogether.) 

11. These appear to me to be the main practical conclusions of the correspondence, 
and I shall next say a few words on the uses to which the correspondence may 
be put. 

(a.) These letters, as a whole, form a most valuable record of one aspect of the 
war, and I for one should regret exceedingly that they should disappear under the 
form of a report. They give a clearer insight into the sufferings and horrors of 
warfare than all the letters of newspaper correspondents which I have seen. Out of 
them might be drawn one of the strongest arguments against resorting to bloodshed 
for the purpose of settling disputes. 

(b.) It has occurred to me to suggest for consideration whether they might not be 
used historically, i.e., whether the Report of the Society should not embody them in a 
connected historical series intercalating the steps taken by the Committee to meet the 
requirements. 

(c.) Another way, but a less satisfactory way, would be to use them in precis. 
But the question arises whether a precis would be as interesting as the originals. 

(d.) Besides their historical value, the letters are most important as matters of 
experience. They contain nearly every detail required for supplying aid in Avar. 
They do not form either a manual or rules, but they contain experimental methods 
far more important than either. It would be subject of regret that this experience 
should be lost, or that any attempt should be made to abstract it into rules. One of 
the great advantages of voluntary societies is, that their agents can work untram- 
melled by military regulation. Of course, able agents are required, but however able 
they might be they would profit by the late experience. 

(e.) Another consideration. The public, I fear, has a very inadequate idea of 
what the Society has done. It knows how much was subscribed in money and stores, 
but up to the present time there has been no connected account of the work 
of agents. The letters show the necessities and the amount of hard work required to 
meet them. 

There is another point connected with the subject which it has occurred to me to 
mention. It must not be forgotten that a vast amount of aid was supplied by other 
countries, of which no account can be obtained in this correspondence. Some account 
of this might possibly be available; but, if not, allowance would have to be made for 
it in the Report. Your agents have shown distinctly enough that, whatever this 
amount may have been, it required all their energy to supply the deficiencies coming 
under their daily observation. 

(/■.) If the Committee decide to publish simply a Report, ought not the corre- 
spondence to be printed at the end as evidence ? I cannot help returning to this 
question of printing; I can speak from experience when I say that, after having read 
the whole of it in manuscript, I feel that from want of facility in reference 1 have 
made this paper very much less useful than it might have been. But, such as it is 
I beg to place it at their service. 

JOHN SUTHERLAND. 

London, 8th July, 1871. 



153 

REPORT AND ABSTRACT of Medical Experience, from Letters and Reports of 
Medical Officers sent to France and Germany by the National Aid Society in 1870. 

By Dr. Sutherland. 

Before proceeding to discuss the evidence contained in reports and letters of medical 
officers sent by the National Aid Society to the seat of the late Franco-Prussian war, it 
may be advantageous to give a brief statement, from information which has been 
placed at my disposal, of the medical and surgical arrangements of France and 
Germany, which were considered by the two Governments at war as adequate to meet 
the demands of each service. 

In the French army the entire hospital service is in charge of the Litendance Intendance 
Militaire. This department of the Ministry of War undertakes the responsibility of Militaire. 
providing whatever is necessary for sick and wounded men in j>eace and in war, even 
to the appointment of medical officers for special service. 

The Intendance is responsible for the collection and transport of sick and wounded 
men, and for all the collateral arrangements connected with this duty ; for the trans- 
port, supply, and issue of all hospital stores, diets, rations, tents, marquees, medicines, 
medical comforts, bedding, clothing, cooking, providing water, orderly attendance, 
collection and removal of wounded during and after battles, hospital nursing, and 
storekeeping. The Intendance is, in short, responsible for everything except bare 
medical and surgical skill, which are supplied by the Medical Officers of the French 
Army. 

All payments are, however, made by an officer of the Minister of Finance, and 
supplies are furnished according to scales. 

In theory the entire system is as complete as a centralised system worked by 
trained French officers could be. But the experiences of war have shown that with 
the best intentions the Intendance is soon overburdened Avith work. Its deficiencies 
during the last Italian Avar led to great suffering, and Avere the immediate cause of 
the Geneva Convention. The French Government, indeed, Avas among the earliest to 
recognise the importance of this Convention, and of the voluntary aid which the 
Convention inaugurated. Before the opening of the late Avar A r oluntary effort upon a 
large scale Avas organised under government approval, and bore its full share in the 
subsequent events. 

The Intendance was the slow growth of experience in Algeria subsequent to the 
conquest, and Avas generally sufficient for the Avork required of it there. But it failed 
when applied to exigencies greater than those on which it Avas framed. 

For all practical purposes, so far as experience of the late Avar is concerned, the 
medical and surgical relief, Avith all the requisites for this, which the French Govern- 
ment and people considered to be needful before the war began, consisted of tAvo 
parts working alongside each other, viz., the Intendance and voluntary aid. 

There does not appear to have been any organisation for connecting together 
these tAvo branches of the relief such as existed in the Prussian army, in Avhich army 
voluntary aid is a recognised division of the field hospital service, and it is also 
recognised throughout the Avar military hospital seiwice, Avhether in an enemy's 
country or at home. 

In the Prussian army each army corps has a complete medical organisation of its Prussian . 
OAvn, and there is, besides, a general organisation which undertakes certain classes of medical 
hospital duty for the army as a Avhole. service. 

To the medical department attached to each army corps belong the administra- 
tion of all medical and surgical aid on the line of march and in action, the direction of 
ambulances and field hospitals, transport of sick and Avounded along the line of march 
or towards the base of operations, and the transport of all hospital stores and requisites 
for medical and surgical treatment in the field. 

The administrative medical staff of an army corps is as under : — 
A surgeon-general of the corps. 
2 surgeons of divisions. 
1 field hospital director. 

Under these are the regimental surgeons, ambulances, field hospitals, medical 
reserve, and there are also consulting surgeons.* 

There is no regimental hospital equipment. Each battalion of infantry and 
regiment of cavalry has a two-Avheeled medicine cart containing medical and surgical 
necessaries, and a few portable stretchers. Each battery of artillery carries similar 
stores on one of the ammunition waggons. 

Ailing men on march either get up on any available conveyance, or in default of 
this are left behind in the nearest village, or are sent to the base by railway. 

Every army corps has 3 ambulances, each capable of being divided into 2 equal 
parts, forming 6 flying ambulances. Each of the 3 ambulances consists of 6 ambulance 
carriages, 30 portable stretchers, 41 horses, 2 waggons for instruments, &c, 2 Avaggons 
for stores, &c, 1 commanding officer, and 1 or 2 other military officers, 2 staff and 5 
assistant-surgeons, 1 apothecary, 1 financial officer, 1 clerk, 8 dressers, 2 cooks and 
washers, 15 non-commissioned officers, 130 bearers, and 38 other subordinates. 

* A peculiarity of the Prussian service is, that medical officers go under fire with the troops. Early in the 
war 7 surgeons had been killed and 50 wounded in consequence. 



154 



Voluntary aid 
recognised in 
tihe Prussian 
service. 



Functions of 
the Johan- 
niter. 



These ambulances are merely intended for picking up wounded with aids from 
the regiments, 4 from each company.* They convey the wounded to the field 
hospitals, or to the appointed dressing station, but these stations are not intended to 
afford any ward shelter for the patients. This last is given in the field hospitals. The 
stores and personnel of each field hospital are intended for 200 patients. There are 
12 field hospitals for each army corps. 

Each field hospital has 2 waggons for instruments and medicines, 2 for ward 
stores and utensils, 1 for baggage, 1 chief, 1 staff, and 3 assistant-surgeons, 1 apothe- 
cary, 9 dressers, 1 paymaster, 1 clerk, 3 hospital sergeants, and 12 hospital 
orderlies, 5 non-commissioned officers, 15 soldiers, 2 cooks and washers, and 30 
horses. 

Each field hospital is under the sole management of the medical officer in charge, 
assisted by a paymaster and clerk. 

These hospitals are established in the nearest suitable buildings to the field 
ambulances, and are intended only for temporary use, the patients being evacuated 
towards the base as often and as quickly as possible. 

There is a medical reserve for each corps of 3 staff and 9 assistant-surgeons and 3 
apothecaries, but this number is greatly augmented when requisite. 

Civil consulting surgeons of the highest professional reputation are also employed. 
This arrangement worked well at first, but not so well latterly. 

Collecting of wounded after an engagement is done as follows : — Trained bearers 
go round through the woods and along the ditches shouting out for wounded men, 
and they also have a bugle-call for wounded. Buglers go the rounds with the bearers ; 
the bugle-call is heard at a greater distance than a mere shout, and the bearers, who 
are spread out over the district, listen attentively for a cry or response to the call. 
The bugle has also the advantage of keeping the bearers together. 

The great feature of the German medical arrangements is, however, the rapid 
removal of sick and Avounded men by rail or otherwise from the field hospitals, and 
their dispersion within their own country. It is conducted under general arrange- 
ments, and includes the establishment of Etappen hospitals, with their own special 
service, wherever needed. These hospitals are organised in all kinds of buildings, 
temporary sheds and the like ; sometimes railway waggons are used. 

Behind all this service are the reserve hospitals in Germany itself, into which the 
sick and wounded are received in their own country. 

The hospital stores are kept up by hospital reserve depots, which send forward 
moveable store detachments. These reserve depots are supplied from great stores 
organised at home. 

This provision, which is made by the Government for the army, is, however, 
supplemented by a great amount of personal and material voluntary aid. Such aid is 
a recognised element in the Prussian system. During the late war great numbers of 
volunteer ambulances followed the German armies from all parts of Germany, besides 
those from neutral countries. 

The importance of this aid, and the extent to which it is relied on, may be 
estimated from the fact that the supply of stores in the field hospitals and in the 
hospital reserve is limited and totally inefficient for severe service. 

The relation of national aid societies to the regular military service is prescribed 
by regulation. 

These societies have been rapidly increasing for some years, and were very 
numerous during the late war. 

The societies within the North German Confederation were at the date of the war 
connected by means of delegates with the Central Berlin Society. The members pay 
an annual subscription. One-third of these contributions is paid into the central fund 
at the Berlin office, where committee meetings are also held. The remaining two- 
thirds are retained by the local societies for their own appropriation. 

Besides money, these societies collect stores and materials, provide establishments, 
and render personal service. 

Immediately on the declaration of the late war, the whole mechanism was set in 
motion by the Central Committee at Berlin. 

The Knights of St. John are the appointed agents for administering in the field 
the voluntary aid collected by the national societies. For this purpose Prince Pless, 
their chief, holds the position of Royal Commissary directly under the King. 

To each army corps are attached as delegates : — 

1. A Knight of the Protestant Order of St. John of Prussia. 

2. A Knight of the Roman Catholic Order of St. John of Malta. 

These receive the contributions in kind collected by the Aid Societies. Their 
duty is to establish stores, visit the hospitals, and issue various articles required by 
medical officers in charge, or which may be considered beneficial to the patients. 

Captain Brackenbury describes their administrative arrangements in his letter of 
Sept. 25th, 1870, as follows : — " Their organisation is very complete. They have the 
" whole country divided into districts, managed thus for thorough supply and to pre- 

* These men are allowed to wear a brassard, and this fact may account for the large apparent number of 
combatants who wore the red cross. 



155 



" vent waste : a central depot in each district where a book is kept with all the 
' ' hospitals entered, and the numbers of the patients in each, from time to time. Each 
" hospital has a page — a column for number of articles of each sort demanded ; next 
" column, names of articles ; third column, numbers supplied." 

The supplies furnished to the field hospitals are of course supplementary to the 
stores belonging to the regular equipment and the ration provided by the military 
authorities. 

The evacuation of sick and wounded is the duty of the Etappen authorities, but 
the Johanniter undertake to provide comforts for patients at the various stations, by 
means afforded by the Aid Societies. As a civil society, their assistance in evacuating 
wounded after the battle of Sedan via Belgium was of great value. 

Besides aid in money and kind, the German aid societies furnished personal 
assistance in the way of lady nurses, sick-bearers, dressers, cooks, &c, in the field. 
The cooking in field hospitals was in some cases undertaken by volunteer German ladies. 

Other Continental International Societies, besides the German branches, were in 
the field soon after the commencement of the war, and rendered great assistance, 
especially in personal service. It is stated that everywhere Dutch surgeons, dressers, 
and attendants, with necessary supplies, were found in devoted attendance on sick and 
wounded, working in Prussian hospitals, although their relations with the German 
medical officers were not always amicable. 

The Belgian voluntary aid was largely afforded to the French. 

It thus appears that before the war began the French Intendance, which had 
always hitherto been considered adequate to meet all the exigencies of field service, 
had been supplemented by a National Aid Society to do a large and important part of 
its work ; 

And that of late years organised and authorised voluntary aid has constituted a 
necessary part of Prussian military arrangements, ready to be called into action at the 
moment any movement of the national forces is decided on. 

With these facts before us, we are now in a position to form an estimate of the 
medical assistance rendered by our own Aid Society, as this is set forth in the letters 
and reports of medical officers sent out by the Committee to the seat of war. 

In estimating the relation of the facts to the general question of relief for sick 
and wounded men, it is necessary to bear in mind that the Prussians in an enemy's 
country were either at a short distance from their own base of operations, or they had 
complete possession of then- communications, which were kept up both by rail and 
road throughout the entire campaign, while the French, although in their own country, 
were ill supplied from the very beginning of the war, and had always to fall back 
before the Prussian armies, leaving many of their wounded behind them. But still, 
considering the unprecedented amount of organised official and voluntary help brought 
into the field by both belligerents, it might at first sight appear to be doubtful whether 
more medical aid was required from our own Society. On this point the following- 
facts speak for themselves : — 

Dr. Parker, writing from Remilly on August 20th, 1870, states : " The place is 
" crowded with wounded : the station was full : all round the station are booths and 
" straw heaps full of sick and wounded. It makes one feel how very insignificant our 
" greatest efforts are." 

Again, on August 22nd, Dr. Parker writes from Ste. Marie, near Metz : " Hundreds 
" of poor fellows are lying about in empty deserted houses, who have scarcely been 
" looked at since the 16th, when they were wounded." 

Mr. Barton Smith reports that after the battle of Gravelotte " the villages between 
" Briey and Pont-a-Mousson were crammed with wounded, not a house but was filled 
" to overflowing. My stock of bandages with which the Baroness de Rothschild had 
" provided me came to an end. I found men lying totally neglected, in one instance 
" for a space of ten days in the village of Jarnay, as far as medical and surgical aid 
" went." Mr. Barton Smith, writing from the head-quarters of Prince Frederick 
Charles on August 29th, refers to this occurrence as follows : — " On Sunday, 28th, as 
'' we were leaving Jarnay a peasant ran to the house, asking if there was a doctor among 
" us. I volunteered my services and was led by him to a house where, in one room, I 
" found 2 wounded Frenchmen, 1 wounded Prussian, and 6 Prussians suffering from 
" choleraic diarrhoea. One poor fellow had died the day before. They had been quite 
" neglected, no doctor having been to see them for seven days. On our way we met a 
" doctor, who said that he never heard there were any sick in the village." 

Writing on the 7th September from St. Barbe, on the north-east of Metz, Mr. Smith 
says that even at that date the distress for medical assistance beggared description; 
Men on the point of death lying under sheds on straw ; others with badly broken 
limbs hopping about and sitting on the wet ground. One surgeon had 180 cases as 
his share of the work. 

In a letter from Dr. Parker, dated Ste. Marie-aux-Chenes, August 25th, 1870, he 
says, " We are all here working hard. When we first arrived our services were very 
" much appreciated, owing to the enormous number of wounded lying about." 

After the battle of Sedan there was great need of help, which, as will bo afterwards 
seen, was met, to a considerable extent, by the Anglo-American Ambulance. At this 
time the following facts are reported by Mr. Lloyd to have come under his personal 



Results of 
these ar- 
rangements 
to wounded 
men. 



Deficiency of 

surgical 

assistance. 



156 



Deficiency of 
Biirgico.1 
assistance, 
tomporuiy. 



observation: — "On September 5th Captain de Kantzow and I started at 5 a.m. in a 
" cart laden with wine, brandy, cigars, biscuits, and surgical dressings, and arrived at 
" the village of Bazeilles, the ruins of which were still smoking, large pieces of wall 
" falling across the road every now and then. The devastation on all sides was terrible ; 
" of the village itself, recently numbering a population of about two thousand eight 
" hundred souls, but one small house remained untouched. On our arrival we heard 
" that there were many wounded men in the neighbouring chateau of Bazeilles who 
" needed help : we proceeded thither at once, and we found about sixteen hundred 
" wounded, both French and German, lying side by side in every available part of the 
" mansion, in the orange-house, and in every part of the grounds ; in several places the 
" dead and living lay together. I may incidentally mention that there was an old 
" French peasant woman slightly injured among the patients, and to attend to this 
" frightful misery there were but five surgeons ; some of the wounded, having only just 
" been brought in, had hitherto received no attention at all, and nearly all had but the 
" first dressings applied. Hunger, thirst, and pain were rife among them, and in fact 
" misery was so general that the difficulty was to know where to begin work for its 
" relief.'" 

Referring to this expedition, Mr. Chater, who was associated with Mr. Lloyd, 
states that relief was given on the 5th September " to some poor fellows who were 
" still lying on a part of the field since the memorable battle of the 1st September." 

To add to the calamity, shortly after the battle of Sedan army epidemics began to 
appear, and medical attendance, properly so called, was urgently required. The 
following extracts from letters by Dr. Davis from Pont Mougis, October 10th, 1870, give 
some painful details showing the extent of need : — " I was told on the 17th September, 
" by some Prussian officers, that at this place there were nearly 600 cases of typhus, 
" typhoid, dysentery, &c, the sufferers being Bavarians, and that things could be 
" scarcely worse than they were. 



Mr. Trench and I paid a visit on the 18th to the place, saw for ourselves, and 
gathered all the information we could from the two doctors that were here. Not 
one tithe of the misery had been told us ; we found 530 men distributed over seven 
different buildings of various sizes. They were all medical cases, not surgical, and 
the majority consisted of fevers of various kinds. I may venture to remark that 
such cases need less medicine than good air, good and suitable food, comfortable 
bedding, and careful nursing. None could be more sensible of these things than the 
two Bavarian doctors in charge of the ambulance ; but their hands were tied and 
their minds were almost distracted when we saw them because of the small 
supplies — indeed, I should be more exact in saying the absolute absence of supplies 
at their disposal. 



" In the large machine rooms lay upwards of 300 upon the earthen floor with a 
" wool-sack beneath them, and another with a cloak covering them. Dirt and filth, 
" which I need not describe, lay all around them. Not a window was opened, no disin- 
" fectant was used, no careful nurse was there to make clean — I won't say comfortable — 
" the dysenteric men ; the infirmiers were few because many of them had been 
" stricken down by the typhus ; the odour was also too perceptible, and the system 
" felt almost overcome by it. 

" I shall not say more than just refer to one or two dead ones lying amongst the 
" dying, no one knowing for how many minutes or hours, and to speak of the misery 
" depicted upon 500 faces and uttered by scores of groans, would be preposterous ; 
" they can easily be imagined under the circumstances ; and I am sure that the most 
" lively imagination will fail to rise to the height of the facts. 

" A drop of water is the request of one ; a sip of wine would be grateful to 
" another ; a third cannot eat the dry piece of bread and the morsel of hard meat, 
" while another says what no one can understand, for he has delirium. As to provi- 
" sions, we were informed that two or three bottles of wine, a few lemons, and a loaf 
" or two of bread comprised their stores, and what they should do for the next day 
" they knew not. The Mayor had told the doctors that it was vain to issue further 
" requisitions upon the commune, for there was nothing to be obtained in it." 

Evidence equally painful showing want of sufficient medical aid might be drawn 
from other sources, but the case as given in the letters of medical officers is complete 
enough for all practical purposes. 

But on the other hand there is evidence of an entirely opposite nature, which it 
is necessary here to give. The difference, as the correspondence] shows, depended on 
the circumstances at the time. 

Mr. Norton, writing from Briey on August 31st, 1870, during the crisis of the war, 
states that " there seem to be plenty of Prussian surgeons wherever there are 
" Prussian wounded." 

A few days later, on Sept. 3rd, Dr. Mayo reports from Pierre Villers : " All the 
" hospitals in this part of the army were fully manned, and in .some the staff of 
" medical officers and attendants out-numbered the patients — in fact, the quantity of 
" volunteer aid tendered was rather an embarrassing appendage to the hospital 
u department, and laid a heavy tax on the stores of food." 



157 

He also further says : " I followed up the Hessian division to the last battle- 
" field near St. Barbe, and offered to work in a field hospital to which 400 Prussian 
" wounded had been brought on the same day (this was on the 2nd September) ; but 
" our services were declined on the ground that there were quite enough surgeons." 

At the same period, Dr. Treutler, writing about another portion of the theatre 
of war, states : " The fact of the matter seems to be that at most, if not all, 
" stations they are fully supplied with medical aid. It was so at Stenay, Beaumont, 
" Douzy, Mouzon, and Sedan ; wherever we came we found an ample staff of surgeons, 
" &c, both French and German, Avho appeared, in more instances than one, to look 
" with jealous eyes upon the English surgeons, regarding them as intruders." 

Dr. Hardwicke, writing early in September from Saarbruck, also reports that 
" there is no lack of good surgical aid here, for surgeons from all parts of Germany 
" have for the time left their practice to attend to hospital duty. Two young English 
" surgeons sent out from the Prussian Embassy have not even been put to work ; 
" they were sent from place to place, where their services were refused." 

The correspondence affords other illustrations of a similar kind. 

There is, however, no real contradiction between these two classes of statements. 
The greatest need of surgical aid occurs within a few hours after every battle. It is 
then that help is most required in arresting liEemorrhage, administering restoratives, 
dressing and binding up wounds, and in performing primary operations. During the 
late war the number of serious wounds inflicted at the great battles so far exceeded 
any previous experience, that all the help which was afforded fell short of the neces- 
sities. But a maximum amount of help is only required for a few days. By the end 
of this interval many wounded men have died, operations of pressing urgency have 
been performed, and many wounded men have been evacuated homewards. The 
ordinary provision of surgical aid becomes in this way gradually sufficient, and 
voluntary surgical assistance ceases to be required. 

Let us next see to what extent combined official and voluntary aid of the Deficiency of 
belligerents met the necessities of wounded in so far as regards immediate and urgent hospital 
hospital supplies. supplies. 

The earliest indication of deficiency in hospital requisites is contained in a letter by 
Dr. Parker from Ste. Marie, near Metz, dated August 22nd, 1870, and is as follows : — 

" There is an absolute want of the following articles, some of which are indis- 
" pensably necessary for the simplest case : — 

" Carbolic acid, in any quantity. 

" Nitrate of silver, 2 or 3 lbs. 

" Tincture of opium, wanted everywhere, and for everyone. 

" Morphia pills, ^ and | and % gr. in each, as many as can be sent. 

" Morphia solution, 5 grs. to drach. for injecting. 

" And hypodermic syringes." 

Writing again on the 25th August, from Ste. Marie-aux-Chenes, Dr. Parker says :— 

" I am called on every day for all sorts of things ; lint and gutta-percha tissue 
" and waterproof sheeting are especially wanted, and I could easily do with a fresh 
" supply ; also ligature silk. Did I ask for a few amputation knives, the smaller ones, 
" in plain wooden cases ? " 

Drs. Dorin and Welsh in a letter of August 27th, 1870, from Hanau, where they 
did service in a local hospital, write that "the things most urgently required and 
" t asked for by all the medical men are instruments, of which there are none to be had 
" in this part of the country." 

And again, on September 14th, they say : — 

" From all the information we can gather from the wounded soldiers, we cannot 
" help concluding that supplies of all sorts would be far better bestowed in the neigh- 
" bourhoods of Metz and Sedan than in any of the hospitals in the interior of 
" Germany." 

The following facts, illustrative of hospital deficiencies after the earlier battles 
about Metz, are given in a letter by Mr. Norton from Briey, under date August 31st, 
1870 :— 

" We have visited several villages, in one of which, St. Privat, there were many 
" French wounded under the care of twenty-five French surgeons. Among the 
" wounded there were forty-five cases in which amputation had been performed, and 
" not one of these cases had a bed to lie upon. All of them lay upon straw. Manv of 
" them had not a shirt, but lay naked with a sheet or a blanket thrown around them, 
" and yet they were doing Avell. I may here mention that in the town of Briey there 
" are from thirty to forty sick Prussians without a bed, all lying on straw. We are 
" still distributing our stores both in Briey and in the surrounding villages." 

Dr. Parker, writing from Donchery on September 6th, after the battle of Sedan, 
says : — 

" Wherever we come we are always asked as to whether we have any eatables. 
" I think it would be very desirable if we had funds at our disposal to get some when- 
" ever the opportunity presented itself, and distribute them where they seem to be 
" most required." 

In a report prepared by Dr. Sandwith after his return from the seat of war in 
October, 1870, he states as follows :— 

Y 



158 



Great neces- 
sity for ;iid 
and supplies 
existed. 

Defective 
preliminary 
arrangement a 
of the 

JS'ulional Aid 

Society. 



" Flannels of all kinds, from blankets to woollen socks, cannot be sent out in too 
" great quantity. 

^K" vfc yfc yfc *J£ "tfc 

" There is a frequent demand for new surgical instruments, owing to the old ones 
" becoming blunted. I would have a German or French cutler attached to one or two 
" of the central depots, and sent about to repair instruments." 

Dr. Sandwith, in the same report, gives the following painful account of what had 
passed under his oavu observation : — 

" I had but just returned from scenes of unparalleled suffering : I had seen thousands 
" dying for want of blankets, and had seen surgeons distractedly seeking for hospital 
" necessaries which had been exhausted, and which, if telegraphed for, would have 
" arrived too late, but which might have been bought in some neighbouring town. I 
" had seen malignant disorders spreading rapidly in atmospheres fetid with removable 
" filth. I had been asked for, but felt compelled to refuse, aid for purchasing fresh and 
" better meat for the hospital patients." 

So great was the need that Dr. Sandwith had to send Mr. Barton Smith direct to 
England for ordinary hospital stores. Mr. Smith gives the following account of his 
expedition : — 

" I proceeded to Pont-a-Mousson. Here we found 9,000 wounded, and Dr. Sand- 
" with thought it advisable to despatch me to England for stores, which were greatly 
" needed. 

" I arrived in England on the 19th September, and returned to Pont aMousson on 
" the 29th September, with the following stores : — 
" 250 iron bedsteads. 
" 300 beds. 

" 7 boxes of surgical instruments. 
" 6 bales of flannel bandages, belts, &c. 
" 1 box from the Prussian Embassy. 

" 3 cases of wine, &c, from Mrs. Schwabe for the wounded. 

****** 

" On the 5th day after leaving England all the stores entrusted to my charge had 
" reached then destination." 

Similar evidence, showhig deficiency in hospital stores very near the opening of 
the campaign, exists in correspondence of other agents of the Society. The emergency 
was great beyond all anticipation. The belligerents were able to cope with it only 
partially, even by the aid of their own voluntary societies, and possibly this aid may 
not, under the pressure of circumstances, have been distributed with all the precision 
desirable. 

The special arrangements for dispensing, voluntary aid on the Prussian side, 
through the Johanniter, appear not always to have worked satisfactorily. There is a 
passage on this subject in a letter of Dr. Parker from Ste. Marie-aux-Chenes, which should 
be inserted here. It is as follows : — 

" The Knights of St. John have not treated us well at all. They wanted us to 
" give up our stores into then depot absolutely, and I considered it advisable not to do 
" so ; had I done it they would have completely throAvn us overboard. They (the 
" Knights), who are supposed to be on the spot, to see personally that the wounded are 
" being looked after, do nothing but talk away their time, eat, drink, and smoke. 
" There were five or six in Ste. Marie, and I never once saw one of them in the 
" hospitals or houses. A certain number of porters are told off to a house or a shed, 
" and then they consider their work is over. These porters congregate together, and 
" the poor soldiers, who have given their life almost, cannot get even a drop of water." 

This experience, had it been singular, might have been omitted, but similar state- 
ments have been made by other perfectly competent and trustworthy observers. 

Without entering into any discussions as to reasons, it has been stated as a fact 
that generally the chief staff surgeon in charge of a field hospital avoided, if possible, 
making demands on the stores of the Knights, while the Knights on their part 
required regular demands to be made for stores. The medical officers at times 
obtained stores through a third person. They encouraged prescribing officers to send 
direct to the stores themselves. It has been stated also that stores were sometimes 
not supplied by the Knights when asked for by the medical officer. Of course state- 
ments of this class are ex parte. Their only value consists in their being used for 
improving the administration of voluntary help. 

Any way, there is sufficient evidence in the medical correspondence to show that 
a vast held was open for the work of our own Society in dispensing aid to both 
belligerents in personal service, money, and hospital stores from the very commence- 
ment of the Avar. 

But this evidence, while it proves the need, also proves that no sufficient steps 
had been taken by our oavu Aid Society to prevent or supply it. 

There is nothing in the correspondence to show that organised medical aid from 
this country was present at or after any engagement until the battle. of Sedan, it 
then comes prominently forward in the great servi.ee rendered by the Anglo-American 
Ambulance and its branches, affording a striking proof of the close connection between 
previous organisation and success during the emergencies of modern warfare. 



159 

The absence of earlier organisation was entirely due to the circumstances under 
which the Aid Society was formed. There was no time to bring organised help into 
the field at the opening of the war. It came afterwards, but the first proceedings of 
the Society, as shown by the correspondence, bear a tentative aspect. Medical officers 
were sent out individually, or two or three together, some to the German side, some 
to the French side, and it is well for future guidance to place on record what the 
results were as detailed in the correspondence. 

The extracts from letters of medical officers already given, while they show the In regard to 
great need there was of organised medical help in the beginning of the war, show also ^ed"* 11 aid - 
the small amount of aid these officers could render. No doubt they did their best 
under the circumstances, but there were others who were placed in a less favourable 
position, and could do very little field work at the time when help was most required. 

Mr. Barton Smith states that he went to Frankfort in the early part of August in 
charge of stores, and worked his way to the front on his own responsibility. He says : 
— " I began my work by dressing the wounds of some forty or fifty men who had 
" arrived by train at Bingen ; they had been wounded at Spicheren. In spite of great 
" difficulties I succeeded in gradually getting on to the front, and I had constant 
" opportunities of changing the red stiff rags and washing the wounds of immense 
" numbers of almost totally neglected men. 

" On reaching Saarbruck, although I [had obtained passes from Prince Pless and 
" had the Society's credentials, the Etappen Commander refused to allow me to 
" proceed any further ; in feet, he told me I had better go back to England, as there 
" was no work for me." 

This relates to Mr. Smith's opening experience. Subsequently he was able to 
find more work to do. 

Dr. Mayo, with a staff, went to Berlin early in August to offer his services. He 
proceeded thence to Hesse-Darmstadt, and, on August 21st, he writes as follows : — 
" Shall start to-morrow morning early with 25 hospital attendants, bearers, &c, and 
" three gentlemen of Darmstadt in charge of them ; and we shall push on as far as 
" possible to the place where the greatest accumulation of wounded may be found, 
" there to establish a hospital in the best way we can, or to take charge of anything 
" that may be handed over to us." 

Dr. Mayo states the result of this expedition in a letter from Pierre Villers, dated 
September 1st : — " We have been sent to two hospitals in the neighbourhood, and 
" were offered the charge of one of them, which we accepted; but, as the surgeon in 
" charge protested, the offer had to be withdrawn. We were then offered half of 
" another hospital, under the supervision of the military surgeon on the spot ; but as 
" this half contained only 25 to 30 patients, and as the state of the hospital would 
" have compelled me to recommend that the surgeon in charge should be removed, if 
" I had authority to do so, I thought it best not to accept duty under such unsatis- 
" factory conditions." 

We have already seen that on September 3rd Dr. Mayo reported that no surgeons 
were wanted. 

He returned to Darmstadt and devoted himself to the construction, furnishing, 
and administration of a reserve hospital, a duty properly belonging to the Govern- 
ment. 

Dr. Connolly and Mr. Crookshank were apparently despatched on service as soon 
as intelligence of the battle of Sedan was received. The former reports himself from 
Luxembourg on the 4th September, as follows : — " Mr. Crookshank and I arrived here 

" late last evening. 

* * * * 

" I found no one at all connected with the Society, Mr. Furley having left yesterday, 
" and it is said that he is somewhere about Sedan, though it is not known where for 
" certain. I met here the 'Times" Special Correspondent, who advised me to go to 
" Metz or thereabouts, as there is a great deal of work to be done there." 

An important instance of the need of organisation is afforded by Dr. Treutler's 
experience, which he records as follows : — " In conformity with your telegram which 
" we received at Arlon on the 14th inst., Dr. Jeaffreson and I proceeded at once to 
" Coblentz. On our arrival there we communicated with the garrison surgeon, offering 
ourselves to him. We were, however, informed that there was but a comparatively 
" small number of sick and wounded in the place, and that they were well supplied 
" with surgeons and all necessaries. We therefore proceeded the next day to Bingen, 
" where we saw Mr. Simon and Dr. Thudicum. We found there that a piece of 
" ground was just being enclosed, and that three tents had just been pitched, the 
" others being in course of preparation. They had just that morning obtained their 
"first patient, and were expecting three or four more during the day. Nothing 
" whatever had been effected during the whole of the previous time they wCre there. 
" They had a complete staff of surgeons and dressers, and informed us they could 
" not possibly find occupation for us. Upon consultation with Mr. Simon, therefore, 
" we came to the conclusion that the only thing left for us was to return home, 
" which we most reluctantly decided to do." 

Dr. Preston reports a similar want of previous arrangement from Charleville. On 
Oct. 17th he says : — " I immediately went to see Captahi Brackenbury, and to my 

Y2 



160 



Defective 
organisation 
of supply 
service. 



" surprise found that Dr. Frank's ambulance was formed, and that I was not to go with 
" him. On the Sunday following I received directions to proceed to Charleville and 
" see Mr. Capel. I accordingly started on Monday morning for Charleville, by Namur 
"and Givet, arriving here at 11 o'clock in the evening, found no Mr. Capel here, but 
" saw Mr. Grant (one of the agents of the Society), who could tell me nothing ; so I ' 
" remained here until this morning, when Mr. Capel came, and it is now decided we go 
" on to Mouzon, that is to say if there are no alterations to-morrow morning." 

Difficulties with officers detached in this manner appear to have mainly arisen on 
the German side, and were no doubt partly due to want of facility in speaking the 
language. This objection is indeed urged by Mr. Norton, who writes from Briey on 
August 31st, 1870, " From my experience I may judge that English surgeons will be 
" of but little use in hospitals unless they can speak French and German moderately 
" well." A similar opinion was expressed to Dr. Mayo on his arrival at Berlin in the 
middle of August, 1870, by one of the authorities there, who, Dr. Mayo says, "con- 
" sidered that the fact of my speaking German very indifferently, and my three 
" companions not at all, would be very much against me." 

The practical results of this portion of the Aid Societies' work cannot be better 
summed up than in the following passa.ge of the Report of Messrs. Ernest Hart and 
Berkeley Hill, made after they returned from an inspection of the surgical arrange- 
ments on the earlier seat of the war : — " The plan of sending out surgeons with 
" wandering powers to make themselves useful where and how they could has only 
" been successful in a few of the many instances which we encountered." 

Another source of difficulty in employing detached officers arises out of the 
necessities of military organisation. Army medical officers are responsible for their 
ambulances and for the proper care of sick and Avounded men, and all officers having 
any charge in ambulances must necessarily act under orders of the chief. Again, there 
are several indications in the correspondence that the form of management considered 
sufficient in foreign war hospitals is by no means in all cases up to the standard usually 
arrived at by British surgeons. Treatment is a matter of conscience as well as of art ; 
and many surgeons who might feel disposed to offer their services to belligerent 
ambulances might be deterred from doing so, or might feel called on to resign after 
entering on service, from a clear perception that they would have to serve under men 
of inferior qualifications, or who aimed at lower standards of excellence. In the 
immediate pressure for help after great battles it is probable that help would be gladly 
accepted and no questions asked. The difficulty would begin when volunteer surgeons 
followed the wounded into field hospitals. 

This question is one of importance, and involves details which might very well be 
made subject of discussion. 

As the experience stands, it is not in favour of detaching officers on chance 
service. 

Voluntary surgical aid in war must be organised beforehand in order to be of 
real use. Officers must be carefully selected for the work. I am sorry to say that 
there is evidence of the need of more careful selection in the reports, and, as already 
shown, there is evidence also of want of medical organisation. 

Referring to this subject, Messrs. Hart and Hill in their Report, already quoted, 
make the following general statements, which may find a place here : — " We found 
" also that the Society's representative in Belgium had constantly to decide on 
" questions of internal hospital management, or on the regular establishment of new 
" hospitals, for which special professional knowledge is needed. We suggested that 
" the services of a Medical Deputy Inspector-General in the Navy or Army should 
" be secured to aid by his advice and opinion the chief agent in forming his decisions." 
And again, " The Anglo-American Ambulance, which had begun with the care of 400 
" men, contained only 75 men, and the chief physician left for London. This 
" example will serve to demonstrate what on every other occasion we found to be a 
" most important defect in the machinery of the Society — namely, the absence of any 
" sufficiently systematic organisation." 

The same reporters sum up their experience on this subject in these terms : — 
"Every person whom we met employed on the business of this Society was animated 
" by the same excellent spirit — ready to do anything which would serve the object for 
" which they were despatched. 

$fc ¥fc $fc "3fc *■ ?£ -3)$ 

" But, notwithstanding this amiable desire for harmonious action on the part of those 
"Englishmen and women hastily collected together, we could not avoid the conviction 
"that the English Society had not taken the best means of obtaining the most 
" efficacious medical aid for the sick and wounded." 

This criticism, it will be seen, refers only to the organisation. It is not intended 
to apply to the work done. The deficiency in organised action was a necessary result 
of want of time for preparation, but to some extent it was a result of great and 
unexpected emergencies. 

To both causes conjoined must also be attributed the absence of organised relation 
of supplies to medical service in the early months of the campaign. There was no 
intelligence department, and the supply agents had no direct, means of knowing where 
the great and painful deficiencies existed. Some account of these deficiencies has been 



1G1 

already given from the correspondence of medical officers. A few more details may 
be here added from Messrs. Hart and Hill's report. 

Referring to the Anglo-American Ambulance at Sedan, they say: — "We were 
" disappointed to find that the Anglo-American Ambulance, unaware of the readiness 
" with which supplies could be obtained from Arlon, had despatched special messen- 
" gers to London, who returned laden with very large supplies on the day of our 
" arrival at Sedan, while late the night before 10 waggon-loads of goods had also 
" simultaneously arrived from Arlon. Thus during the first week or ten days after the 
" battles, the Ambulance at Sedan was deficient in supplies, while at the end of that 
" time supplies were despatched in profusion, and in excess of the demand." 

Also as regards the evacuation stations at Libramont and Saarbruck:— " At Arlon 
" the Society's agents were preparing to send stores already collected there in great 
" abundance to Briey the next day. But they were quite unaware of the great 
" number of wounded daily arriving at Libramont, whose numbers, by surpassing the 
" .lohanniter's local resources, prevented their receiving either the surgical attention, 
" the food, or the clothing they sorely needed. 

" Arriving alone at Saarbruck on the 18th August, Mr. Hart found that at this 
" most important station, the first German town on the then only line of rail open to 
" the German troops, there Avere in all some eight cases of material, representing the 
" resources of the British Society, scattered at different hotels, and of which no 
" inventory existed. 

" There had been some thousands of sick and wounded in the town. The 
" importance was plain of establishing here a basis of supply for the sick and wounded 
" of the army at Metz." 

The deficiencies here commented on it is right to say were rapidly supplied by the 
Society's agent. The facts are useful as indicating points of future administration. 

The following extract from the same report is of importance, as indicating not 
only a defect in organisation, but as showing the necessity of placing the medical 
service of all ambulances, military and voluntary, in direct communication with supply 
depots : — " Meantime Mr. Hart had gone on to the Second Army before Metz, and 
" here, too, ho found that, notwithstanding many isolated instances of help afforded 
" by agents of the British Society, the chief medical authorities of the hospitals 
" were for the most part unacquainted with even the name of the Society, and were 
" in no case aware of the seats of its depots, the name of its chief, or the kind of help 
" which it was willing to give. An agent of the Society had visited Remilly, for 
" instance, two days before, and had gone into one hospital in which he had learned 
" there was an English nurse, and had sent here a case of various materials asked for 
" (on so small a scale, however, that more were wanted next day), but the half-dozen 
" hospitals within bowshot had not been visited at all, and the doors of some of the 
" chief medical authorities had been passed unnoticed. At the head-quarters of Prince 
" Frederick Charles, the chief physician was equally in the dark as to the British Society. 
" He presented requisitions from thirty hospitals, which will, we are assured, be filled 
" as rapidly as possible by the Society's chief agent, to whom they were forwarded." 

It would, however, give a very erroneous idea of the extent and importance of 
the supply service carried out by the Society and its agents at the same period, if we 
judged of it only from this evidence, without comparing it with reports of the Society's 
agents from other districts. 

At the very time when there were these "missing links" in the depot administra- 
tion in the north-east of France, the Society, as shown by other correspondence, was 
relieving a great amount of suffering and need by supplies both of money and material 
sent to ambulances and hospitals of both belligerents, in Germany as well as in 
France. 

Messrs. Hart and Hill have indeed guarded their report by admitting this fact, in 
the following words : — " England has far surpassed all other countries in the abundance 
" of supplies, while she has fallen very short in making the supplies speedily available 
" and most useful." 

The entire experience of these earlier months of the campaign leads to the same Organisation 
conclusion when looked at with regard to future operations ; and this is — that England of supply 
will always be ready with any amount of stores, money, and personal help, but that servi . ce 
the great improvement required is a simple flexible organisation, which shall place re 9 mrec *- 
these without loss of time at the points where they are most needed, and in the 
required amounts. 

During these earlier months there is no indication in the correspondence of any Assisted 
organised British ambulance having taken the field alongside of those from Holland ambulances - 
Belgium, Switzerland, and other countries. The object aimed at by the British Aid 
Society appears rather to have been affording aid to others in any way in which it 
woidd be useful. 

One remarkable result of this method of proceeding, as it is described in various Anglo- 
communications from Dr. Sims, Dr. MacCormac, Dr. Frank, and others, has next to be • A - merican 
noticed. ' Ambulance. 

This is the work of the Anglo-American Ambulance, which, although too well 
known to require a detailed account, contains, nevertheless, some useful practical 
points. 



162 

At the beginning of the war the Americans residing in Paris appointed a Committee 
to form an ambulance, and Dr. Sims was requested to select a staff of American 
surgeons. It appears that when the staff was ready to take the field a difference 
arose between the American Committee and the medical officers as to its destination — 
whether it was to go to the front as proposed by these gentlemen, or to remain in 
Paris as proposed by the Committee. 

At this crisis Dr. MacCormac, Dr. Frank, and others from the British Society were 
in Paris, and from an undated letter of Dr. Frank it appears that the Society had 
accorded full liberty of action to him and his colleagues. The result was, that a 
union took place between the British and American surgeons, which led to the formation 
of the Anglo-American Ambulance. This Ambulance was organised by Count Beaufort 
and Dr. Chenu, of the French International. The organisation was completely French, 
and the service half English half American — 8 of each nationality. 

The British surgeons had £200 and stores. The French Society gave 15,000 francs, 
horses, waggons, tents, &c. The British surgeons were paid by the British Aid Society ; 
the Americans were paid by the French Aid Society. The Ambulance was furnished 
with rations by the French, and it received an additional 7,000 francs from the French 
while at Sedan. Dr. Webb performed the duties customary in French ambulances of 
comptable. 

The British Aid Society subsequently supplied whatever was required for the 
efficiency of the Ambulance. 

The equipment as described by Dr. Frank consisted of a waggon and two horses, 
a tent for 30 beds, 30 field beds with mattrasses and blankets, drivers and hospital 
orderlies (drugs and surgical appliances from the British stores), cooking apparatus, and 
food for four days. Thus equipped, the Ambulance left Paris on the 28th of August 
for Mezieres in expectation of a battle, and on arrival there was sent on to Sedan, 
where, on the 31st August, the Mayor of Sedan made over to the Ambulance a large 
barrack, the Caserne d'Asfeld, which had been set apart as a hospital. They were 
scarcely installed before the great battle began. Most of the medical officers were on 
the battle-field during the night preceding the 1st September, attending to wounded 
and helping to transport them to Sedan and Balan. 

The necessities of the case dictated a division of the staff. Drs. Frank and 
Blewitt remained all night at Balan, the others returned to Sedan. During the night 
of the 31st 36 wounded were received at Sedan, and on the 1st and 2nd September 
every bed in the caserne (366) was occupied. 

The cases were of two classes — those slightly wounded, who were dressed and 
passed on ; the severely wounded, who were admitted into the hospital or had to be 
attended to by the staff in other buildings. The branch ambulance under Dr. Frank 
at Balan had its full share of work and also its full share of danger. The Sedan 
hospital was in the line of fire, but its wounded escaped injury. 

The building was a French barrack of the usual construction, viz., one immense 
room divided by cross partitions into seven compartments, 66 feet by 24 feet, and 
10 feet high, communicating with each other by large doors. Each compartment had 
a window at each opposite end, and contained 24 beds at 660 cubic feet per bed. There 
were besides smaller wards at the heads of stairs, each holding 10 beds. The beds for 
wounded were placed along the dead walls, the construction admitting of no other 
disposal. Ventilation was obtained by opening the end windows, and carbolic acid 
was used for disinfecting purposes. 

According to Dr. MacCormac's report, during the battles of 31st August and 
1st September 400 wounded were dressed as out-patients at this hospital ; and from 
first to last 793 sick and wounded were received into it. Among these were 472 
severe wounds and injuries, of which 103 died, giving a mortality of 21*8 per cent. 
Besides operations on account of secondary haemorrhage there were 103 great operations 
performed, of which 46, or nearly 45 per cent., proved fatal. 

Dr. MacCormac states, " Our deaths were caused chiefly by exhaustion, by diarrhoea, 
" by dysentery, and mainly after operations by that hideous scourge pyaemia. * * 
" We had six deaths from tetanus." 

Dr. Sims in his report says, " The moment we took possession of this hospital, it, 
" was evident that we had to dread hospitalism, for it contained at least twice as many 
" beds as it should have had." 

This fact of great overcrowding, taken in connection with other facts, as for 
example that the building was unfit from bad construction, that it had undergone no 
previous preparation ; that there was not time to inquire about or to remedy sanitary 
deficiencies, and that other ambulances were evacuated upon the Caserne d'Asfeld 
without reference to the state of the cases sent, are sufficient to explain part at least 
of the high death-rate. Alluding to this latter occurrence, Dr. MacCormac says, "One 
" thing is certain, however — our rate of mortality began to increase directly after the 
" ' evacuations' made upon us on the i)th and 12th (Sept.)." This is fully confirmed 
by Dr. Sims, who shows that fatal results began to appear immediately. 

The occupation of such a building was in this instance inevitable, but the results, 
like so many other results under similar conditions, raise anew the question as to 
whether the best thing that can bo done for a wounded man is to put him under a roof 
at all, especially when there is no opportunity of selection, and when the command of 
the buildings and patients is hi other hands than those of the medical officers. 



Wounded. 


Sick 


.36 


1 


.55 





.31 


.. 19 


5 


.. 16 



163 

It is unnecessary to say that the reports amply show how devoted the medical 
staff was to its duty, for its devotedness has been fully recognised. 

The Sedan hospital afforded means for introducing female nursing with effect. 
Dr. Sims says that, " from the moment that women were introduced as nurses, the 
" whole aspect of our establishment was changed." " As nurses, I would not change 
" one woman for a dozen men." 

The " infirmiers " supplied to the Ambulance at Paris proved mostly worthless, 
and military " infirmiers " were supplied by the French authorities. 

By the terms of the Geneva Convention these attendants are neutrals, and never- 
theless the Prussian authorities seized them. 

Dr. Sims states, " As soon as we got a set of them to work, the Prussian autho- 
" rities would send a file of soldiers and march them off as prisoners of war. This 
" happened several times ; on one occasion they marched off 47 of our " infirmiers," 
" in spite of the entreaties of Dr. Webb, and that too on the day after they had sent 
" the large number of sick into the tents." 

This departure from the terms of the Convention will of course receive due notice 
in any future discussions on the subject. 

Dr. Frank's branch of the Anglo- Am srican Ambulance at Balan and Bazeilles was 
of great utility, but the correspondence contains no detailed statistics to show the 
number treated, and the mortality. The branch was opened at Balan on the 1st Sept. 
On the 13th Dr. Frank took charge of the chateau of Bazeilles, which had been the 
great field hospital of the Prussians. There were 3,000 wounded there on the 2nd 
September, partly in the building, partly under trees and extemporised sheds. On the 
15th September Dr. Frank took over the chateau Mont-Villet with 48 Bavarians, and 
on the 21st he took over " a beautiful hospital from the Prussian surgeon-major 
" Wainzer, with 42 cases of gun-shot wounds." 

On the 22nd September, three weeks after the battle of Sedan, this branch 
ambulance contained the following numbers of sick and wounded : — 

-n i f Chateau Poupard 

\Mairie and other houses 
Chateau Mont-Villet « , 
Chateau le Gardeur 

127 36 

Of these 41 were French, the remainder Bavarians.* 

Unfortunately the Mairie turned out to be very unhealthy, and tents had to be 
pitched for the patients. 

Towards the end of October this branch was closed by the transfer of the 
remaining cases to military hospitals, having done nearly two months' admirable 
work. 

Dr. Frank bears strong testimony to the devotion of his staff to their duties ; and 
of the ladies from All Saints', and other ladies who conducted the nursing, he says, 
" To the efforts of these devoted ladies the great improvement in the state of these 
" places is mainly attributable." 

On September 22nd, the large hospital at Sedan contained only 60 patients. 
Dr. Sims left for England, and on the 4th October a conference was held at Sedan 
at which the Anglo-American Ambulance was divided. 

The American staff went to Brussels to receive instructions from the representa- 
tives of the French Society, who were desirous that the Ambulance should try to get 
into Paris. The English division remained at Sedan for instructions from the London 
Committee. Dr. Frank in his letter of the 4th October to the Committee says, " It 
" must obviously be your wish that we should work in some place where supplies from 
" England could reach us." 

This appears to be the proper place for touching on the question of co-operation 
between the medical staffs of the two national ties in this Ambulance. On this important 
matter Dr. Frank writes on the 21st September : " Our American brethren have 
" worked with us in the most absolute harmony, and I am sure you must be glad that 
the fusion with them has been so successful for good. 

Here is what Dr. Sims says : " We have worked together cheerfully, heroically, 
" each vying with the other in doing his duty. 

" The English and Americans affiliate naturally. Of the same origin, with the 
" same language, having a common literature, the same laws and religion, even the 
" same liberty under government, how could it be otherwise ? In truth, the English 
" and Americans are full of human nature. When a common cause unites them, they 
" are as a band of brothers. But when political views differ and selfish interests clash, 
" they hate as only brothers can under opposing circumstances. If the two peoples 
" could always be as kindly united in sentiment and action as are their representatives 
" in the Anglo-American Ambulance, there would be no more Alabama claims to 
" settle." 

* The only record of mortality in this division of tho Ambulance is given in a letter of Dr. Cliater, who 
served in tho " English Ambulance" at Douzy and Balan from September 5th to Soptembor 21st, 1870. He 
states that thero were 82 wounded received, of whom 10 died — a mortality of 12 per cont. 



164 

This Ambulance received the marked approval of the Prussian authorities, as well 
as of the French international administration, for its good work after the battle of 
Sedan. 

It may be well, before proceeding further, to trace the subsequent proceedings of 
the Anglo-American Ambulance, as these are detailed in the correspondence. 

After the work of Sedan was completed, part of the Ambulance went to Brussels, 
as already stated. It left Brussels on the 9th October, and travelled through Amiens 
to Rouen by rail. 

From Rouen they had to march to Versailles, arriving there on the 12th, and 
leaving again on the 16th for Orleans at the urgent request of the Prussian authorities 
at Versailles, in order to take charge of the wounded at the battle of Orleans. They 
arrived there on the 19th, and on the 21st they took over officially 100 severely 
wounded Bavarians, whom they placed in the fine railway station. 

On the 25th Dr. Warren reported on a Prussian feld-post card to Captain Bracken- 
bury at Brussels, where the card arrived on the 8th November, that everything was 
in splendid working order, but that they were greatly in need of stores. Their im- 
mediate wants were supplied, as far as possible, in the locality, but on the 10th 
November Dr. Parker says, " As yet we have received no stores, and as the country 
" for miles round has been called on for heavy Avar contributions of every kind, we are 
" badly off, and in want both of money and stores, surgical appliances, and instru- 
ments, &c." 

Everyone was willing to help, but little was to be had. Alluding to the previous 
work of the Ambulance, Dr. Pratt, who was now surgeon-in-chief, writes in London, 
on November 10th, to the Society, " that without the generous manner in which you 
" have invariably responded to our calls, the Anglo-American Ambulance could never 
" have sustained itself." 

The Ambulance continued in charge after the Bavarians had evacuated Orleans, 
and did duty also after the subsequent battles, as will be seen from the following 
letter of Dr. Parker, dated Orleans, November 10th, 1870 : — 

" The Bavarians evacuated Orleans during the night of the 8th, and were fighting 
" hard in the neighbourhood all day the 9th. They were beaten completely by the 
" French. It is reported that there are many wounded. The ambulances immediately 
" set off to the battle-field, taking with them instruments and appliances for the 
" wounded, and waggons to transport them to our hospital, where two surgeons had 
" been left to receive them, and also to look after the patients already there. The 
" fight was so much of a retreat, and the battle-field consequently of such an extent, 
" that our utility was comparatively small ; the weather, too, was very bad, it was 
" raining in torrents, and very cold. So, as the distance was about 12 miles, the 
' ; wounded were taken to the nearest villages and houses, and we returned home 
" about 2 o'clock in the morning. Early this morning the mayor sent to assure us 
" that we should have the same help and assistance from the town as before while 
" the Prussians were here, and asked to take charge of the French wounded who were 
" shortly expected to arrive." 

The Ambulance appears to have received the supplies it needed. 
There is no correspondence from Dr. Frank after the division of the Anglo- 
American Ambulance on the 4th October until December 29th, on which date he gives 
the following account of his work at Epernay, where he was then stationed with his 
medical staff: — 

" Captain Brackenbury will, no doubt, have duly acquainted you with all the 
" difficulties I had to encounter in the initial phases of the undertaking, with the 
" work done by the members of my surgical staff at the Eulalie hospital in Chalons 
" (60 beds),* where they commenced duty the day after our arrival, and with the 
" various steps which ultimately led to the establishment of the Epernay hospital 
" under my own immediate direction, and to that of the Metz hospital under 
" Dr. Webb's charge. It was absolutely necessary for me to retain my head-quarters 
" in the smaller hospital at Epernay, as I am the only surgeon of the Ambulance with 
" a thorough knowledge of German, without whieh it would be impossible to carry on 
" the work in this place, where we are under close supervision of and in constant 
" contact with German authorities. I am glad to say that nothing but perfect 
" harmony has prevailed throughout between ourselves and these authorities, and 
" that, with due regard to official regulations and very moderate concessions to 
" official susceptibilities, I find no difficulty in securing all necessary freedom of 
" action." 

But in this instance, as in so many others, buildings not specially constructed for 
hospitals yielded unfavourable results notwithstanding every care. 
On this point Dr. Frank reports on the same date : — 

"Very moderate expenditure will have succeeded in changing our school-houses 
" into what is generally considered to be rather a model ambulance. The building is, 
" however, placed in an unhealthy part of the town, and in spite of our constant and 
" successful exertions towards maintaining sweetness and cleanliness, hospitalism, 
" due in part, no doubt, to the importation of cases of pyamiia, is beginning to mar 
" the results of our labours.' 1 

* Dr. Duret Anhin reports that between 1st September, L870, and 16th February, 1871, there were received 
into thia Ambulance 286 cases, of which 11 died — a mortality of less than i per coat. 



165 

From the certificate of Dr. Lewin, principal medical officer at Epernay, it appears 
that Dr. Frank and his staff were in charge there from November 15th, 1870, to 
January 15th, 1871 ; that during the three months they had received 162 most 
severely wounded French and German soldiers, and that, in addition to numerous 
minor operations, 15 major operations had to be performed. 

Dr. Lewin expresses his acknowledgments for the services rendered in the 
following terms : — 

" It is difficult for one to find words sufficiently expressive of the appreciation due 
" to the medical officers, Dr. Frank and Mr. Blewitt, to the Mother and Sisters of 
" All Saints', and to Mr. Mansfield for the great care and devotion shown by all and 
" everyone in their noble work, for the very able surgical efforts, and for the valuable 
" material aid afforded in a truly international spirit, not only in the Ambulance, 
" entirely organised and supported by the funds of the British Society, but also 
" beyond its walls. 

" In the name of the superior authorities, I beg to be allowed to express my most 
" respectful thanks for all that has been done by the Ambulance under Dr. Frank's 
" direction." 

The facts regarding the Anglo-American Ambulance are sufficient to show the 
excellent service it rendered in a time of great need. This was partly due to its timely 
arrival at points where its services were required, but mainly to the devotion of its 
staff to duty. 

It is to be regretted that unsuitable buildings, not selected by the Ambulance, into 
which wounded and sick men were removed directly from the battle-field, should 
have been a means of increasing the susceptibility of their inmates to hospital 
diseases. 

Besides these services rendered by the Anglo-American Ambulance and by de- 
tached surgeons, the medical correspondence contains details of other ambulance 
work in the discharge of which medical officers were attached either to a foreign 
ambulance, or they were placed in charge in foreign hospitals. 

There is only one instance of an independant ambulance organised by the Aid Woolwich 
Society, the material of winch was purchased from Woolwich, while the surgical service Ambulance. 
was undertaken by volunteers from the Army Medical Department. 

As the experience of this latter Ambulance has an important bearing on the 
whole question of future surgical aid in war under the terms of the Geneva Conven- 
tion, it is necessary to notice its work before proceeding further. 

There are no details given in the medical correspondence, properly so called, 
regarding the " Woolwich Ambulance ; " but there are some particulars in a letter from 
Dr. Porter in the general correspondence, which may be here introduced with 
advantage. 

This Ambulance was very carefully organised, and was intended to take into the 
field the latest improvements in Her Majesty's service. It was, however, strictly an 
international voluntary ambulance, and its history after leaving England throws 
much light on what may and what may not be done under the terms of the Geneva 
Convention in affording surgical aid of this class. 

At the meeting of the Berlin Conference in April, 1869, non-belligerent Govern- 
ments were asked to place such army surgeons as they could spare for assistance under 
the orders of the principal medical officer of the belligerent army to which they are 
attached. It has been already shown that there are personal and professional con- 
siderations which may put a serious limit to the application of this principle. It was 
besides an apparent departure from the freer spirit of the Geneva Convention by 
which it was agreed that the details of the execution of the Convention were to be 
regulated by the Commanders-in-Chief of the belligerent armies according to instruc- 
tions of their respective Governments. 

Keeping these points in view, we shall be able better to understand the subsequent 
history of the " Woolwich Ambulance." It may here be also stated that it had been 
necessary, for obvious reasons, to secure the seivices of French drivers and other 
French officials. 

Writing in London on November 15th, 1870, Dr. Porter's account is as follows : — 
" On the 26th ultimo the Ambulance reached St. Germain from Havre. * * * 
" A building had been secured for a hospital which could accommodate 45 beds. A 
" second building was then secured and prepared for 35 sick. On the 7th inst., sick 
" of the Prussian force in the neighbourhood of St. Germain and Marley commenced 
" to arrive at the hospital, and by Tuesday 60 patients were on diet, and appeared 
" comfortable. Three medical officers of the Prussian army visited the hospital 
" on Monday and Tuesday, who were received by the medical officer of the 
" Ambulance and accompanied round the wards. On AVednesday these gentlemen 
" commenced decided interference with the patients, examined each as if they had 
" not been visited by a medical officer, objected to treatment adopted, and directed 
" some alterations as regards the distribution of the beds and general arrange- 
ment of hospital ; to this the medical officers of the Ambulance who had charare 

z 



Ambulance. 



166 

" of the patients objected and expressed their desire to Dr. Guy to be released from 
" their duties, should such interference and supervision be permitted. Dr. Guy wrote 
" to the senior medical officer, Prussian Army, at St. Germain, to know if this inter- 
" ference and supervision were to continue, as in that case he could not possibly 
" permit the admission of any more sick, and was prepared to hand over the sick 
" then under treatment to their own medical officers. To this he received a reply 
" that it was the rule of the Prussian Army that their sick should always have the 
" supervision of then own officers, but that he, the senior medical officer at St. Ger- 
" main, had no objection to leave the sick under our care, provided we acted according 
" to his ideas of treatment and distribution of sick in hospital wards. Dr. Guy 
" declined to have anything further to do with the sick, and handed over the 
" hospital, with beds and every comfort, prepared for eighty sick. 
* . * * *■ 

" On Saturday last Dr. Guy, hearing there was likely to be some further engage- 
" ments at Orleans, despatched two divisions of Ambulance under the charge of 
" Surgeon Manley, V.C., R.A. * * * * 

" but it is quite a venture, as the authorities may object to the drivers and order 
" the whole back to St. Germain." 

From other correspondence it appears that the Ambulance was subsequently 
engaged in service with sick and wounded on the Loire. 

The facts stated by Dr. Porter clearly show that the Berlin proposal would not 
work if the object were to obtain the services of first-rate surgeons, especially military 
surgeons holding as high, or perhaps a higher professional rank and position than any 
surgeon of the belligerent armies, and that it would have been in all probability more 
advantageous to have simply arranged the service with the General in command, as 
laid down in the German Convention. At all events, the results show that further 
consideration should be bestowed on the question of how military surgeons can best 
render voluntary aid to other armies in war. 
5th Paris The next abstract gives an account of the proceedings of a French international 

International ambulance assisted by the Aid Society. 

Mr. Horner, who was sent to Paris at the beginning of the war, has supplied an 
account of his work while connected with the 5th Paris Ambulance, of which it will 
be both interesting and useful to introduce extracts as containing a record of the kind 
of work which was done in a volunteer ambulance engaged in field service from the 
beginning to the end of military operations. 

He and his coadjutors, after fruitless application to the Paris Society, were referred 
to M. Trelat, Chief of the 5th Paris Ambulance. The surgical staff was complete, but 
M. Trelat agreed to take them, provided they depended on themselves for neces- 
saries. 

The Ambulance consisted of 1 surgeon-in-chief, 4 surgeons, 12 assistants, and 24 
sub-assistants, 1 constable in chief, and 5 or 6 constables, and more than 100 infirmiers. 
There were six waggons laden with stores, together with the requisite number of 
horses. 

Mr. Millson, who also served in the 5th Ambulance, writing from near Orleans on 
November 20th, 1870, states that when this Ambulance started for Rheims, it was 170 
strong. 

At the time the English surgeons joined the Ambulance it was attached to Marshal 
MacMahon's corps d'armee, which it followed, the Ambulance staff marching in the 
rear. The English officers carried their provisions, and cooked them as they found 
opportunity. The Ambulance started on the 21st August, and on the 30th Mr. Horner 
reports that they had been expecting a battle for the last few days. " To-day," he 
says, " on continuing our march in the morning, we heard the distant sound of cannons 
" to the right of us, and on our advancing further they became more distinct, and 
" some in front of us. Soon we saw the white puffs of smoke from the cannons in 
" front of us, when a message came to tell us they were advancing in the direction 
" where we were ; accordingly we returned upon our steps, and then went to the left, 
" to be out of the way of the baggage waggons of the French, with which we should 
" have been helplessly locked. We stopped at a village named Autrecourt, where a 
' thread manufacturer offered his house and manufactory for the disposal of the 
" wounded as well as ourselves. As soon as possible the voitures were unloaded, the 
" boxes of instruments and drugs, &c., got ready ; we prepared rooms and beds for the 
" wounded, as well as a room for amputations, and another for the pharmacie. Some 
" of the voitures when empty were got ready for transporting some of the surgeons 
" and infirmiers, as well as brancards, to the battle-field, and to return with wounded. 
" A very large tent that we had 1 >rought was stuck up, as well as a smaller one, both 
" for the reception of the wounded. Flags with the red cross were posted at the 
" entrance gate, on the top of the house, out of the windows, and at nearly every 
" available point, as well as a flag with the French colours. 

* * * * * 

" During the afternoon the sound of cannons approached us gradually, when 
" soon the French army came in sight, occupying the heights with its artillery, and 
" covering the retreat of the reBt of the Army." 

***** 



167 

" When dusk approached the distant noise of cannon became more and more inter- 
" mittent, and gradually subsided altogether. As the Prussians passed by they took 
" possession of the village we were in, which, as no resistance was offered, merely 
" consisted in taking its name. Our Ambulance they looked at, and sent many of their 
" wounded for us to attend to. 

" Whilst the French Army was passing us, we received a few wounded from them, 
" and towards the end of the afternoon the voitures were sent in search of wounded 
" who could not walk, and were too far to be carried on brancards ; the infirmiers 
" continually brought wounded on the brancards to the house. During the greater 
" part of the night fresh arrivals were constantly brought in, and we were kept hard 
" at work the whole time. Owing to its being dark, and want of knowledge of the 
" place, and where to find the requisite things, there was some confusion. One cause 
" was our number, which made everybody get in everybody else's way, and also not a 
" little by the infirmiers, who, being unused to this sort of thing, either fainted when 
" they were most wanted, or stood aghast doing nothing. 

" The beds prepared for the wounded were chiefly those brought by the Ambu- 
" lance, in the form of a sack, to be filled with straw or hay, but as wool was plentiful 
" from the manufactory, they were filled with that instead, making them very 
" comfortable, as I can testify. 

" The pharmacy, from want of time, was hardly in order, but that, as well as the 
" other things, was arranged the next day. Two pharmaciens presided over it. 

" August 31st. During the greater part of this day wounded continued to be 
" brought in ; some of them were placed in the tents, others in barns, the rest were 
" taken into the village and distributed in the school and private houses, as well as the 
" church. 

" September 1st. On the afternoon of this day our Ambulance was visited by a 
" whole regiment of Prussians, who by the orders of then Commandant took posses- 
" sion of the house in which we were, told us to evacuate and leave room for them to 
" sleep there ; but on the representation of M. Trelat that they were acting contrary 
" to the Convention of Geneva, and that there were, besides the French in the 
" Ambulance, 3 Englishmen, 3 Swiss, a Belgian, and a Roumanian, a counter-order was 
" given, and before night they had decamped. The next day a form was written with 
" the rules of the Convention they had infringed, and when signed by us all was sent 
" to the Commandant, and there the matter ended. The number of patients entered 
" in the Ambulance at Autrecourt was, altogether, 347. Both French and Prussians 
" were alike attended to.' 

" September 3rd. Part of the Ambulance, including myself, left Autrecourt for a 
" village about one-and-a-half miles from Sedan, La Ramaurie, where one of our 
" surgeons had gone the day before to search for wounded. On our road there we 

" passed through Bazeilles, of which town the horrors have been so well depicted. 

****** 

" On our arrival at La Ramaurie we found a number of wounded, all French, in a 
" house belonging to another thread manufacturer, but who had vacated it. Many of 
" the wounded were in a horrible condition, only having been dressed once, at the time 
" of the battle. Several amputations had to be performed as soon as possible, so we 
" set to work without losing time ; but what we found them greatly in need of was 
" food, for they had only had biscuits and potatoes, meat not being procurable for so 
" many. By misfortune, however, our provision waggon, which started rather later 
" than ourselves, had to make a long detour, as the bridge by which we had passed 
" was cut by the Prussians as soon as they had passed over with their artillery, and 

" our provisions did not arrive before nightfall. 

* * * * 

" September 12th. At La Ramaurie we received to-day a fresh supply of wounded. 

* * * * 

" We had found them at some distance without proper surgical attendance, and 
" brought them in our voitures. 

" Hearing that there was an English ambulance at Balan, I went there and found 
" Dr. Frank in charge of it. On entering their wards, what struck me most was to 
" see the beautiful beds for the wounded, and the different necessaries from the 
" English Society, making it look more like one of our English hospitals than an ambu- 

" lance in time of war. 

* * * * 

" September 14th. Before our Ambulance left La Ramaurie, the greater part of the 
" wounded were evacuated to Belgium, as well as many of those from Autrecourt, 
" leaving the cases which were not transportable in charge of a few of the Ambulance. 
" The number of wounded we received at La Ramaurie was 146. 

" September ldth. Our Ambulance left La Ramaurie for Bouillon, which was the 
" nearest Belgian town to us, the rest of the Ambulance, with Messrs. Cooper and 
" Millson, joining us from Autrecourt. We traversed the Foret des Ardennes before 
" crossing the Belgian frontier. 

" September 20th. We marched to Libramont, where we found the railway to take 
" us to Brussels. Here an English gentleman from Arlon brought £500 from Captain 
" Brackenbury, of the English Society, for our Ambulance, making with another £500 
" received at Bazeilles £1,000, for which the French were very warm in their expres- 

Z 2 



168 



" sions of thanks. By train we went straight to Brussels, where we remained until 
" the 23rd, when we again took the railroad, intending to join the French army at the 

" south-west of Paris, or even enter Paris if possible. 

* * * * 

" September 23rd. We started for Rouen by train. 

* * * * 

" September 2£th. We passed Evreux before reaching Le Mans, where we waited 
" until the 27th. Here we came across part of the French Army again. We found it 
" quite impossible to enter Paris, so waited for a battle near us. 

" September 25th. We left for Blois, where again we had to wait four days. 

" October 1st. The Ambulance left for Orleans, but was obliged to stop at the Petit 
" Seminaire, a distance of three miles from Orleans. Here we waited until 
" the 6th. 

" October 9th. We went about 20 kilometres further to Artenay, where we occupied 
" the Chateau d'Anvillers, situated alone on the plain, about half-a-mile from the 
" village itself. 

* * * # 

" October 10th. In the morning we heard the firing of cannons quite suddenly, and 
" learnt that the Prussians had surprised the French at Artenay by bombarding the 
" place. This was the prelude to the battle of Artenay, resulting in the defeat of the 
" French and the capture of Orleans by the Prussians. We were in the midst of it, 
" and as it lasted nearly all day were very thankful to find ourselves unharmed when 
" all had passed by. During the battle a few wounded who could walk came to us 
" and were attended to by those surgeons who remained to receive the wounded, 
" while the other surgeons went to find wounded and send them to the chateau on 
" brancards or in the voitures. All that evening wounded were bro^^ght in from the 
" neighbourhood, most of whom were Turcos. The Prussians brought us some of 
" their wounded. In the evening some Prussian officers came to inspect the Ambu- 
" lance, and after eating the dinner intended for ourselves took up their quarters in 
" the rooms prepared for our use, and refused to consider that they were breaking the 
" Convention of Geneva. 

Ifc ^ $fc ■& 

" October 11th. The Prussians who had lodged in the chateau last night left us 
" this morning, carrying away with them some of our provisions. 

♦ X %t •sfc 

" All day was spent in hunting for wounded and attending to those we received ; 
" two of our voitures were sent to Artenay to bring the wounded French soldiers to 
" our quarters. 

* * * * 

" October l&th. All the slightly wounded were sent to Orleans by order of the 
" Prussians. 

" October 16th. Some of the Ambulance, with Messrs Millson and Cooper, went to 
" Olivet, where they found 15 wounded, but were obliged to return on the 22nd, as the 
" Prussians found them in the way of their military movements, as well as too near 
" their advanced posts. 

$fc $fc *5K "Nfr 

" October 23rd. Everyone in the Ambulance was provided with a card, showing to 
" what ambulance they belonged, &c, one side of it written in French, the other in 
" German, and signed by the Prussian authorities. 

" October 25th. The Ambulance left Artenay for Orleans. 

* * * # 

" The number of wounded we attended to at Artenay was 185. 

* * * * 

" October 21st. A small number of our Ambulance went to Orleans to attend to the 
" Prussian wounded, to the number of 43. 

Vf» -fr 7|s *F" 

" October 28th. After obtaining a laisser-passer to Menars from the Prussian 
" authorities in Orleans, we went to Mer, passing Beaugency.j 

* * * * 

" October 29th. As no battle took place we had to wait at Menars until the 13th 
" November. 

" November VMh. After the battle of Coulmiers, in which the French were 
" victorious, we went to Beaugency, but, finding the wounded there had sufficient 
" surgical attendance, the next day we continued to Orleans." 

From a special record supplied by Dr. Horner, it appears that he and his coad- 
jutors between the 2nd and 7th December, 1870, took charge of no fewer than 191 
wounded men, of whom 3(5 died — a mortality of less than 10 per cent. 

A few additional particulars regarding the work of the 5th Ambulance are given 

by Mr. Millson. Under date Orleans, Oct. 9th, 1870, ho says: — "This was the day of 

"the battle fought near Artenay. The Ambulance had its position in a very large 

chateau a little distance from the village. The French artillery was about ten paces 



169 

"in front of the chateau. In the afternoon and night we received the whole of the 
" wounded — two hundred and fifty. Not a French army ambulance of any description 
" was to be seen." 

Writing from Nevers (date not given) he says : — " The 5th Ambulance moved 
" from Lowry to Nevers on the 27th ult. During its stay of two months at Lowry it 
"has had under its care upwards of 400 wounded. At present it is completely 
" unoccupied." 

This Ambulance, under Dr. Trelat's able direction, and with the assistance of the 
National Aid Society, did admirable work throughout the entire duration of the 
war. 

When the French Army of the Loire took the field, the Aid Society's branch at Tours 
Tours was organised, and Dr. Chater entered on duty at the Tours Ambulance. He Ambulance, 
states on the 10th December that 64 cases had been admitted, but no deaths are 
reported. 

At Saarbriicken, the opposite extremity of the field on the main line of conveyance ■j| n S Ii ?jJ l 1 
of wounded to Germany, it was found that great necessity existed for giving aid, not g^X-tic-ken 
only in stores, but also by establishing an English ambulance. Attention was called 
to the necessity for this in Messrs. Hart and Hill's Report, and the result was the 
opening of a fixed hospital in a large cavalry caserne. 

The following description of the building, and of the steps taken to render it in 
some measure fit for its purpose, is useful, as showing the kind of sanitary work 
required to render old buildings less unsafe for sick and wounded men than they would 
otherwise be. 

Dr. Junker, to whom the duty was confided, reports on the 30th October from 
Saarbriicken : — " I was called to Saarbriicken to take charge of and to arrange the 
" English lazareth. A cavalry caserne was suggested to me as the most suitable 
" building, with the direction to improve its sanitary condition according to my best 
" knowledge in the matter. This building had, until my arrival, been occupied partly 
" by the Dutch Ambulance and partly by German civil surgeons. In all the other 
" lazareths more or less pyaemia and gangrene had broken out. Several had to be 
" completely evacuated hi consequence. 

" The building offered to me, although by no means fit in its then existing state 
" for a hospital, was the only one which hitherto had remained comparatively free from 
" those terrible scourges, and with some expense, and no small amount of labour, 
" appeared to me capable of being converted to its present purposes. I therefore 
" decided to take it. 

" The building is 170 feet long and 40 feet wide. It consists of two ranges of 
" rooms, one overlooking a public square and the other the barrack yard. They are 
" separated by a long corridor, the only ventilation of which is one window at each 
" end. But by pulling down walls which divided them from two recesses on each 
" floor with one wmdow each, and which I shall allude to further on, and besides by 
" furnishing the staircase windows with large permanently open ventilators, I esta- 
" blished a sufficient current of ah. 

" The house consists of two storeys, which, with two wards for 12 patients 
" each on the ground floor, contain 26 wards, of which five are for officers' rooms 
" and one for an operating room. When put into complete repair, the hospital, 
" being a Government building, ought according to its area to contain 156 beds for 
" 136 patients. However, to give more air and space, I only intend having 143 beds 
" for 123 patients. One ward on each floor shall be reserved as an isolating ward, 
"indispensable to separate patients taken with gangrene, &c, and to prevent the 
" spread of the infection. 

" In order to establish the requisite ventilation, I had to make ventilators to each 
" window and door, and to break openings into the walls separating the wards from 
"the passages, to receive revolving windows, like those of the Aldershot barracks. 
" By these simple means I brought air and light into the otherwise dark and close 
" corridors. 

" The floors consisted of old boardings, saturated with the filth of barrack rooms 
" of many years' occupation, which, when washed, from their porosity, never dried. I 
" had them cleaned and scraped, the holes repaired by new planks, carbolised, and 
" then treated with hot oil and paint, which, besides disinfecting, also dispenses with 
" the scrubbing so obnoxious and prejudicial to the health of the patients. Now the 
" simple mopping with carbolised water keeps them clean and sweet. 

" The walls, of course, had to be limewashed. The old barrack cupboards, which. 
" ran round the walls, offensive with smell, lurking places of infection, were removed.. 
" The want of privies and closets, of which there is not a single one in the whole 
" building, was remedied by earth-closets, sent out by the Committee. 

" The small recesses in the corridors, already mentioned, two on each floor, were 
" furnished with iron stoves, and converted into handy places for heating water, &c, 
" during the night, when the kitchen, which is far distant, is closed. One of them, 
" fitted up with two slipper-baths, provided by the Prussian Government, serves as a 
" bath-room. 

" I have now completed the second floor, and removed my patients to it. The 
" first and ground floors are in hand, and the work carried on night and day with the 
" greatest speed, as since the surrender of Metz the order has been given to prepare 



170 



Hospital in 
Metst. 



Aided Reserve 
Hospitals. 

Hanau 
Hospital. 



Rine;en 
Hospital. 



" every available building for the reception of the wounded, and I am glad 
" to say that the English lazareth will be the first in readiness with its new and 
" healthy wards. In a few days the whole house will be ready for its destined 

" purpose. 

****** 

" The yard is flanked at two sides by stables, which I successfully applied to have 
left unoccupied whilst the building continues to be used as a lazareth. In one corner 
of the yard there is a horse-pond and cesspool, measuring 73 feet by 26 and 17, and 
6 feet deep, with an additional incline leading into it, 36 feet long and 12 feet wide. 
This was filled with the manure from the stables, and the percolated fluid from the 
same and from the adjacent privies. I had it cleaned, disinfected, and the stagnant 
fluid pumped out, but owing to undue delay, in spite of my reiterated urgent 
instructions, this most important sanitary work has not been carried out as quickly 
as I most strenuously advised from the beginning. I intend having it drained, 
filled up with soil, with a slope sufficient to carry off the drainage of accumulated 

water. 

****** 

" I also insisted on having a cart in the yard, containing two casks, one for the 
" excrements, the other for the cast-off bandages, which is to be removed and emptied 
" daily. This important preventative of disease also has not yet made its longed-for 
" appearance. To-day, however, I succeeded in overcoming the existing obstacles, 
" and these nuisances will be removed without further delay. I have been applying 
" the most energetic means, by having chloride of lime continually spread all over the 
" yard, the water drains, and the horse-pond, and by carbolising three times daily all 
" the wards, passages, and staircases, preventative means which I shall continue even 
" after the removal of the chief danger." 

There is no account given as to the cases received into this hospital. It would 
be very important to obtain the statistics of wounds and diseases admitted, and the 
results. 

Another illustration of improvement in hospital buildings took place in Metz after 
the surrender, under the management of Dr. Webb, who describes the work as follows, 
in a letter dated Metz, February 8th, 1871 : — 

" At the time of the capitulation there were about 20,000 sick and wounded in 
" Metz ; 200 of these were crowded into the central block of the large Caserne du 
" Genie. A part of the staff of Dr. Frank's Ambulance offered to take charge of this 
" establishment as a branch of the sister hospital at Epernay. 

" The first business was to cleanse the building, re-arrange the wards, reduce the 
" number of beds to 150, and remove all the less important cases. These were 
" replaced by others chosen from the hospitals in and near the town, on account of the 
" serious nature of the wounds and diseases. As death and cure made vacancies this 
" number was constantly kept up by a similar process of selection. The total of cases 
" treated during the two months of our stay thus amounted to 476 ; of these about 
" 300 have been sent to their homes, 48 are dead, and the rest, more or less convalescent, 
" have been redistributed among other ambulances. 

" Our labours ended on the 8th of February, and the empty building is handed 
" over to the authorities in a much better condition than we found it." 

Writing from Epernay on the 29th December, 1870, regarding this work, Dr. Frank 
says : — " I cannot sufficiently express my appreciation of Dr. Webb's labours in Metz, 
" where, as you know, he has succeeded in obtaining firm footing in face of waves of 
" difficulties. On the occasion of my last visit, Dr. Webb, assisted by Messrs. Wyman 
" and Crookshank, was looking after 180 cases of sick and wounded Frenchmen, in 
" wards which he had made as sweet and cleanly as they could be found in any hospital 
" of Europe — wards reeking with abominations at the time they were handed over to 
" his care." 

Between the 7th December, 1870, and 8th February, 1871, there were received 
into the Metz Hospital 476 cases, of which 48 died, or about 10 per cent. 

Considering the exceptionally unfavourable circumstances under which this hospital 
was conducted, this death-rate is a proof of good sanitary and professional work. 

There are three examples in the correspondence of what was properly reserve 
hospital work, aided by the London Committee and its agents in Germany. 

One of these hospitals was in charge of Drs. Dorin and Welsh at Hunan: 

It appears hospital accommodation existed, and that the people on the spot had 
done about all they could to render help to the sick and wounded returned on them 
from the seat of war. 

The Society furnished assistance of various kinds ; but it is not clear that medical 
and surgical aid might not have been obtained at Hanau. Germany abounds with 
skilled professional men, whose services might have been rendered in their own country 
to meet emergencies of this kind, without calling in surgeons from other countries. 

It appears that between August 6th, 1870, and February 24th, 1871, 265 returned 
cases uric received into Hanau Hospital, of which only 5 died, or about 19 per 1,000 
only. The result was most favourable, but then the cases had been weeded, no doubt, 
before liny arrived at Hanau from the battle-field. 

The second assisted hospital was a temporary one put up at I>ingen. It consisted 
of tents, and was not long in existence. From the 16th September to the 26th No- 



171 

vember, 1870, there were received into it 172 cases, of which 20 died, or about 11 per 
cent. 

This hospital was properly a reserve hospital at a distance from the seat of war, 
and, apparently, came more under the nature of provision for wounded men, which 
ought to have been made by the German Government rather than by the British Aid 
Society. 

The third case comes under the same category of a reserve hospital. It was con- Darmstadt 
structed at Darmstadt by Dr. Mayo, who, writing on September 22nd, 1870, states that Hos P ltal - 
he had received authority from the Hessian War Office to establish a military hospital 
for not less than 100 beds, the cost of the buildings and the material to be defrayed 
by the London Committee, a daily payment of half a thaler for the maintenance of 
each patient being made by the Government. 

From October, 1870, to March 5th, 1871, there were 710 cases treated in the 
buildings, but the number of deaths is not given. 

It appears to have been an excellent example of hut hospital construction, and 
no doubt did much good by exhibiting improved hospital arrangements — examples of 
which Dr. Mayo states were very much wanted. Writing on December 30th, 1870, he 
says : — " The greatest work that I can do here will be to persuade the Germans to 
" improve their own military hospitals. This can be done in a great measure by 
" keeping up this one, and producing the results that we produce here. Though we 
" have received all kinds of bad cases, our mortality compares very favourably with 
" that of other hospitals." 

With all its advantages, it still appears doubtful whether the work was not one 
to have been entirely undertaken by the Government, so far at least as its construction 
and administration were concerned. 

In the extracts of medical correspondence quoted above, there are several direct Sanitarywork. 
references to most important sanitary points, which have a greater influence on the 
results of wounds, operations, and cases of disease than the most refined surgical or 
medical treatment. 

Soldiers fit to take the field, and only entering on the fatigues of a campaign, 
ought, of all men, to be least liable to succumb to the effects either of disease or 
injury, and nevertheless the reports of medical officers show that fever, diarrhoea, 
dysentery, erysipelas, pyaemia, began to appear among the troops in hospital almost 
from the beginning of the war, and that these hospital diseases gave rise to great 
suffering and mortality. 

British medical officers of any experience know well enough that diseases of this 
kind do not spring up of their own accord, but that, on the contrary, if they break out 
in hospitals among men in fair average condition before they entered there, these 
diseases are the product of crowding, foul air, filth, and bad water. 

This view of the case was not only recognised but acted on by Dr. Sandwith, who, 
while among the towns in the north-east of France, did good service by insisting on 
cleansing measures being carried out by the authorities, even aiding the work by 
money. 

As early as August 25th, Dr. Mayo writes from Forbach that "there were a 
" considerable number of wounded at Saarbruck, and some diarrhoea ; the state of the 
" streets would quite account for the latter." 

He again writes from Pierre Villers on September 1st: — "I can say very little in 
" favour of any military hospital that I have seen near the front. The hospital at 
" Anoux la Grange alluded to in the first page of this letter was in a disgraceful 
" state, and a great deal of gangrene had occurred there. There was no excuse for 
" this, as the position is a very open one, and they had plenty of men and waggons. 
" They have at last put up a wooden building, which, though imperfect in many points, 
" is a great improvement ; but it scarcely makes amends for the previous crowding of 
4? wounded men into small chambers round a filthy courtyard, without making any 
" attempt to clean it." 

Similar testimony is borne by Dr. Sandwith, who says in his Report : — " I saw 
" during my tour a great deal to admire and a great deal to wonder at in the admirable 
" organisation and skill of the Germans in every department, but I am bound to add 
" that this important detail (hygiene) was sadly neglected." 

Writing in regard to the English hospital at Saarbriicken, on October 25th, 1870, 
Dr. Lightfoot describes the course which would naturally be taken by enlightened 
medical men in dealing with a bad building, together with the results, in the following 
words : — " When I arrived here a fortnight ago, some ten days after Drs. Junker and 
" Rodgers had taken the place in hand, alone and unsupported, I learned that the 
" greater part of their time had been given up to clearing out cesspools, improving 
" drainage and ventilation, and otherwise altering the internal and outside arrange- 
" ments of the building ; this, too, in addition to a very heavy press of surgical work. 
" At that time pyaemia, and a tendency to hospital gangrene and erysipelas, showed 
" itself in most of the wards, and almost every wound looked unhealthy ; but now 
" most of our patients may not only be stated to be doing well, but even as con- 
" valescent." 

After Dr. Mayo had fairly tried his hut hospital at Darmstadt, he says : — " I hope 
" and believe that the success of our treatment here will induce improvements in other 



172 

" hospitals, and that we shall have done more than merely treat the patients who have 
" been sent to us." 

I shall here insert some important remarks on the same subject by Miss Lees, 
who served in military hospitals, both French and German, during nearly the whole 
war. She says, — " Also I must add that whilst attention is paid to hygiene in France, 
" so far as my experience goes, it seems to be ignored altogether in Germany, where 
" most military hospitals had double roindows (which in cold weather were never allowed 
" to be opened !), and where, when they adopted the American wooden barrack system 
" (as at Berlin, Frankfort, Nancy, &c, for reserve lazareths), they carefully had all the 
" windows nailed up at the commencement of winter, leaving only one or two small 
" ventilators, movable, at the top of the building ! At Nancy (where temporary 
" wooden barracks were erected, at an expense of 36,000 florins, for fevers or con- 
" tagious diseases) the air was so utterly foul and corrupt that a feeling of utter 
" nausea came over me each time I entered one of them. Upon asking if they never 
" opened any of the windows, I received a look of indignation and surprise, and was 
" answered, ' Of course we do, that is to say the windows themselves are nailed fast, to 
" ' prevent draughts ; but there are ventilators in the roof, and we open one or two of 
" ' them every day, for one, and sometimes even two hours ! ' This was in February, 
" and they found it difficult to heat them to the degree German surgeons generally 
" think necessary." 

***** 

" Nothing could be more horrible than the air of some of the stationary hospitals 
" in Germany, in time even of peace !" 

Miss Lees states a striking exception to this state of matters in hospitals under 
the surveillance of Her Royal Highness the Princess Royal, in which the free moving 
atmosphere and the favourable results to the patients appear to have alike surprised 
the medical authorities. 

These facts and others in the medical correspondence open up a very important 
series of questions for the future consideration of aid societies. 

We must not undervalue the enormous difficulties in attending to points of 
hygiene during the field operations of great armies, especially when villages and 
towns are held in force, or where large numbers of men and animals are constantly 
passing through. Nevertheless, upon attention to hygiene under these very difficult 
conditions may depend to a very considerable extent the results of a campaign, and 
we may predict with confidence what will be the result if wounded or sick men are 
crowded into houses or other buildings, in places reeking with continually accumulat- 
ing abominations. These are, indeed, worse than any enemy, and in wars have often 
slain many times the number that has perished by sword and fire. 

The Geneva Convention expressly provides for the relief of suffering of sick and 
wounded in war, while the experience of the late war shows that there was a great 
amount of suffering and loss of life which could not have been prevented or relieved 
by any amount of supplies or of skilled medical or surgical aid. This was simply the 
result of neglect of hygiene. Suppose two organisations working alongside each 
other, one for supplies and surgical aid, the other for providing proper hospital 
buildings and keeping them in a healthy state, we should be justified by experience 
in affirming that the saving of life and suffering would be many-fold greater than if 
only surgical aid and stores were provided. It follows also that, so far as results are 
concerned, it is quite possible for the highest professional skill and the most lavish 
expenditure of stores to produce a very small effect in the way of relief when com- 
pared with the cost. 

The conclusion appears a very obvious one — namely, that the selection of 
buildings for sick and wounded men, the preparation of those buildings for 
their reception, together with proper hygienic control over the numbers, ventilation, 
cleanliness within and without, and purity and sufficiency of water supply, are, to say 
the least of it, as important elements in the relief of suffering and preserving of life as 
are the supplies and surgical attendance, and that, if we are to look for the maximum 
amount of good from the smallest expenditure of means, provision must be made for 
giving effect to hygienic measures through the Geneva Convention, until the time 
arrives when the Governments of Europe shall have introduced these measures 
throughout ail departments of their military service. 

But, while admitting that large buildings may be improved if there be time for 
doing so, it must be stated that no more disastrous idea can take possession of men's 
minds than that sick and maimed people ought on grounds of humanity to be packed 
into churches, barracks, and other unprepared buildings with as little delay as possible. 
This error has slain its tens of thousands in all wars. Even in specially constructed 
and well-managed civil surgical hospitals, every surgeon knows how difficult it is, with 
all his care, to prevent the invasion of hospital diseases. In extemporised war-hospitals 
they have been too often invited to enter. 

It is time that more rational ideas on subjects of this importance should prevail, 
and it would well become aid societies to turn their attention not only to improved 
ibulances, but to simpler methods of obtaining wholesome shelter for wounded nun at 
a safe and convenient distance from battle-fields, until their wounds have progressed 
so far as to admit of the sufferers being removed into properly appointed hospitals at a 
distance. 



173 

Reference has been made in the preceding pages to the importance of female Female 
nursing in military war hospitals ; and, as the medical correspondence contains a nursm g- 
few more notices of the subject, it may not be out of place to introduce them here. 

During the late war there was a very great amount of help rendered by volunteers 
of all classes in the way of partial nursing, including dressing, feeding, washing, and 
refreshing sick, carried on by ladies at all stopping places of trains of sick and wounded 
men on their way to Germany. The facts themselves furnish one of the most touching- 
episodes of the war. No distinction in the amount of care bestowed was made between 
friend and foe. The only requirement was that there should be suffering and need, 
and wherever these presented themselves there were female hands to bring relief. 
The same agency was found doing its beneficent work on the battle-field and after 
the battle, alike in the palace of the noble and in the cottage of the peasant. 

This work was, however, not hospital nursing properly so called. Nursing, in 
its proper sense, was carried out, and indeed can only be carried out, in fixed hospitals 
away from the field. 

There is no place for the female nurse in a regimental ambulance. 

As agents in the Aid Societies' work female nurses first appear in the hospitals 
at Sedan and in the vicinity. Dr. Frank's estimate of the value of their services has 
been already given. Dr. Sims, the head of the Anglo-American Ambulance, adds to 
this the following testimony : — " While in the midst of this perplexity about nursing, 
" I had the good fortune to meet Mr. Landle, of the 'Illustrated London News,' who 
" told me that Mr. Parker was at Donchery (about three miles off) with some English 
" ladies, who had come from. London to nurse wounded soldiers. I lost no time in 
" searching them out. I offered Dr. Parker a ward in the hospital, and I implored 
" the ladies to give up their labours in Donchery and join us. 1 found four of them 
" diligently attending sixteen wounded Germans, when we had more than 400 in the 
" greatest need of their kind care. I am truly thankful to say that Dr. Parker and 
" the ladies came at once. They are Miss Pearson, Mrs. Mason, Miss MacLaughlin, 
" Miss Neligan, Miss Barclay, and Mrs. Holtemann. About this time four sisters of 
" charity from the town volunteered to help us, two of them during the day, the other 
" two at night. From the moment that women were introduced as nurses the whole 
" aspect of our establishment was changed." 

Dr. Sims further states two or three points to show how the female nurse excels 
the infirmier : he says, " How often, in the last ten days, have I passed through our 
" wards at midnight, and found the man-nurse asleep, absolutely snoring, beside his 
" brother-man who was in the last agony of death ! But the woman slept not; there 
" she stood with cordials and kind words, and while she gently smoothed his pillow 
" listened to his last words of love, sent in broken whispers to a doting mother, a 
" loving sister, or perhaps to a heart-broken wife. This is no fancy picture : it's a 
" sad reality that I have witnessed over and over again in our hospital. 

" Only last night a poor wounded soldier's life was saved by one of our lady-nurses 
" in a most remarkable manner." 

The case alluded to by Dr. Sims was one of secondary haemorrhage, Avhich was 
discovered in the dead of the night by the nurse, who thought it her duty to have one 
look more at her patients before she retired to rest. 

After the Anglo-American Ambulance was divided between Epernay and Orleans, 
female nurses still formed part of the establishment, and continued to do excellent 
work; but, at Orleans, Dr. Parker reported that the kindness of the sisters of charity, 
who visited the Bavarian wounded, " seemed to be little appreciated by these hardy 
" Teutons, and that some one or two only, more enthusiastic than the rest, persevered 
" with their attentions. I must say that, though a strong advocate for female nurses, 
" considering the nature of the work here, men are the better adapted for it." 

We have already seen that Dr. Frank had formed a very different estimate of the 
value of female nurses in the Epernay division. 

Dr. Davis, who did important service in ambulances near Sedan where there were 
no nurses, but who had opportunities of seeing them at work elsewhere, writes, on 
September 26th, as follows: — " I have been extremely grieved to find such a perfect 
" absence of ladies at the various ambulances. How the poor fellows get on without 
" their tender care I certainly wonder, and indeed I feel certain that the mortality 
" would be less were the sufferers favoured by the presence and aid of some of our 
" English lady-nurses ; for can any but women endure the monotonous round of the 
" same thing, day by day ? or are men to be found willing and able to sustain succes- 
" sive nights of wakefulness ? 

" I wish I knew how to persuade some of our Christian ladies of the United 

" Kingdom to follow the example of Miss Pearson and her company, whom I saw this 

" afternoon full of delight because smiling faces were worn by most of their 

" patients. 

***** % 

" I wish I had a dozen such ladies at Pont Mougis." 

German sisters did good service in the English hospital at Saarbriicken, as appears 
from the following extract of a letter by Dr. Lightfoot, dated October 25th, 1870: — 
" Our nursing arrangements are capital. I never saw anything equal to the nursing 
" abilities of the sisters who wait upon our wounded. Many of these German nuns 
" would quite put to shame the bulk of our third and fourth year English medical 

2 A 



174 

" students, not only by their natural feminine lightness and dexterity in surgical 
" manipulation, but also by their very knowledge of the rules which direct it. Not 
" only those who so excel, but all of them, are most anxious to obey every command 
" proceeding from the properly constituted medical authorities, and all are most 
" attentive and kind to the patients under their charge ; they are most self-sacrificing, 
" and are equally liked by French and Germans, of whom we have about an equal 
" number." 

Dr. Kane gives similar testimony to the excellence of the Saarbriicken nursing in 
a letter of November 1st, 1870, in which he says : — 

" The English sisters are admirable, and as for the German sisters I can truly say 
" that they are among the very best nurses it has been my lot to see — so quiet, so 
" patient, so cheerful, and so well up to their business." 

Dr. Mayo also reports favourably as to the German nurses in his hospital at 
Darmstadt. On November 17th, 1870, he says: — • 

'* The volunteer nurses of the Alice-Frauen-Verein do their work very well, and I 
" am much indebted to them. One English sister is with them, belonging to the 
" Society of All Saints', Margaret Street ; she was sent out by Her Royal Highness the 
" Princess Christian, and works well with the others." 

Dr. Frank, who was at Neufchatel in February, 1871, with aid from the British 
Society, after describing the difficulties which the 4th Paris Ambulance experienced in 
providing for its 700 or 800 wounded, adds : — 

" Still, thanks to the hand of woman, represented by an indefatigable band of 
" sisters, cleanliness and order reigned throughout." 

Mr. Barton Smith mentions a painful case at Versailles, in which, after one of the 
battles under Mont Valerien, the German surgeons went to bed after having counted 
the batches of wounded arriving. He says : — 

li There was no one even to give an injection of morphia, and many of the poor 
" fellows were in such agony as to keep those who were wanting sleep awake by their 
" howls of pain. I therefore remained up the whole night, and one item of my work 
" was fifty-two subcutaneous injections of morphia. 

" There were, perhaps, 200 who had no attendance but that voluntarily offered by 
" four sisters of charity, who could not speak German." 

Miss Lees, in her replies to questions, considers the German sisterhoods as 
affording better nursing elements than the German deaconesses. 

The result of work of English nurses during the late war must be considered as 
very satisfactory. But at the same time it must be borne in mind that the nursing 
service never existed long in the same buildings and under the same conditions. In 
the majority of cases referred to in the correspondence, there was no permanent 
hospital organisation. Medical officers had to extemporise hospitals in various kinds 
of buildings, which had scarcely been got into good working order before they were 
broken up. There was no continued strain on the mechanism after the immediate 
excitement was past. There was, moreover, great present need, and many of the 
ladies had been in the habit of discharging civil hospital duties. There was no diffi- 
culty, therefore, in their entering on work of the class which presented itself, and 
there is no doubt that they were the means of saving much suffering and life. 

It would be well, however, to make some more systematic future provision for a 
supply of trained nurses under superintendence, to be despatched to points where 
their services would be most needed. 
Pursing in During the late war a great amount of good, in the way of accommodation and 

care for wounded, at times when both were most required, was supplied by private 
individuals of all classes in France. There may have been exceptions, but the rule 
was that everywhere a wounded man was cared for as much as local means 
admitted of. 

After the great battles on the north-east of France almost every cottage within 
reach had its wounded inmates, tended by the people, and supplied with necessaries 
so far as it was in their power to supply them. Writing on this subject from Sedan, 
on September 26th, 1870, Dr. Davis says : — 

,l Up to the 19th I found many wounded in private houses around Sedan, of 
" whom the greatest care was taken by the proprietors, but who had not been visited 
" by any medical man since the 1st till I saw them. No words can express the 
" satisfaction I had in witnessing the conduct of these friends of the unfortunate 
•' wounded. I will just refer to two cases. At Fond de Givonne was a private 
k ' French soldier wounded in the left knee by a ball from a needle-gun, which set up 
•' no slight degree of inflammation. He, with 44 others, was placed in the barn of a 
" middle-aged man. 

" For several days the owner of the barn and his family provided, as well as they 
'•were able, for their wounded guests, and at their own expense. One expected to 
" find them anxious to be rid of the last remains of such trouble ; but no, they were 
" glad thai one was left, after the removal of the others, to their care, whom they 
" treated more like a son than like a, countryman. And 1 avow that, no trained nurse 
" ever carried out more particularly the directions 1 laid down for my patient than the 
" master of that barn. lie had been applying simple poultices to the wounds, which I 
k ' found as healthy as could be expected. When the good man heard that my 
" assistant and myself had to do all the so-called ' dirty work ' in dressing some 



175 

" other wounded at the barracks, he at once volunteered to attend on us; however, 
" the officials placed two soldiers at my disposal, and so I did without him. 

" This morning a French officer was sent off to Brussels. Him I attended at the 
" house of a family in Sedan, whose business has been ruined by the war. But nothing 
" could exceed the tenderness, the care, and the kindness spent by Madame upon this 
" distressed gentleman, whose wounds were carefully dressed by herself, and without 
" any surgical aid until T arrived." 

Other evidence of a similar nature might be given from the correspondence. 

The facts appear to point out that systematic aid in stores and in attendance, 
distributed to farm-houses and cottages into which wounded have been carried after 
battles, might advantageously form an integral part of the work of Aid Societies. 
Wounded men are much safer scattered about in twos and threes in the country, than 
if crowded together into dirty towns in any kind of large building that may be nearest 
at hand. 

Having iioav given the chief practical points contained in the medical corre- 
spondence, I shall resume the experience in a few conclusions ; but, before doing this, 
it appears necessary to refer to the following questions which have suggested them- 
selves while perusing the letters. 

Considering the unexampled effort made to relieve the sufferings arising out of Did Aid 
the late war, the question naturally occurs, to what extent the proceedings of neutrals pieties 
in this matter may have contributed to the general results of the war. carrying on 

It is a well-known fact that the number of sick and wounded belonging to an the war ? 
army has, in times past, been a very important consideration in carrying out military 
movements, and, moreover, that the moral aspect produced by the amount of in- 
efficiency from this cause, has entered as an element into strategic questions. Have 
the benevolent efforts of neutrals in relieving so large an amount of suffering been 
instrumental in freeing combatants from these difficulties ? 

A medical officer who was with both armies during the war has stated to me his 
experience under these heads as follows : — " I have no doubt whatever that interna- 
" tional aid, whether given in personal service, in kind, or in money, especially the last 
" and the first, really contributes towards the costs of the war, and that, although on 
" the side of humanity both sides benefit, the victor derives in addition a military 
" advantage The personal services and stores from various countries so promptly 
" rendered at the very outset of the war, very much facilitated the rapid movements 
" of the German armies, and contributed to their warlike successes. I firmly believe 
" that the German armies did not halt or delay an hour on account of their sick and 
" wounded, although in such enormous numbers. The general spirit of kindness and 
" charity on the part of the French inhabitants and the swarms of volunteers relieved 
" the army from all anxiety on this head." 

The points here raised appear to require discussion. The Geneva Convention 
was intended solely for the relief of suffering. It was never intended to add a new 
element of efficiency to armies, still less to aid the victor. It appears to be doubtful 
whether it has not led to all three results. 



PRACTICAL CONCLUSIONS. 

A careful consideration of the medical reports and correspondence, and also of 
reports and letters of other agents of the National Aid Society having reference to 
the supply of stores for sick and wounded, appears to point to the following practical 
results : — 

1. That the combined official and voluntary surgical aid and stores for sick and 
wounded provided by both belligerents fell greatly short of what was necessary, even 
from the opening of the war ; that this deficiency continued to exist up to its close ; 
and that there is every reason to expect that sick and wounded of belligerents in 
future wars will require all the voluntary aid which can be supplied by neutrals, 
especially after great battles. 

2. There is ample proof that, notwithstanding the want of sufficient time for 
previous arrangement and organisation of relief, a very large amount of good has been 
accomplished, and much suffering and life saved by the Aid Society's work. Able 
surgeons wsre sent into the field, hospitals were supplied with stores, sick and wounded 
men received medical comforts, attendance, and nursing when they were in sore need 
of them, and examples of British hospital management, especially as regards hygienic 
arrangements for patients and wards, were exhibited, which it is hoped may bear good 
fruit in time to come. 

o. The deficiencies mentioned in the preceding abstracts of correspondence are of 
such a nature as to admit of prevention, so far at least as the uncertainties of war 
render it possible for foresight in such matters to be exercised. 

4. The following improvements of procedure are suggested by the experience 
detailed in the correspondence. 

5. Surgical aid in war is most required only for a few days after great battles. 
For actions on a small scale the ordinary staff would in most cases be sufficient, In 
the present state of professional education on the continent of Europe, it is highly 

2 A2 



176 

probable that, except in great emergencies, sufficient voluntary surgical aid would be 
forthcoming on the spot or near it. It follows from these considerations that in 
our insular position the kind of aid we could most efficiently render would probably be 
by having in readiness a staff of skilled surgeons, dressers, and trained nurses to be 
despatched at a moment's notice when a great battle was expected, and to undertake 
duty as a national staff until the numbers of wounded were so reduced that the staff 
might retire or change its position. 

In this way all questions as to foreign rank and precedence would be avoided. 

6. It is unadvisable to send out surgeons on the chance of being useful. But if 
any surgeons sent out by the Society choose to take service in belligerent ambulances, 
it should be with the distinct understanding that they must follow the directions of 
the medical officer of the ambulance. 

7. There is sufficient evidence to show that the service of collecting wounded 
after battles fell short of the necessities of both armies, with all their organisation. If 
ambulances are sent from this country, their destination should be mainly directed to 
meeting this deficiency, viz., dressing, giving medical comforts on the field, and 
removing wounded men to the fixed ambulances. This service would be better 
accomplished by numerous light flying ambulances than by sending a small number of 
large heavily moving establishments such as those described in the preceding 
pages. 

8. The store administration requires improvement. Bearing in mind the ever- 
varying circumstances of field warfare, the following points on this subject are sug- 
gested for consideration : — 

Base Store Depots, their number, localities, and organisation should be determined 
beforehand. 

Advanced Movable Depots, supplied from these principal stores, to be organised, 
and lines of communication to be kept up between the depot and the advanced stores 
from which these have to be supplied. 

The position of all depots should be communicated to officers commanding, and 
also to principal medical officers of belligerents. 

Stores to be issued from all the depots on requisition from ambulances and hos- 
pitals in their vicinity. Much useful information no doubt exists as to the proportions 
of different classes of stores which were required. From this information store lists 
might be prepared for future guidance. 

9. An intelligence department to be organised in connection with the advanced 
depots to visit all villages and houses into which sick and wounded men have been 
received, as well as all belligerent or international ambulances and hospitals, to collect 
information and follow it up. The chief of this department should be an army medical 
officer of inspecting rank, through whose hands requisitions for stores, whenever 
practicable, should pass. This precaution seems necessary, for there is evidence of 
stores having been issued in excess of the requirements ; and it has also been stated 
that stores supplied by other aid societies had been passed over as gifts to charitable 
institutions unconnected with either army. The inspecting officer should advise on 
the position and movement of depots, and prepare lists of articles required for keeping 
them up. In certain cases store carts should be sent out to meet prospective wants 
in remote localities. The store agent at the depot must be held responsible for 
compliance with requisitions. 

10. The same inspecting officer might distribute voluntary surgical aid, where 
such was required in detached country houses, and might withdraw or shift the medical 
aid when he considered it necessary to do so. A few good surgeons for this purpose 
might perhaps be advantageously placed at the depots. They should act only under 
directions of the inspector. 

11. Much good appears to have been done in many cases by contributions in 
money. This is by far the simplest way of conferring relief, because it enables the 
recipients of it to purchase the precise stores they want, and at the time they want 
them. If all hospital requisites could be obtained on the spot, gifts of money would 
probably be the most economical way of providing them. Possibly some means might 
be adopted by which this method might be extended so as to limit the cost, delay, and 
difficulties attending on the transport of stores during war, and to avoid at the same 
time misappropriation of the funds to other objects. 

12. A simple form of store bookkeeping and accounting appears to be required. 
It should be very general in its nature, but sufficient to show the quantities received 
and how expended. 

13. Some further consideration is required as to the best kind of shelter for 
wounded men for the first week or two after battles. 

There is evidence that during the late war agglomerations of wounded into what 
is called " a hospital " has been as destructive of life as ever, while it has been stated 
that wounded have recovered best when scattered among cottages, attended almost 
entirely by the people, and often indifferently fed. 

It would be far better and safer to place wounded men, as a rule, in detached 
dwelling houses or under a canvas roof, or any similar shelter, sloping from a barrack 
<ii- church wall, rather than to take them inside. 

"What appears to be most required now-a-days in field work is, ingenuity in turning 
every little thing to account for affording shelter and comfort to wounded men at a 



177 

safe distance from the battle-field. Possibly some instructions might be drawn up to 
help in this direction. 

14. Sufficient has been stated to show an absolute necessity for some understanding 
being come to regarding improvements in the hygiene of belligerent military hospitals. 
As matters stand at present, every want of a sick or wounded soldier may be supplied 
by voluntary help, except the prime requisites of cleanliness and fresh air, the need of 
which has as yet been imperfectly recognised, at least in some German military 
hospitals. 

15. There is no evidence in the correspondence to show necessity for constructing 
reserve hospitals in any belligerent country. But there is evidence to show that aid 
might be rendered with advantage to reserve hospitals, in certain cases where local 
resources have been exhausted. Satisfactory proof of need should, however, be required 
in all such cases. 

1(5. There is want of information regarding the constitution and organisation of 
German, Dutch, Belgian, Swiss, and Italian international Ambulances, although there 
is evidence that good work was done by all of them. The excellence of Dutch Ambu- 
lances is freely admitted in the correspondence. 

17. It would apparently be desirable in any future conference of International 
Societies to discuss details such as those indicated in the preceding paragraphs, and in 
doing so it is possible that a clearer insight might be obtained into the amount and 
kind of assistance which each neutral country could best contribute. It is possible 
also that some common ground of co-operation might be found, so that, while indi- 
vidual liberty of administration is preserved, all international aid for sick and wounded 
men might be better systematised and directed. 

JOHN SUTHERLAND. 

London, July 27th, 1871. 



178 



APPENDIX D. 



REPORTS on the Construction and Equipment of the British Service Ambulance Waqgon. 

1. By Surgeon Manley, V.C. 

The wheels, axle-trees, shafts, springs, also the beams whioh connect the fore 
and hind portions of the waggon, are, as far as their construction goes, everything 
that could be desired : they combine strength with lightness. There is one defect, 
however, viz., the inability which exists of making a sharp turn. It is impossible, as 
the waggon is now constructed, to place the fore wheels at right angles with the 
hind ones, and in attempting to turn in a small compass the tire of the fore wheel 
comes in contact with the side of the body of the waggon, and as soon as this happens 
in any further attempt to turn something must give way. This occurred once during 
our recent marches ; the driver of one of the waggons being ordered by a Prussian to 
turn quickly, and there being very little room, endeavoured to do so, forgetting in the 
hurry the fact of the wheel being stopped by the side of the waggon ; the horses 
still being pulled round, the weakest part gave way, viz., the cross-bar of the shafts, 
whioh was split in two. In all other respects the portions of the waggon which I 
have named are not to be improved upon. As far as I am able to judge, there are 
only three plans by which the defect in turning might be remedied, and each of these 
is open to objection. 1st. A piece might be taken out of the side of the waggon, so 
as to allow of the wheel passing under ; this, however, would interfere with the 
permanent stretcher, and is impracticable. 2nd. To decrease the diameter of the 
fore wheels, so as to admit of their passing under ; this might make them too small. 
3rd. To raise the body of the waggon sufficiently high for the present fore wheels to 
pass under. This would make the ascent for wounded up to the front seat too great. 
A modification of the 2nd and 3rd plans might perhaps be the best to be adopted. 

The body of the waggon, for facility of description, I shall divide into three portions. 
The front, or that involved in the fore seat ; the centre, or that used for the permanent 
stretchers ; and the rear part, or that used in the back seat and tail-board. The front 
part is defective from the great difficulty which a wounded man finds in getting up 
into it, also the cramped position of his legs, from the front end of the carriage being 
so confined. It is impossible for a man to sit straight, as there is not sufficient room 
for his feet, and in the case of a man wounded in the foot this is a cause of much 
suffering, and in practice it is found impossible with any degree of comfort to 
accommodate more than two men in the front seat, as, if wounded in the feet or legs, 
they are obliged to sit sideways, and if in the hands or arms it is found that the seat 
is not wide enough to give them the necessary space, so as to avoid the injured limbs 
being hurt by the jolting of the waggon. There must also be a partition between 
the front seat and the centre of the waggon, as the draught which is created at 
present through it renders it colder than being in the open air, and in cold weather is 
greatly complained of, and causes much additional suffering to the wounded, the 
present screen which hangs from the roof in front of the front seat being totally 
inadequate, and very defective. 

There is at present no protection except the front of the waggon, which is only 
obstructive for the feet of the wounded. The whole arrangements as regards the 
front seat require replanning. The defects might be remedied in the following way. 
Increased space may be obtained by widening the body of the waggon : this, however, 
must be limited to the axle-trees, but I think even with the present axle-trees and 
wheels an additional width of six inches might be made to the body of the waggon, this 
would increase the space available for a front seat also by six inches, but this would be 
hardly enough, and the additional space for the comfortable accommodation of three 
wounded in front must be obtained, as in the present Prussian ambulance waggon, 
by a projection of the sides ; this would be required only as regards the front seat. 
The front piece of the waggon must be entirely done away with, and the sides as 
regards the front seat made as open as possible, the object being that when 
wounded are getting up or being plaeed in the front seat there should be nothing in 
the shape of sides or front to obstruct them or that they should have to get over; in 
fact, tin; access to the seat should be as open as possible. In place of the present 
front to the waggon there should simply be a foot-board slightly turned up in front 
so as to raise the toes. The sides should lie cut away in a- line from the front of the 
seat. The seat should be cushioned, as also tin; back, which should form the partition 
between the front and centre of the waggon. In front of the loot-board there might 
be two uprights and a rail as a means of assistance to the wounded in getting up. 
The feet, Legs, and lower part of the body of the wounded should be protected by a 
leather apron, which should fasten round the foot-board and come up sufficiently high 
to form a rest, for the hand or arm in case of their being wounded, and should be 

Sufficiently ample to allow of blankets being wrapped round the men, and not, as is the 
ease in the present apron in rear, not too scanty to be buckled when the men are sitting. 



179 

When the wounded are getting up it can be thrown forward over the cross-bar. 
There should be a permanent roof to the front seat, and from the sides and upper 
edge of this there should be a movable hood, which in cold weather could be let 
down sufficiently low to form with the apron a complete shelter for the wounded 
men ; but on no account is it to be made of painted canvas, which is proved to be 
rotten and brittle and unserviceable. In this respect our ambulances proved a striking 
contrast to the Prussian, our movable roof, covered with painted canvas, as regards 
the canvas became soon torn and ragged, after six weeks in the field ; the canvas 
blinds on the sides of theirs, which had been used throughout the war, being still good 
and intact. 

As regards the centre of the waggon, it has been the custom, and is, I am given 
to understand, so taught at Netley, that the wounded are to be brought in from tho 
field on the -field stretcher, then to be laid on the ground, perhaps in the wet and 
mud, there being no legs to the field stretcher, then to be taken off the field stretcher, 
then to be placed upon the permanent ones, and then to be placed in the waggon. 
This plan was so bad, inhuman, and caused so much additional suffering, that I imme- 
diately stopped it, and had the permanent stretchers taken into the field, but which 
from the shortness of the handles are at present very inconvenient to carry ; still, this 
was a small matter when considered with the amount of suffering saved to the seriously 
wounded, those for whom the permanent stretchers are provided, in not having to 
move them again off the stretcher until they were placed in the hospital. How all this 
bears on the construction of the waggon is, that it must be lengthened so as to accom- 
modate the permanent stretcher in what must be its future form, viz., increased length 
of handles, so that it can be borne properly into the field, as it is hoped that the days 
of the present field stretcher are numbered, and that the permanent stretcher of the 
waggon, in its improved form, will be the only one in the service, as it is the only 
one that is required, i.e., if the Prussian plan of forming a body of " Kranken-triiger " 
is carried out in our own service. It appears to be the proper plan, and with us it is 
only bringing the men out of the companies to the stretchers, instead of, as at present, 
giving the stretchers out to the men in the companies. An additional length of at 
least eighteen inches to the waggon will be required to accommodate the stretcher, 
and as the waggon would have to be widened to give more space in the front and 
back seats, instead of one centre-board there might be two, the well between them 
serving as a place for the rifles of the wounded. It would not do to widen the 
stretcher or alter its construction much, as every ounce added to its weight is so much 
additional for the bearers to carry. The stretcher as at. present constructed could 
hardly be better, except that the head requires to be raised a little more. It was 
found in practice that it was too low, and straw, or anything that could be procured, 
had to be placed under the man's head. It was found also that when the man was 
placed in the waggon, just over his head and about two or three inches from his fore- 
head, was the iron bar which keeps the sides of the waggon together, and was much 
in the way. This must be altered by making the sides of the waggon three or four 
inches higher, and the iron bar slightly bowed upwards. 

As regards the rear seat, with the increased width which it is proposed to give to 
the waggon, it might be made to accommodate three Avounded, but as in its present 
condition, although said to be for three, it will practically hold only two, this is not 
likely, as the increase of width can only be a few inches. It must, therefore, remain 
with only a slight increase of width, as it is impossible to extend the rear seat as it is 
proposed to do the front. The seat must also be provided with a movable cushion, 
the edge of Avhich for security might be attached to the board that separates the centre 
of the waggon from the hind seat The waggon, calculating only two for the back 
seat, will accommodate three in front, two in centre, and two in rear; total, seven. In 
theory it is said to carry eight — viz., three in front, two in centre, and three in rear ; 
but as in its present condition practically it can only carry six, I consider by the 
alterations which I have already suggested that I have made a gain of one, and will 
endeavour to show that it will carry nine. 

The upper edge of the tail-board when let down projects a little above the back 
seat, i.e., the floor of the waggon ; this was found to be in the way of the per- 
manent stretchers in taking them in and out, and in all three of the waggons with me 
portions of it were splintered off. This might be remedied by its being made on a 
level, or a little lower than the floor of the waggon. It would not matter if when the 
tail-board was up a small space was left vacant between it and the floor of the 
waggon. Some different arrangement must also be made as regards the hinges of the 
tail-board, as it is apt in a hurry to be let fall back too rapidly, and the hinges are 
strained, the effect being that when it is again put up it will not fit so as to place the 
iron pins through the holes in it. 

The apron is not made full enough ; it was found impossible to buckle it up when 
the men were sitting, and in cases of wounds to the feet it made, in its present scanty 
state, too much pressure on the injured part. It is also required to be more firmly 
fixed to the foot-board, the small copper nails, and only one row of them, being too 
slight for the apron itself and the rough usage it has to go through. It should, as is 
proposed for that in front, be made to come up higher, both as a covering and to rest 
wounded arms and hands upon. The foot-board ought also to be made wider, twelve 



180 

inches, to accommodate the foot of a man sitting straight on the seat, so as to obviate 
the pressure of the apron on injured toes and feet. 

The roof is the most defective part of the whole waggon. Although it must 
always be remembered that things which have to be put on board ship must be 
portable and pack compactly, still this method of roofing the waggon is so objec- 
tionable in every respect that it must be altered. It was found in practice that the 
bows were very brittle, and if any weight was put into the basket which is suspended 
from them that they were apt to break. They also allowed of too much movement, 
the objection to which I will endeavour to explain as I go on. 

The painted canvas covering is also most objectionable. It was also found on 
service to be easily torn, rotten, and soon worn out. It is, as at present arranged, 
fastened to the sides of the waggon by numerous leather straps ; these soon become 
hard and shrunken, and it is found that, on account of the mobility allowed by the 
bows of the roof, on going over the rough or paved roads the straps become 
torn out of the canvas, and the canvas itself gives way. The arrangement of the 
basket suspended from the roof, to carry the packs of the wounded, is absurd. It was 
found that when it was slung ready for the purpose for which it is intended, on 
accoimt of the mobility allowed by the bowed roof, on going along the road the 
basket gradually subsided to one or other of the sides, and, if it had been full of packs, 
would have shot them out on to one or other of the severely wounded who would 
be lying underneath ; besides, for a severely wounded man, say, suffering from a bullet 
wound through the chest, to see above him a large basket full of packs, jolting about, 
which every moment may be expected to fall upon him, and crush the little remaining 
life out of him, is not calculated to improve his condition. I found that the only way 
to keep it at all steady was to get four additional straps, which I had in the general 
service waggon, and buckle them so as to act as side guys, but I never dare use it to 
put the packs in, for fear of accidents to the wounded lying underneath. It must be 
entirely done away with, as must also the present roof. The best one to substitute is 
the Prussian, viz., a light permanent roof (in ours, for packing to go on board ship, 
it could be made to take to pieces) supported on side uprights, having the sides open, 
and covered with stout unpainted canvas blinds that could be rolled up ; this would 
give sufficient ventilation to the waggon, and it could be regulated to the degree of 
cold, which it cannot be in our present waggon. With a permanent roof, which might 
be lower than our present one, means might be arranged so that a wounded man 
might lift himself up or alter his position. The place for the packs, as in the Prussian 
waggon, would be outside on the roof, kept in their place by a low iron rail about 
three inches from the roof and running round it. Where the water-bottle is at present 
is a great waste of space and might be much better utilised. The waggon as it is at 
present equipped is very defective ; in fact, a light spring-cart, would do almost equally 
well. It must be remembered, and this is a fact which in the equipment of the 
waggon appears to have been entirely forgotten, that the most constant use of these 
waggons is not to bring the wounded in from the battle-field, but to transport them 
and the sick long distances from one town to another, and from the temporary field 
hospitals near the field of battle to the general hospitals in the larger towns ; in fact, 
where they are used once to bring in wounded from the field, they are used ten times 
for the latter purpose. It is therefore necessary that, in addition to a barrel of water, 
they should have not only some means of cooking coffee, cocoa, or beef tea, but also 
the means of carrying these things and a few others besides, siich as brandy and port 
wine. I may mention that the want of this was never so apparent as in the present 
war. It so happened that our waggons were several times employed under the 
Prussians to evacuate the temporary hospitals and to carry the wounded very long- 
distances. I remember once when the march was about 45 miles continuously from 
3 o'clock p.m. to 5 o'clock a.m. the next morning, with the cold intense. The convoy 
consisted of about 300 Avounded. I will not enter into the question of how judicious 
this was, but all this time the wounded were without food of any kind, and it can 
easily be imagined what their sufferings must have been. If the ambulances had 
been properly equipped with the means of cooking and the materials to cook, it would 
have been easy not only on this journey but also on others during a halt to have made 
hot coffee, cocoa, or tea for them all, and so have perhaps saved the lives of some of 
them. I propose, therefore, to put in the position where the water-bottle is now 
placed a box like a limber-box, to be filled up with tea, coffee, sugar, cocoa, extract of 
meat, wine and brandy, also a few medicines and some surgical appliances. The box 
to have side and hind uprights with a cushioned bar attached to their upper e nds for 
the men to lean against. On the lid of the box should be two canvas bags the size of 
the lid of the box, opening on the outer sides ; in these the horses' blankets could be 
kept, and the openings laced together with a string. This would make a, comfortable 
seat for two, if not three, slightly wounded, and so the waggon which 1 propose would 
carry nine, if not ten, men instead of what in practice it is found to do, six. There 
need be no fear about the additional weight for the two horses, for as regards the 
waggon it would not be much if any increased in weight, and I have several times by 
taking out the permanent stretchers, centre board, and end board, carried ten and 
twelve men lor inarches of twenty to thirty miles without distressing the horses. To 
each waggon there ought to be two large-sized wooden buckets, and fitting into them 



181 

two large-sized camp-kettles, so arranged and fixed that they conld be got at and 
used with quickness, and easily replaced. The present water-barrel would be much 
better placed by being slung up to the beams on either side between the fore and 
hind wheels, or strapped to either side on its end above and between the fore and hind 
wheels. The present heavy drag and chain are not required at all. An ambulance 
waggon of this kind would, I think, meet every requirement. 

The percentage of wounds that require to be transported from the field of battle 
in the recumbent position appears to be one-third ; in a waggon that carries six men 
two permanent stretchers are sufficient. But when the ambulance waggon is required 
to evacuate an hospital, out of which perhaps most of the slight cases have been 
removed, there will be a larger proportion which will require to be transported lying down. 
To meet this, I should propose that the waggon which I have described should be 
capable of carrying two more stretchers. This might easily be accomplished by 
fixing from the centre of the hinder part of the permanent roof an iron stanchion 
having its end crooked to the right and left ; on these crooks should be placed two 
stout india-rubber rings for the handles of the stretchers to be slung into ; and from 
each side of the waggon opposite these two other iron crooks and india-rubber rings 
for the outer stretcher-poles to be slung to. In front, the side crooks and india-rubber 
rings would be similarly placed to those in rear, and for the ends of the poles in the 
centre an iron upright, having its end crooked also to the right and left, should be 
fixed, also furnished with india-rubber rings. These stretchers, when not required, 
might be fastened close up to the roof by straps, and the hind stanchion also hy 
means of a joint in it be made to lie along the roof, and kept there altogether out of 
the way by a strap or hook. 

W. G. N. MANLEY, Surgeon, Royal Artilleri,. 



2. By ASSISTANTVSURGEON G. W. McNALTY. 

As the British sick-transport waggon and its equipment have had a very exten- 
sive trial in the late Franco-German war, I thought it would be useful to endeavour to 
point out their advantages and defects as they appeared to me from personal obser- 
vation on service, and in conclusion to suggest some alteration in them which I con- 
sider it would be advisable to carry out. 

Each sick-transport waggon was drawn by two horses, and under ordinary cir- 
cumstances, and on the main roads of France, which are so well kept, this number 
was sufficient; but on by-ways, and when the ground was rendered difficult for transit 
by heavy rains or falls of snow, especially when the distance to be travelled was 
considerable, the tax on two horses when the waggon was fully loaded was too much. 
They became quite exhausted, and some of them fell ill from the excessive exertion 
they had to undergo. Although two mules only are allowed by the medical regula- 
tions for field hospitals to the waggon, four draught animals are appropriated to it in 
the equipment authorised for the Military Train, and I think that the latter number 
should always be available for cases of necessity. 

With regard to the question whether the drivers ought to be seated on the 
waggon or drive postillion fashion, if four horses be employed it appears to me that 
the latter method is the more desirable one of conducting them ; but even when two 
only are required it is the better plan. 

We have been obliged at night to make our way in the narrow streets of a small 
town, through a block consisting of men, artillery, baggage waggons, and carts, with our 
own waggons full of wounded, in order to reach a hospital. Our waggons had also very 
often to move in a parallel line with other conveyances or guns, sometimes advancing 
quickly and then coming to a sudden halt, and this on narrow roads, and considerable 
manoeuvring was required to avoid a collision. Now, I do not see how we could have 
managed under the above circumstances unless we had been able to get at the drivers 
and work them into proper position, and if the latter had not the command over their 
horses which driving postillion fashion gives. 

It is to be remembered if the driver rides it gives additional room on the 
waggon. 

The objection that has been urged is that there is more fatigue incurred by the 
driver and the ridden horse, and perhaps this would tell if the pace were rapid, but as 
a rule ambulance waggons move sloAvly. 

Practically speaking, I do not think that the ridden horses broke down more than 
the others, and of course care was taken that the strongest horses were used for 
riding. 

It has struck me that the harness of the Government pattern that was issued for 
the Ambulance was unnecessarily heavy ; that of lighter make used by the Prussians 
seemed to answer all the purposes required, did not weigh down the horses so much, 
and there must be a great difference in the cost. 

The traction of the waggon appeared to be excellent, and the wounded who were 
carried declared that they found the motion very easy, but when the waggon only 

2 B 



182 

contained one or two persons there was too much spring in it. I have heard that people 
at home have been thrown out of it from this cause ; a case I remember reading of 
occurred in a recent volunteer review. When there are as many as five or six 
wounded in the waggon there is little or no danger of such an accident. Besides the 
traction being satisfactory and the motion easy, there are other advantages in the 
waggon which are of the utmost importance in any vehicle intended for the British 
service ; viz., the construction is simple, it can be taken to pieces and put together 
with facility and expedition, and it is easily stowed away on shipboard. 

There are, however, many faults, some of which perhaps could be remedied 
without doing away with the general plan of the vehicle, which I consider good. 

The waggon is somewhat heavy and rather too solidly made, and I can easily 
conceive that this solidity of construction may cause some part of it to break when 
jolting takes place over rough roads. The plan of having the front wheels of the 
same diameter as those behind is open to great objection, and is not at all to be 
counterbalanced by the advantages of the system. We have constantly experienced 
the greatest trouble from the front wheels locking when a sharp turn was required, 
and on such occasions I have sometimes seen the waggons narrowly escape upsetting. 

When a distinguished Prussian surgeon paid us a visit at St. Germain, and 
examined the waggons, he requested to be permitted to see one of them horsed and 
turned repeatedly, sometimes at rather a sharp angle, when the horses were trotting ; 
and, although I did not hear him express any opinion, it was very evident that he saw 
the weak point. 

I have been also assured by a Russian engineer officer that our waggons would 
be quite useless on Russian roads from this defect. 

I may state that I have never seen the equirotal system employed by the 
Germans in any of their sick-transport or store waggons. 

The roof is light, but not firm enough, and the consequence was that it swayed 
from side to side in the most uncomfortable manner. 

The front and back seats, although supposed to accommodate six slightly 
wounded, three in each seat, rarely did so, if the nature of their wounds required any 
extra room, or the men were of large stature. The accommodation for the lower 
limbs in front was much too contracted, and the men felt cramped up. Notwith- 
standing the ladder at the side, some difficulty was experienced in placing sick or 
wounded in the front seat, as the means of gaining access to it were not good. 

For some reason, when three men were accommodated in the back seat, the 
waggons always appeared overladen behind. The swinging basket suspended from 
the roof did not afford sufficient accommodation for the knapsacks and accoutre- 
ments, and took up too much space ; and when it is borne in mind that when the 
waggon was fully laden the men who were seated in the front and behind 
blocked up the vehicle in these directions, and that there were no means of access of 
air from the sides except by a very narrow railing, it is quite evident that the two 
wounded lying down in the centre fared badly from want of proper ventilation. 

With regard to the ambulance stretchers, on which the wounded are placed in 
the recumbent position in the waggon, they are designed to be taken only a short 
distance from the latter, the general rule being that the wounded are to be conveyed 
from the field of action on the field stretchers to the waggon, where they are transferred 
to the ambulance stretchers. I consider that this plan is a bad one for those who are 
severely wounded, and transgresses one of the first principles of surgery which should 
be observed in such cases — namely, to obtain as much rest as possible. Indeed, seeing 
the agony which this changing from one stretcher to another occasioned, especially in 
those wounded in the chest or abdomen, I have had the ambulance stretchers taken 
into the field to a considerable distance, although not constructed for the purpose. 
The advantages in the ambulance stretchers were found to be the india-rubber springs 
which are between the upper and lower framework, and the rollers underneath which 
enabled the stretchers to be placed in the waggon with the greatest ease. 

The disadvantages were, — the head-rest was nearly always too low. The elevation 
is not to be judged of by the appearance of the stretchers when unloaded, for the 
weight of the head and shoulders pressed down the spring so much that extra means 
were constantly required to raise the head. 

I think that most of the defects alluded to would be obviated if the following 
alterations were made in the waggon and its equipment : — 

(1.) A harness of a less heavy make used. 

(2.) The wheels and body of the waggon of a lighter construction. The front 
wheels of a smaller diameter than those behind, and so arranged as to allow the 
waggon to turn easily at a sharp angle. 

(3.) By placing the front wheels nearer to those behind the draught would be im- 
proved, and tend, I fancy, to prevent in a great degree the overloading which is very 
evident in the present pattern when three, men are seated behind. 

(4.) The roof more strongly made and firmly attached to the body of the vehicle ; 
it should ;dso be prolonged in an arch before and behind to afford shelter without in- 
commoding the; wounded as it does at present. 

(!>.) The basket taken away from the interior ; indeed, it would be better to dispense 
with it altogether, and place a wire cradle for the reception of the knapsacks under- 
neath. 



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183 

(G.) The body of the. waggon prolonged a few inches in front; this would not only 
give the accommodation required, but also render access to the front seat much less 
difficult. 

(7.) The water-barrel placed underneath the body of the waggon. 

(8.) The upper half of the wooden sides open for entrance of air to the wounded 
lying down. 

(9.) The head-rest for the ambulance stretchers arranged with a rack and pinion to 
allow of the head and shoulders being raised to any elevation that may be required ; 
and as it is evidently the better plan to carry those severely wounded, whom it is 
intended to keep in a recumbent position, from the field on these stretchers, the 
handles ought to be made on the telescopic principle. 

Of the accompanying sketches one represents the British sick-transport waggon 
(the pattern with the india-rubber springs), the other the waggon with the alterations 
which I suggest. It will be seen that the pole underneath has been done away with, 
and that the springs are of the semi-elliptical kind. 

GK W. McNALTY, F.R.C.S.I. 



2 B 2 



184 



APPENDIX E. 



NATIONAL SOCIETY FOR AID TO SICK AND WOUNDED 

IN WAR. 



THE ANNUAL MEETING 

was held at Willis's Rooms on Tuesday, August 1, 1871, at o o'clock. 

Present : 
Lieutenant-Colonel Loyd-Lindsay, V.C., M.P., in the Chair. 



The Earl of Shaftesbury, K.G. 

Lieut.-Gen. the Marquis of Hertford, C.B. 

Lord Vernon. 

Lord Overstone. 

Sir H. Verney, Bart., M.P. 

The Hon. A. W. Charteris. 

Captain Douglas Galton, C.B. 

Captain Blake, R.M.L.I. 

Captain Henry Brackenbury, R.A. 

Captain C. J. Burgess. 

Captain Nevill. 

Captain Norman. 

Lieut.-Col. Hon. C. H. Lindsay, M.P. 

Sir Paul Hunter, Bart. 

Sir E. A. H. Lechmere, Bart. 

Major-Gen. Sir Vincent Eyre, C.B., K.C.S.I. 

Surgeon-Major Wyatt. 

Dr. E. H. Sieveking. 

Dr. A. J. Pollock. 

Dr. John Murray. 

Dr. W. MacCormac. 

Dr. Kidd. 

Mr. Ernest Hart. 



Mr. E. Walford. 

Dr. Smart, C.B., R.N. 

Mr. John Furley. 

Mr. Pownall. 

Dr. Charles Mayo. 

Surgeon Manley, V.C. 

Rev. S. Mayhew. 

Rev. F. Cannon. 

Mr. C. Sartoris. 

Mr. Albert Napper. 

Major de Winton. 

Mr. H. J. Ker Porter. 

Mr. Kirkman Loyd. 

Mr. C. L. Ryan. 

Mr. Stewart Sutherland. 

Mr. J. D. Boylan. 

Mr. W. Forster. 

Mr. H. Austin Lee. 

Lady Gomm. 

Lady Eyre. 

Mrs. Coffin. 

Miss Neligan. 

and others. 



The Chairman stated the main features of the Report of the Executive Com- 
mittee and the figures of the Balance-sheet, copies of both of which in extenso were 
in the hands of the meeting. He also stated that the Accounts had been strictly 
audited by Mr. C. L. Ryan, Secretary of the Exchequer and Audit Department, 
Somerset House. 

The following resolutions were passed unanimously : — 

1. Proposed by Major-General Sir Vincent Eyre, C.B., K.C.S.I., seconded by 
Lieut.-General the Marquis of Hertford, C.B. :— 

" That the Report of the Committee be adopted." 

2. Proposed by Lord Vernon, seconded by the Hon. A. W. Charteris : — 
"That a Council of 21 members be elected for the ensuing year, in accordance 

with Resolution No. 5 of the 4th August, 1870, as follows: — 



The Marquis of Westminster. 

Lieut.-Gen. the Marquis of Hertford, C.B. 

F.M. Sir J. F. Burgoyne, Bart., G.C.B. 

Viscount Bury, M.P., K.C.M.G. 

Lord Overstone. 

Lieut.-Col. the Hon. C. H. Lindsay, M.P. 

Sir Harry Verney, Bart., M.P. 

Sir E. A. H. Lechmere, Bart. 

Baron N. M. de Rothschild, M.P. 

J. II. (J raves, Esq., M.P. 

Colonel W. K. Loyd. 



Captain Douglas Galton, C.B. 

Captain Henry Brackenbury, R.A. 

Professor Longmore, C.B. 

Surgeon-Major Bostock, C.B. 

Surgeon-Major Wyatt. 

Dr. E. H. Sieveking. 

Dr. A. .Julius Pollock. 

Sir James Paget, Bart., F.R.S. 

C. Prescott ll'ewett, Esq. 

J. Furley, Esq." 



185 

3. Moved by the Earl of Shaftesbury, K.G., seconded by Lord Overstone : — 

" That an humble address be presented to Her Most Gracious Majesty, praying Her 
Majesty to be graciously pleased to continue her protection to the Society by 
allowing her name to remain as Patron." 

4. Moved by Captain DOUGLAS Galton, C.B., seconded by Col. the Hon. C. H. 
Lindsay, M.P. :— 

" That the Council be empowered to apply for a Royal Charter of incorporation." 

5. Moved by Captain H. Brackenbury, R.A., seconded by Sir Paul Hunter, 
Bart. :— 

" That the money remaining in the hands of the Society be invested in the 
names of His Royal Highness Prince Arthur, K.G., the Earl of Shaftesbury, K.G., and 
Colonel Loyd-Lindsay, V.C., M.P., as Trustees, and that all surplus moneys shall be 
invested in the names of the Trustees, and the property of the Society shall be dealt 
with by the Trustees as the Council shall direct." 

6. Moved by Sir Harry Verney, Bart., M.P., seconded by Captain Blake, 
R.M.L.I., and supported by Sir E. A. H. Lechmere, Bart. : — 

" That the thanks of the Society be given to Captain Burgess for his admirable 
conduct in the duties of Secretary." 

7. Moved by Dr. E. H. Sieveking, seconded by Dr. A. J. Pollock : — 

" That the thanks of the Society be given to Colonel Loyd-Lindsay for his 
services as Chairman of the Central Committee." . 

8. Moved by Mr. C. Sartoris, seconded by Lord OVERSTONE, and supported by 
Captain H. Brackenbury, R.A. : — 

" That the thanks of the Society be given to Mr. J. S. Lumley, Lord Augustus 
Loftus, G.C.B., and Lord Lyons, G.C.B., Her Majesty's representatives at Brussels, 
Berlin, and Paris, and to the Belgian Government, for valuable services rendered to the 
Society's agents in the prosecution of their work." 

The meeting then adjourned until again summoned together by the Council. 



HARBISON AND EONS, PEINTEBS IN OEDINAEY TO HEE MAJESTY, ST. MAETIN S LANE, LONDON. 



I